Alcohol Or Alcoholate Produced Patents (Class 205/450)
  • Patent number: 10329677
    Abstract: A method of electrochemically reducing CO2 to form at least one alcohol, preferably ethanol. The method includes (a) contacting an electrode system with an aqueous solution comprising at least one electrolyte and CO2, wherein the electrode system comprises a working electrode, a counter electrode, and a reference electrode, wherein the working electrode comprises a base electrode and a coating of a composite comprising graphene nanosheets and Cu2O nanoparticles disposed on a surface of the base electrode, and (b) applying a negative potential to the working electrode to reduce the CO2 and form the at least one alcohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
    Inventors: Ramadan A. Geioushy, Mazen M. Khaled
  • Patent number: 10280378
    Abstract: A renewable fuel production system includes a carbon dioxide capture unit for extracting carbon dioxide from atmospheric air, a carbon dioxide electrolyzer for converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, a water electrolyzer for converting water to hydrogen, a synfuels generator for converting carbon monoxide produced by the carbon dioxide electrolyzer and hydrogen produced by the water electrolyzer to a fuel. The fuel produced can be synthetic gasoline and/or synthetic diesel. A renewable fuel production process includes the steps of extracting carbon dioxide from atmospheric air via a carbon dioxide capture unit, converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide via a carbon dioxide electrolyzer, converting water to hydrogen via a water electrolyzer, and converting carbon monoxide produced via the carbon dioxide electrolyzer and H2 produced via the water electrolyzer to a fuel. The system is also capable of simultaneously or alternatively producing a separate industrial chemical.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2019
    Assignee: Dioxide Materials, Inc
    Inventor: Richard I. Masel
  • Patent number: 10100417
    Abstract: A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more organic products may include steps (A) to (E). Step (A) may introduce an anolyte to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce a catholyte and carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. Step (C) may oxidize an indium cathode to produce an oxidized indium cathode. Step (D) may introduce the oxidized indium cathode to the second compartment. Step (E) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the oxidized indium cathode sufficient for the oxidized indium cathode to reduce the carbon dioxide to a reduced product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2018
    Assignees: The Trustees of Princeton University, Avantium Knowledge Centre B.V.
    Inventors: Andrew B. Bocarsly, Zachary M. Detweiler
  • Patent number: 9988312
    Abstract: At least partial substitution of zirconium by hafnium in ion-conducting zirconium-based ceramics provides enhanced chemical stability in alkaline and acid environments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2018
    Assignee: National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC
    Inventors: Erik David Spoerke, Paul G. Clem, Jill S. Wheeler, Leo J. Small, Jon Ihlefeld
  • Patent number: 9206459
    Abstract: An enzyme electrode that enables rapid degradation of bisphenol-A (BPA) in a contaminated sample and/or monitoring of BPA concentration in a contaminated sample. The enzyme electrode includes a working electrode having one or more selected enzymes that are capable of degrading BPA linked to the working electrode. The selected enzymes linked to the working electrode are capable of degrading BPA at an enhanced rate in response to an applied voltage. The electrode can be used to monitor BPA concentration in a contaminated sample by measuring current flow through the electrode in response to an applied voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2015
    Assignee: EMPIRE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT LLC
    Inventor: Shinobu Oguchi
  • Patent number: 9187834
    Abstract: There are provided methods and systems for an electrochemical cell including an anode and a cathode where the anode is contacted with a metal ion that converts the metal ion from a lower oxidation state to a higher oxidation state. The metal ion in the higher oxidation state is reacted with hydrogen gas, an unsaturated hydrocarbon, and/or a saturated hydrocarbon to form products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2015
    Assignee: Calera Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas A. Albrecht, Ryan J. Gilliam, Bryan Boggs, Kyle Self, Dennis W. Solas, Michael Kostowskyj, Margarete K. Leclerc, Alexander Gorer, Michael Joseph Weiss
  • Patent number: 9057137
    Abstract: A method for producing and recovering a carboxylic acid in an electrolysis cell. The electrolysis cell is a multi-compartment electrolysis cell. The multi-compartment electrolysis cell includes an anodic compartment, a cathodic compartment, and a solid alkali ion transporting membrane (such as a NaSICON membrane). An anolyte is added to the anodic compartment. The anolyte comprises an alkali salt of a carboxylic acid, a first solvent, and a second solvent. The alkali salt of the carboxylic acid is partitioned into the first solvent. The anolyte is then electrolyzed to produce a carboxylic acid, wherein the produced carboxylic acid is partitioned into the second solvent. The second solvent may then be separated from the first solvent and the produced carboxylic acid may be recovered from the second solvent. The first solvent may be water and the second solvent may be an organic solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 16, 2015
    Assignee: CERAMATEC, INC.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Kean Duffey
  • Publication number: 20150129430
    Abstract: A method of converting methane to methanol at low temperatures utilizes a reactor including an anode, a cathode, a membrane separator between the anode and cathode, a metal oxide catalyst at the anode and a hydrogen recovery catalyst at the cathode. The method can convert methane to methanol at as rate exceeding the theoretical Faradaic rate due to the contribution of an electrochemical reaction occurring in tandem with a Faradaic reaction.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 11, 2013
    Publication date: May 14, 2015
    Inventor: QINBAI FAN
  • Publication number: 20150096897
    Abstract: The present invention provides a methanol generation device for generating methanol by reducing carbon dioxide, comprising: a container for storing an electrolyte solution containing carbon dioxide; a cathode electrode disposed in the container so as to be in contact with the electrolyte solution; an anode electrode disposed in the container so as to be in contact with the electrolyte solution; and an external power supply for applying a voltage so that a potential of the cathode electrode is negative with respect to a potential of the anode electrode. The cathode electrode has a region of Cu1-x-yNixAuy (0<x, 0<y, and x+y<1). The anode electrode has a region of a metal or a metal compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 10, 2014
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Inventors: HIROSHI HASHIBA, MASAHIRO DEGUCHI, SATOSHI YOTSUHASHI, YUKA YAMADA
  • Publication number: 20150096898
    Abstract: The present invention provides a methanol generation device for generating methanol by reducing carbon dioxide, comprising: a container for storing an electrolyte solution containing carbon dioxide; a cathode electrode disposed in the container so as to be in contact with the electrolyte solution; an anode electrode disposed in the container so as to be in contact with the electrolyte solution; and an external power supply for applying a voltage so that a potential of the cathode electrode is negative with respect to a potential of the anode electrode. The cathode electrode includes a region of Cu1-xAux (0<x<1). The anode electrode includes a region of a metal or a metal compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 11, 2014
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Inventors: HIROSHI HASHIBA, MASAHIRO DEGUCHI, SATOSHI YOTSUHASHI, YUKA YAMADA
  • Patent number: 8961774
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical production of butanol are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbon dioxide to a product mixture. Step (D) may separate butanol from the product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Andrew B. Bocarsly, Narayanappa Sivasankar
  • Publication number: 20150047987
    Abstract: A method for heterocycle catalyzed electrochemical reduction of a carbonyl compound is disclosed. The method generally includes steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce the carbonyl compound into a solution of an electrolyte and a heterocycle catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode generally reduces the carbonyl compound to at least one aldehyde compound. Step (B) may vary which of the aldehyde compounds is produced by adjusting one or more of (i) a cathode material, (ii) the electrolyte, (iii) the heterocycle catalyst, (iv) a pH level and (v) an electrical potential. Step (C) may separate the aldehyde compounds from the solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 17, 2014
    Publication date: February 19, 2015
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Publication number: 20150014182
    Abstract: Methods and systems for capturing carbon dioxide and producing fuels such as alcohol using a solvent including a nanoparticle organic hybrid material and a secondary fluid are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include the following: providing a solvent including a nanoparticle organic hybrid material and a secondary fluid, the material being configured to capture carbon dioxide; introducing a gas including carbon dioxide to the solvent until the material is loaded with carbon dioxide; introducing at least one of catalysts for carbon dioxide reduction and a proton source to the solvent; heating the solvent including the material loaded with carbon dioxide until carbon dioxide loaded on the material is electrochemically converted to a fuel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 7, 2012
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Inventors: Ah-Hyung Alissa Park, Camille Petit, Youngjune Park, Kun-Yi Andrew Lin
  • Publication number: 20140367274
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2014
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole, Paul Majsztrik, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Publication number: 20140360493
    Abstract: A process for converting cellulose to glucose, said process comprising the steps of: providing a hydrated molten salt; contacting the hydrated molten salt with a cellulose-containing material to form dissolved glucose; removing the dissolved glucose from the hydrated molten salt.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 22, 2014
    Publication date: December 11, 2014
    Inventors: Paul O'CONNOR, Jacob Adriaan MOULIJN, Michiel MAKKEE, Sjoerd DAAMEN, Rafael MENEGASSI DE ALMEIDA
  • Publication number: 20140291162
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for treating CO2 by electrochemical hydrogenation, said method comprising: a step of transferring heat from a heating means (160) towards a proton-conductive electrolyser (110) such that said electrolyser (110) reaches an operating temperature suitable for electrolysing steam; a step of feeding the CO2 produced by said heating means (160) at the cathode of the electrolyser; a step of feeding the steam at the anode; a step of oxidising the steam at the anode; a step of generating protonated species in the membrane with proton conduction; a step of migrating said protonated species into said proton-conductive membrane; a step of reducing said protonated species on the surface of the cathode into reactive hydrogen atoms; and a step of hydrogenating the CO2 on the surface of the cathode of the electrolyser (110) by means of said reactive hydrogen atoms, said hydrogenation step enabling the formation of CxHyOz compounds, where x?1; 0<y?(2x+2) and 0?z?2x.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 11, 2012
    Publication date: October 2, 2014
    Inventors: Béatrice Sala, Frédéric Grasset, Olivier Lacroix, Abdelkader Sirat, Elodie Tetard, Kamal Rahmouni, Joel Mazoyer
  • Publication number: 20140251822
    Abstract: A NaSICON cell is used to convert carbon dioxide into a usable, valuable product. In general, this reaction occurs at the cathode where electrons are used to reduce the carbon dioxide, in the presence of water and/or hydrogen gas, to form formate, methane, ethylene, other hydrocarbons and/or other chemicals. The particular chemical that is formed depends upon the reaction conditions, the voltage applied, etc.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby
  • Patent number: 8828216
    Abstract: Liquid phase processes for producing fuel in a reactor comprising the step of combining at least one oxidizable reactant with liquid water and at least one electrolyte to form a mixture and conducting a fuel-producing reaction in the presence of an electron transfer material, wherein the mixture permits the movement or transport of ions and electrons to facilitate the efficient production of the fuel. An alternative embodiment produces fuel in an electrochemical cell, the reaction characterized by an overall thermodynamic energy balance according to the half-cell reactions occurring at the anode and cathode. Energy generated and/or required by the system components is directed according to the thermodynamic requirements of the half-cell reactions, thereby realizing improved fuel production efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: GRDC, LLC
    Inventor: Maureen A. Grimes
  • Patent number: 8791166
    Abstract: The invention provides a method for producing methanol and its products exclusively from a geothermal source as the sole source material also using the needed energy from the geothermal energy source. The method includes separating or isolating carbon dioxide accompanying hot water or steam of the source, generating hydrogen from the water and subsequently preparing methanol from the carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The methanol can be further converted into dimethyl ether or other products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2014
    Assignee: University of Southern California
    Inventors: George A. Olah, G. K. Surya Prakash
  • Patent number: 8747646
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for preparing biaryls by anodic cross-dehydrodimerization of substituted phenols with arenes in the presence of partially fluorinated and/or perfluorinated mediators and a supporting electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: BASF SE
    Inventors: Andreas Fischer, Itamar Michael Malkowsky, Florian Stecker, Siegfried R. Waldvogel, Axel Kirste
  • Patent number: 8747645
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for preparing unsymmetrical biaryl by anodic dehydrodimerization of substituted ortho-alkoxyaryl alcohols in the presence of partially fluorinated and/or perfluorinated mediators and a supporting electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: BASF SE
    Inventors: Florian Stecker, Andreas Fischer, Itamar Michael Malkowsky, Siegfried R. Waldvogel, Axel Kirste
  • Publication number: 20140124380
    Abstract: A method for producing organic liquid fuels and other valuable products in which an organic compound is provided to an anode electrode having a metal oxide catalyst disposed on an anode side of an electrolyte membrane, thereby producing an organic liquid fuel and/or other valuable organic product and electrons on the anode side. The electrons are conducted to a cathode electrode disposed on a cathode side of the electrolyte membrane, thereby transforming water provided to the cathode side to H2 gas and hydroxide ions. The method is carried out at a temperature less than or equal to about 160° C., preferably at room temperature.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2012
    Publication date: May 8, 2014
    Inventor: Qinbai Fan
  • Patent number: 8663447
    Abstract: The invention relates to various embodiments of an environmentally beneficial method for reducing carbon dioxide. The methods in accordance with the invention include electrochemically or photoelectrochemically reducing the carbon dioxide in a divided electrochemical cell that includes an anode, e.g., an inert metal counterelectrode, in one cell compartment and a metal or p-type semiconductor cathode electrode in another cell compartment that also contains an aqueous solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst of one or more substituted or unsubstituted aromatic amines to produce therein a reduced organic product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2014
    Assignee: Princeton University
    Inventors: Andrew B. Bocarsly, Emily Barton Cole
  • Patent number: 8658016
    Abstract: Methods and systems for capture of carbon dioxide and electrochemical conversion of the captured carbon dioxide to organic products are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce a solvent to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. Step (B) may capture carbon dioxide with at least one of guanidine, a guanidine derivative, pyrimidine, or a pyrimidine derivative to form a carbamic zwitterion. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between an anode and a cathode sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbamic zwitterion to a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Prasad Lakkaraju, Kyle Teamey
  • Patent number: 8647493
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include a step of contacting the first region with a catholyte comprising carbon dioxide. The method may include another step of contacting the second region with an anolyte comprising a recycled reactant. The method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region. The second product may be removed from the second region and introduced to a secondary reactor. The method may include forming the recycled reactant in the secondary reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur
  • Publication number: 20140034509
    Abstract: Methods and systems for heterocycle catalyzed carbonylation and hydroformylation with carbon dioxide are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a heterocyclic catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may introduce a second reactant to the second compartment of the electrochemical cell. Step (D) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to induce liquid phase carbonylation or hydroformylation to form a product mixture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 19, 2013
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey
  • Publication number: 20140034506
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Paul Majsztrik, Emily Barton Cole, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 8641885
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system and method for reducing carbon dioxide into a carbon based product. The system includes an electrochemical cell having a cathode region which includes a cathode and a non-aqueous catholyte; an anode region having an anode and an aqueous or gaseous anolyte; and an ion permeable zone disposed between the anode region and the cathode region. The ion permeable zone is at least one of (i) the interface between the anolyte and the catholyte, (ii) an ion selective membrane; (iii) at least one liquid layer formed of an emulsion or (iv) a hydrophobic or glass fiber separator. The system and method includes a source of energy, whereby applying the source of energy across the anode and cathode reduces the carbon dioxide and produces an oxidation product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole
  • Publication number: 20140008239
    Abstract: A process of producing metal that includes adding a quantity of a alkoxide (M(OR)x) or another metal salt to a cathode compartment of an electrolytic cell and electrolyzing the cell. This electrolyzing causes a quantity of alkali metal ions to migrate into the cathode compartment and react with the metal alkoxide, thereby producing metal and an alkali metal alkoxide. In some embodiments, the alkali metal is sodium such that the sodium ions will pass through a sodium ion selective membrane, such as a NaSICON membrane, into the cathode compartment.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 3, 2013
    Publication date: January 9, 2014
    Inventor: Sai Bhavaraju
  • Patent number: 8617375
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present invention includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode (21), a counter electrode (23) and a vessel (28). The vessel (28) stores an electrolytic solution (27). The working electrode (21) contains boron carbide. The electrolytic solution (27) contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode (21) and the counter electrode (23) are in contact with the electrolytic solution (27). A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji Zenitani, Masahiro Deguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Reiko Taniguchi
  • Patent number: 8568581
    Abstract: Methods and systems for heterocycle catalyzed carbonylation and hydroformylation with carbon dioxide are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a heterocyclic catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may introduce a second reactant to the second compartment of the electrochemical cell. Step (D) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to induce liquid phase carbonylation or hydroformylation to form a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey
  • Publication number: 20130233722
    Abstract: In a first aspect, a method for chain modification of hydrocarbons and organic compounds comprises: contacting an aqueous electrolyte, a powered electrode including a catalyst, and a gaseous methane feedstock in a reaction area; and activating the methane in an aqueous electrochemical reaction to generate methyl radicals at the powered electrode and yield a Song chained hydrocarbon. In a second aspect, method for chain modification of hydrocarbons and organic compounds comprises: contacting an aqueous electrolyte with a catalyst in a reaction area; introducing a gaseous methane feedstock directly into the reaction area under pressure; and reacting the aqueous electrolyte, the catalyst, and the gaseous methane feedstock at temperatures in the range of ?10 C to 1000 C and at pressures in the range of 0.1 ATM to 100 ATM.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2013
    Publication date: September 12, 2013
    Applicant: VICEROY CHEMICAL
    Inventor: Ed Ite Chen
  • Patent number: 8506790
    Abstract: Disclosed are electrolytic cells for making solutions of metal alcoholates in their corresponding alcohols using an electrolytic process. In one embodiment, sodium methylate in methanol is made from methanol and sodium hydroxide solution. The sodium hydroxide solution is placed in the anolyte compartment and the methanol is placed in the catholyte compartment, and the two compartments are separated by a ceramic membrane that selectively transports sodium under the influence of current. In preferred embodiments, the process is cost-effective and not environmentally harmful.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2013
    Inventors: Shekar Balagopal, Vigod Matheda
  • Publication number: 20130157174
    Abstract: Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO?, H2CO, (HCO2)?, H2CO2, CH3OH, CH4, C2H4, CH3CH2OH, CH3COO?, CH3COOH, C2H6, (COOH)2, or (COO?)2, and a specific device, namely, a CO2 sensor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2012
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Inventors: Richard I. Masel, Amin Salehi-Khojin
  • Publication number: 20130140187
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Publication number: 20130118910
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: May 16, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Publication number: 20130098772
    Abstract: The invention relates to various embodiments of an environmentally beneficial method for reducing carbon dioxide. The methods in accordance with the invention include electrochemically or photoelectrochemically reducing the carbon dioxide in a divided electrochemical cell that includes an anode, e.g., an inert metal counterelectrode, in one cell compartment and a metal or p-type semiconductor cathode electrode in another cell compartment that also contains an aqueous solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst of one or more substituted or unsubstituted aromatic amines to produce therein a reduced organic product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 19, 2012
    Publication date: April 25, 2013
    Applicant: PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
    Inventor: PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
  • Patent number: 8409419
    Abstract: The invention provides methods of forming lower alkyls and alcohols from carbon sources thermally and/or electrolytically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Inventor: Paul R. Kruesi
  • Patent number: 8313634
    Abstract: The invention relates to various embodiments of an environmentally beneficial method for reducing carbon dioxide. The methods in accordance with the invention include electrochemically or photoelectrochemically reducing the carbon dioxide in a divided electrochemical cell that includes an anode, e.g., an inert metal counterelectrode, in one cell compartment and a metal or p-type semiconductor cathode electrode in another cell compartment that also contains an aqueous solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst of one or more substituted or unsubstituted aromatic amines to produce therein a reduced organic product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Princeton University
    Inventors: Andrew B. Bocarsly, Emily Barton Cole
  • Patent number: 8277631
    Abstract: Devices and methods are described for converting a carbon source and a hydrogen source into hydrocarbons, such as alcohols, for alternative energy sources. The influents may comprise carbon dioxide gas and hydrogen gas or water, obtainable from the atmosphere for through methods described herein, such as plasma generation or electrolysis. One method to produce hydrocarbons comprises the use of an electrolytic device, comprising an anode, a cathode and an electrolyte. Another method comprises the use of ultrasonic energy to drive the reaction. The devices and methods and related devices and methods are useful, for example, to provide a fossil fuel alternative energy source, store renewable energy, sequester carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, counteract global warming, and store carbon dioxide in a liquid fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Assignee: Principle Energy Solutions, Inc.
    Inventors: Craig D. Eastman, Douglas R. Hole
  • Publication number: 20120132537
    Abstract: Methods and systems for heterocycle catalyzed carbonylation and hydroformylation with carbon dioxide are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a heterocyclic catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may introduce a second reactant to the second compartment of the electrochemical cell. Step (D) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient to induce liquid phase carbonylation or hydroformylation to form a product mixture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Publication date: May 31, 2012
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey
  • Publication number: 20120132538
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical production of butanol are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (D). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a catalyst, and a cathode. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbon dioxide to a product mixture. Step (D) may separate butanol from the product mixture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2011
    Publication date: May 31, 2012
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey, Andrew B. Bocarsly, Narayanappa Sivasankar
  • Patent number: 8138380
    Abstract: An environmentally beneficial method of producing methanol from varied sources of carbon dioxide including flue gases of fossil fuel burning power plants, industrial exhaust gases or the atmosphere itself. Converting carbon dioxide by an electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide in a divided electrochemical cell that includes an anode in one compartment and a metal cathode electrode in a compartment that also contains an aqueous solution comprising methanol and an electrolyte. An anion-conducting membrane can be provided between the anode and cathode to produce at the cathode therein a reaction mixture containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which can be subsequently used to produce methanol while also producing oxygen in the cell at the anode. The oxygen produced at the anode can be recycled for efficient combustion of fossil fuels in power plants to exclusively produce CO2 exhausts for capture and recycling as the source of CO2 for the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignee: University of Southern California
    Inventors: George A. Olah, G. K. Surya Prakash
  • Patent number: 8075758
    Abstract: Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2006
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2011
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Ashok V. Joshi, Shekar Balagopal, Justin Pendelton
  • Publication number: 20110226632
    Abstract: A method for heterocycle catalyzed electrochemical reduction of a carbonyl compound is disclosed. The method generally includes steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce the carbonyl compound into a solution of an electrolyte and a heterocycle catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode generally reduces the carbonyl compound to at least one aldehyde compound. Step (B) may vary which of the aldehyde compounds is produced by adjusting one or more of (i) a cathode material, (ii) the electrolyte, (iii) the heterocycle catalyst, (iv) a pH level and (v) an electrical potential. Step (C) may separate the aldehyde compounds from the solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 29, 2010
    Publication date: September 22, 2011
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Andrew Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 7959784
    Abstract: Disclosed are processes of making solutions of metal alcoholates in their corresponding alcohols using an electrolytic process. In one embodiment, sodium methylate in methanol is made from methanol and sodium hydroxide solution. The sodium hydroxide solution is placed in the anolyte compartment and the methanol is placed in the catholyte compartment, and the two compartments are separated by a ceramic membrane that selectively transports sodium under the influence of current. In preferred embodiments, the process is cost-effective and not environmentally harmful.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 14, 2011
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Shekar Balagopal, Vinod K. Malhotra
  • Patent number: 7955489
    Abstract: Methods for the production of erythrose and/or erythritol are provided herein. Preferably, the methods include the step of electrolytic decarboxylation of a ribonic acid or arabinonic acid reactant to produce erythrose. Optionally, the reactant can be obtained from a suitable hexose sugar, such as allose, altrose, glucose, fructose or mannose. The erythrose product can be hydrogenated to produce erythritol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2011
    Assignee: Dynamic Food Ingredients Corporation
    Inventors: Jonathan A. Stapley, J. David Genders, Daniel M. Atherton, Peter M. Kendall
  • Publication number: 20110114502
    Abstract: A method for reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products is disclosed. The method may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble the carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode generally reduces the carbon dioxide into the products. Step (B) may vary at least one of (i) which of the products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of the products by adjusting one or more of (a) a cathode material and (b) a surface morphology of the cathode. Step (C) may separate the products from the solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 29, 2010
    Publication date: May 19, 2011
    Inventors: Emily Barton Cole, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Andrew Bocarsly, Kyle Teamey, Nety Krishna
  • Patent number: 7918986
    Abstract: Disclosed are processes of making solutions of metal alcoholates in their corresponding alcohols using an electrolytic process. In a preferred embodiment, sodium methylate in methanol is made from methanol and sodium hydroxide solution. The sodium hydroxide solution is placed in the anolyte compartment and the methanol is placed in the catholyte compartment, and the two compartments are separated by a ceramic membrane that selectively transports sodium under the influence of current. In preferred embodiments, the process is cost-effective and not environmentally harmful.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2011
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Shekar Balagopal, Vinod K. Malhotra
  • Publication number: 20110042227
    Abstract: The present invention provides ruthenium or osmium complexes and their uses as a catalyst for catalytic water oxidation. Another aspect of the invention provides an electrode and photo-electrochemical cells for electrolysis of water molecules.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 24, 2010
    Publication date: February 24, 2011
    Inventors: Javier Jesus Concepcion Corbea, Zuofeng Chen, Jonah Wesley Jurss, Joseph L. Templeton, Paul Hoertz, Thomas J. Meyer