Oxygen Containing Compound Produced Patents (Class 205/455)
  • Patent number: 10145019
    Abstract: Methods, equipment, and reagents for preparing organic compounds using custom electrolytes based on different ionic liquids in electrolytic decarboxylation reactions are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 11, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2018
    Assignee: ENLIGHTEN INNOVATIONS INC.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby, Patrick McGuire, Mukund Karanjikar, Daniel Taggart, Jacob Staley
  • Patent number: 9528190
    Abstract: A method for producing organic liquid fuels and other valuable products in which an organic compound is provided to an anode electrode having a metal oxide catalyst disposed on an anode side of an electrolyte membrane, thereby producing an organic liquid fuel and/or other valuable organic product and electrons on the anode side. The electrons are conducted to a cathode electrode disposed on a cathode side of the electrolyte membrane, thereby transforming water provided to the cathode side to H2 gas and hydroxide ions. The method is carried out at a temperature less than or equal to about 160° C., preferably at room temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2016
    Assignee: Gas Technology Institute
    Inventor: Qinbai Fan
  • Patent number: 9090976
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide using advanced aromatic amine heterocyclic catalysts are disclosed. A method for electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce water to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. The first compartment may include an anode. Step (B) may introduce carbon dioxide to a second compartment of the electrochemical cell. The second compartment may include a solution of an electrolyte, a catalyst, and a cathode. The catalyst may include at least two aromatic amine heterocycles that are at least one of (a) fused or (b) configured to become electronically conjugated upon one electron reduction. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode in the electrochemical cell sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbon dioxide to a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2015
    Assignees: The Trustees of Princeton University, University of Richmond
    Inventors: Andrew Bocarsly, Prasad Lakkaraju, Amanda Morris, Raymond Dominey
  • Publication number: 20150008139
    Abstract: A process and related electrode composition are disclosed for the electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived bio-oil components by the production of hydrogen atoms on a catalyst surface followed by the reaction of the hydrogen atoms with the organic compounds in bio-oil. The catalyst is a metal supported on a monolithic high surface area material such as activated carbon cloth. Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and/or hydrodeoxygenation stabilizes the bio-oil under mild conditions to reduce coke formation and catalyst deactivation. The process converts oxygen-containing functionalities and unsaturated bonds into chemically reduced forms with an increased hydrogen content. The process is operated at mild conditions, which enables it to be a good means for stabilizing bio-oil to a form that can be stored and transported using metal containers and pipes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2013
    Publication date: January 8, 2015
    Inventors: Christopher M. Saffron, Zhenglong Li, Dennis J. Miller, James E. Jackson
  • Publication number: 20140299482
    Abstract: In various embodiments, the invention provides electro-chemical processes for reduction of carbon dioxide, for example converting carbon dioxide to format salts or formic acid. In selected embodiments, operation of a continuous reactor with a three dimensional cathode and a two-phase (gas/liquid) catholyte flow provides advantages conditions for electro-reduction of carbon dioxide. In these embodiments, the continuous two-phase flow of catholyte solvent and carbon dioxide containing gas, in selected gas/liquid phase volume flow ratios, provides dynamic conditions that favour the electro-reduction of COs at relatively high effective superficial current densities and gas space velocities, with relatively low reactor (cell) voltages (<10 volts). In some embodiments, relatively high internal gas hold-up in the cathode chamber (evident in an internal gas to liquid phase volume ratio >0.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 3, 2014
    Publication date: October 9, 2014
    Applicant: Mantra Energy Alternatives Ltd.
    Inventors: Colin Oloman, Hui Li
  • Publication number: 20140291162
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for treating CO2 by electrochemical hydrogenation, said method comprising: a step of transferring heat from a heating means (160) towards a proton-conductive electrolyser (110) such that said electrolyser (110) reaches an operating temperature suitable for electrolysing steam; a step of feeding the CO2 produced by said heating means (160) at the cathode of the electrolyser; a step of feeding the steam at the anode; a step of oxidising the steam at the anode; a step of generating protonated species in the membrane with proton conduction; a step of migrating said protonated species into said proton-conductive membrane; a step of reducing said protonated species on the surface of the cathode into reactive hydrogen atoms; and a step of hydrogenating the CO2 on the surface of the cathode of the electrolyser (110) by means of said reactive hydrogen atoms, said hydrogenation step enabling the formation of CxHyOz compounds, where x?1; 0<y?(2x+2) and 0?z?2x.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 11, 2012
    Publication date: October 2, 2014
    Inventors: Béatrice Sala, Frédéric Grasset, Olivier Lacroix, Abdelkader Sirat, Elodie Tetard, Kamal Rahmouni, Joel Mazoyer
  • Patent number: 8845875
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole, Paul Majsztrik, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Publication number: 20140251822
    Abstract: A NaSICON cell is used to convert carbon dioxide into a usable, valuable product. In general, this reaction occurs at the cathode where electrons are used to reduce the carbon dioxide, in the presence of water and/or hydrogen gas, to form formate, methane, ethylene, other hydrocarbons and/or other chemicals. The particular chemical that is formed depends upon the reaction conditions, the voltage applied, etc.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby
  • Publication number: 20140251821
    Abstract: Methods, equipment, and reagents for preparing organic compounds using custom electrolytes based on different ionic liquids in electrolytic decarboxylation reactions are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, James Mosby, Patrick McGuire, Mukund Karanjikar, Daniel Taggart, Jacob Staley
  • Patent number: 8821710
    Abstract: Hydrocarbons may be formed from six carbon sugars. This process involves obtaining a quantity of a hexose sugar. The hexose sugar may be derived from biomass. The hexose sugar is reacted to form an alkali metal levulinate, an alkali metal valerate, an alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or an alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. An anolyte is then prepared for use in a electrolytic cell. The anolyte contains the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate. The anolyte is then decarboxylated. This decarboxylating operates to decarboxylate the alkali metal levulinate, the alkali metal valerate, the alkali metal 5-hydroxy pentanoate, or the alkali metal 5-alkoxy pentanoate to form radicals, wherein the radicals react to form a hydrocarbon fuel compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventors: Sai Bhavaraju, Mukund Karanjikar
  • Publication number: 20140158547
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system and method for reducing carbon dioxide into a carbon based product. The system includes an electrochemical cell having a cathode region which includes a cathode and a non-aqueous catholyte; an anode region having an anode and an aqueous or gaseous anolyte; and an ion permeable zone disposed between the anode region and the cathode region. The ion permeable zone is at least one of (i) the interface between the anolyte and the catholyte, (ii) an ion selective membrane; (iii) at least one liquid layer formed of an emulsion or (iv) a hydrophobic or glass fiber separator. The system and method includes a source of energy, whereby applying the source of energy across the anode and cathode reduces the carbon dioxide and produces an oxidation product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 5, 2013
    Publication date: June 12, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole
  • Publication number: 20140151240
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a system comprising an absorber; the absorber being operative to extract carbon dioxide from a flue gas stream to form a carbon capture solution that is rich in carbon dioxide; and an electrolytic cell disposed downstream of the absorber; where the electrolytic cell is operative to reduce carbon dioxide present in the carbon capture solution. Disclosed herein too is a method comprising discharging a flue gas stream from a flue gas generator to an absorber; contacting the flue gas stream with a carbon capture solution; extracting carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream to form a carbon dioxide rich carbon capture solution; discharging the carbon dioxide rich carbon capture solution to an electrolytic cell; and reducing the carbon dioxide to a hydrocarbon in the electrolytic cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2012
    Publication date: June 5, 2014
    Applicant: ALSTOM TECHNOLOGY LTD
    Inventors: Stephen Allan Bedell, Michal Bialkowski, Turgay Pekdemir
  • Publication number: 20140061058
    Abstract: An aerobic method for oxidizing an alkane is disclosed herein. At least a portion of a surface of a platinum working electrode is activated at an interface between the platinum working electrode and an ionic liquid electrolyte (i.e., 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-propyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-pentyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-hexyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-heptyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-octyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, 1-nonyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and 1-decyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imidem, and combinations thereof). An interface complex is formed at the interface. An alkane gas is supplied to the interface. The alkane adsorbs at or near the interface complex.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 28, 2012
    Publication date: March 6, 2014
    Inventors: Xiangqun Zeng, Zhe Wang
  • Patent number: 8658016
    Abstract: Methods and systems for capture of carbon dioxide and electrochemical conversion of the captured carbon dioxide to organic products are disclosed. A method may include, but is not limited to, steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may introduce a solvent to a first compartment of an electrochemical cell. Step (B) may capture carbon dioxide with at least one of guanidine, a guanidine derivative, pyrimidine, or a pyrimidine derivative to form a carbamic zwitterion. Step (C) may apply an electrical potential between an anode and a cathode sufficient for the cathode to reduce the carbamic zwitterion to a product mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 25, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Prasad Lakkaraju, Kyle Teamey
  • Publication number: 20140034506
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemically generating an oxidation product and a reduction product may include one or more operations including, but not limited to: receiving a feed of at least one organic compound into an anolyte region of an electrochemical cell including an anode; at least partially oxidizing the at least one organic compound at the anode to generate at least carbon dioxide; receiving a feed including carbon dioxide into a catholyte region of the electrochemical cell including a cathode; and at least partially reducing carbon dioxide to generate a reduction product at the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle Teamey, Jerry J. Kaczur, Narayanappa Sivasankar, Paul Majsztrik, Emily Barton Cole, Andrew B. Bocarsly
  • Patent number: 8641885
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system and method for reducing carbon dioxide into a carbon based product. The system includes an electrochemical cell having a cathode region which includes a cathode and a non-aqueous catholyte; an anode region having an anode and an aqueous or gaseous anolyte; and an ion permeable zone disposed between the anode region and the cathode region. The ion permeable zone is at least one of (i) the interface between the anolyte and the catholyte, (ii) an ion selective membrane; (iii) at least one liquid layer formed of an emulsion or (iv) a hydrophobic or glass fiber separator. The system and method includes a source of energy, whereby applying the source of energy across the anode and cathode reduces the carbon dioxide and produces an oxidation product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Jerry J. Kaczur, Emily Barton Cole
  • Patent number: 8617375
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present invention includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode (21), a counter electrode (23) and a vessel (28). The vessel (28) stores an electrolytic solution (27). The working electrode (21) contains boron carbide. The electrolytic solution (27) contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode (21) and the counter electrode (23) are in contact with the electrolytic solution (27). A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji Zenitani, Masahiro Deguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi, Reiko Taniguchi
  • Publication number: 20130292260
    Abstract: A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Publication date: November 7, 2013
    Applicant: LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL SECURITY, LLC
    Inventor: Los Alamos National Security, LLC
  • Publication number: 20130157174
    Abstract: Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO?, H2CO, (HCO2)?, H2CO2, CH3OH, CH4, C2H4, CH3CH2OH, CH3COO?, CH3COOH, C2H6, (COOH)2, or (COO?)2, and a specific device, namely, a CO2 sensor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2012
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Inventors: Richard I. Masel, Amin Salehi-Khojin
  • Publication number: 20130140187
    Abstract: The present disclosure is a system and method for producing a first product from a first region of an electrochemical cell having a cathode and a second product from a second region of the electrochemical cell having an anode. The method may include the step of contacting the first region of the electrochemical cell with a catholyte comprising an alcohol and carbon dioxide. Another step of the method may include contacting the second region of the electrochemical cell with an anolyte comprising the alcohol. Further, the method may include a step of applying an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode sufficient to produce a first product recoverable from the first region and a second product recoverable from the second region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
  • Patent number: 8444845
    Abstract: A process for producing a fuel, which comprises the step of performing electrolysis on an alcoholic solution or a melt of a fatty acid or salt thereof or fatty acid ester or other derivative or precursor thereof, to decarboxylate said fatty acid or derivative, and produce a mixture of an ether and an alkene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Inventor: Rainer Busch
  • Publication number: 20130118911
    Abstract: Disclosed is a system and method for reducing carbon dioxide into a carbon based product. The system includes an electrochemical cell having a cathode region which includes a cathode and a non-aqueous catholyte; an anode region having an anode and an aqueous or gaseous anolyte; and an ion permeable zone disposed between the anode region and the cathode region. The ion permeable zone is at least one of (i) the interface between the anolyte and the catholyte, (ii) an ion selective membrane; (iii) at least one liquid layer formed of an emulsion or (iv) a hydrophobic or glass fiber separator. The system and method includes a source of energy, whereby applying the source of energy across the anode and cathode reduces the carbon dioxide and produces an oxidation product.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: May 16, 2013
    Applicant: Liquid Light, Inc.
    Inventor: Liquid Light, Inc.
  • Patent number: 8398842
    Abstract: The present invention provides methods and apparatus for the preparation of nitrogen fertilizers including ammonium nitrate, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate, and/or ammonia utilizing a source of carbon, a source of nitrogen, and/or a source of hydrogen. Implementing an electrolyte serving as ionic charge carrier, (1) ammonium nitrate is produced via the reduction of a nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a nitrogen source at the anode; (2) urea or its isomers are produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source; (3) ammonia is produced via the reduction of nitrogen source at the cathode and the oxidation of a hydrogen source at the anode; and (4) urea-ammonium nitrate is produced via the simultaneous cathodic reduction of a carbon source and a nitrogen source, and anodic oxidation of a nitrogen source. The electrolyte can be solid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2013
    Assignee: Energy & Environmental Research Center Foundation
    Inventors: Ted R. Aulich, Edwin S. Olson, Junhua Jiang
  • Publication number: 20120318680
    Abstract: A device for reducing carbon dioxide includes a vessel for holding an electrolyte solution including carbon dioxide, a working electrode and a counter electrode. The working electrode contains boron particles.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2011
    Publication date: December 20, 2012
    Applicant: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Yuji ZENITANI, Reiko TANIGUCHI, Satoshi YOTSUHASHI, Masahiro DEGUCHI
  • Publication number: 20120298521
    Abstract: Electrolyte supply tanks and bubbler tanks for oxyhydrogen gas generation systems are provided which eliminate the introduction of electrolyte and water into the induction systems of internal combustion engines. Both types of tanks are equipped with porous polyethylene gas diffusers which break up incoming gas into microscopic bubbles, thereby facilitating the absorption of electrolyte mist and droplets returning to the electrolyte supply tank and minimizing splashing of incoming gas in bubbler tanks. Air diffusers having an average pore diameter of about 70 ?m are installed near the bottom of the electrolyte supply tanks, while air diffusers having an average pore diameter of about 35 ?m are installed near the bottom of the bubbler tanks.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 29, 2012
    Publication date: November 29, 2012
    Inventor: David Thomas Richardson
  • Patent number: 8313634
    Abstract: The invention relates to various embodiments of an environmentally beneficial method for reducing carbon dioxide. The methods in accordance with the invention include electrochemically or photoelectrochemically reducing the carbon dioxide in a divided electrochemical cell that includes an anode, e.g., an inert metal counterelectrode, in one cell compartment and a metal or p-type semiconductor cathode electrode in another cell compartment that also contains an aqueous solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst of one or more substituted or unsubstituted aromatic amines to produce therein a reduced organic product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Princeton University
    Inventors: Andrew B. Bocarsly, Emily Barton Cole
  • Publication number: 20120234691
    Abstract: The method for reducing carbon dioxide of the present disclosure includes a step (a) and a step (b) as follows. A step (a) of preparing an electrochemical cell. The electrochemical cell comprises a working electrode, a counter electrode and a vessel. The vessel stores an electrolytic solution. The working electrode contains at least one nitride selected from the group consisting of titanium nitride, zirconium nitride, hafnium nitride, tantalum nitride, molybdenum nitride and iron nitride. The electrolytic solution contains carbon dioxide. The working electrode and the counter electrode are in contact with the electrolytic solution. A step (b) of applying a negative voltage and a positive voltage to the working electrode and the counter electrode, respectively, to reduce the carbon dioxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2012
    Publication date: September 20, 2012
    Applicant: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Masahiro Deguchi, Yuji Zenitani, Reiko Taniguchi, Satoshi Yotsuhashi
  • Patent number: 8221599
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present disclosure include an anode, devices and systems including the anode (e.g., electrochemical devices and photo-electrochemical devices), methods of using the anode, methods of producing H2 and O2 from H2O, Cl2, oxidixed organic feedstocks, oxidation for the detection and quantification of chemical species, and the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2012
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Christopher E. D. Chidsey, Paul C. McIntyre
  • Publication number: 20120152757
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the electrochemical fluorination of an organic compound, wherein a reaction solution comprising the organic compound and a fluorinating agent is subjected to electric current in an electrochemical fluorination cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 12, 2011
    Publication date: June 21, 2012
    Applicant: BASF SE
    Inventors: Nicola Christiane AUST, Itamar Michael Malkowsky
  • Publication number: 20110253550
    Abstract: A method and a device of producing a synthetic material are provided. Water (H20) is converted into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) using a high-temperature electrolysis, water vapor (H20D) being formed during the high-temperature electrolysis. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is added to the hydrogen (H2) and water vapor (H2OD). The mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen (H2) and water vapor (H2OD) is subjected to a catalytic reaction, wherein, through the catalytic reaction, the hydrogen (H2), the water vapor (H2OD) and the carbon dioxide (CO2) are transformed into a synthetic gas (H2/CO/CO2/H2O/CH4). Exothermic processes are executed during the transforming into the synthetic gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2009
    Publication date: October 20, 2011
    Inventor: Joachim Hoffmann
  • Patent number: 7972492
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the electrochemical transformation of a compound to form a product, the process comprising (i) effecting the transformation in the presence of an electrolyte comprising at least one room temperature ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid is air-stable and moisture-stable, (ii) recovering the product, and optionally (iii) recovering the ionic liquid. The process can be used to effect the electrochemical transformation of a wide range of organic compounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2011
    Assignee: The Queen's University of Belfast
    Inventors: William R. Pitner, Kenneth R. Seddon, Kenneth M. Stack, Alan Curzons, Richard Freer
  • Publication number: 20110114504
    Abstract: A method for electrochemical production of synthesis gas from carbon dioxide is disclosed. The method generally includes steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble the carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode generally reduces the carbon dioxide into a plurality of components. Step (B) may establish a molar ratio of the components in the synthesis gas by adjusting at least one of (i) a cathode material and (ii) a surface morphology of the cathode. Step (C) may separate the synthesis gas from the solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 29, 2010
    Publication date: May 19, 2011
    Inventors: Narayanappa Sivasankar, Emily Barton Cole, Kyle Teamey
  • Publication number: 20110068290
    Abstract: Compounds, compositions, systems and methods for the chemical and electrochemical modification of the electronic structure of graphene and especially epitaxial graphene (EG) are presented. Beneficially, such systems and methods allow the large-scale fabrication of electronic EG devices. Vigorous oxidative conditions may allow substantially complete removal of the EG carbon atoms and the generation of insulating regions; such processing is equivalent to that which is currently used in the semiconductor industry to lithographically etch or oxidize silicon and thereby define the physical features and electronic structure of the devices. However graphene offers an excellent opportunity for controlled modification of the hybridization of the carbon atoms from sp2 to sp3 states by chemical addition of organic functional groups.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 29, 2009
    Publication date: March 24, 2011
    Applicant: THE REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
    Inventors: Robert C. Haddon, Mikhail E. Itkis, Palanisamy Ramesh, Elena Bekyarova, Sakhrat Khizroev, Jeongmin Hong
  • Patent number: 7767073
    Abstract: Use of an organic compound salt of general formula A-XY??(I) wherein A means an organic residue, X means a charged group and Y means a counter-ion, as a reagent in an electrochemical reaction and organic compound salt corresponding to the formula R1R2ZC-T-Q-XY wherein X is a charged group, Y is a counter-ion, Z is a group capable of being substituted, R1 and R2 mean organic residues, T means a group containing a hetero atom selected among N-R4, O and S, and Q means a connecting group linking the hetero atom and the charged group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2010
    Assignee: Solvay S.A.
    Inventors: Roland Callens, Frank Becu, Frans Borremans, Franky Fant
  • Publication number: 20090242423
    Abstract: An oxidizing device and an oxidizing method for oxidizing a carbon-containing component in a gaseous mixture containing H2O and the carbon-containing component are disclosed having a proton conductive body and an electrode member placed on the proton conductive body. The electrode member has an anode electrode and a cathode electrode held in contact with each other and the proton conductive body has electric conductivity of 0.01 Scm?1 or more at a temperature of 400° C. or less. The anode electrode separates a proton (H+) from H2O at a boundary portion between the anode electrode and the proton conductive body to facilitate a reaction to introduce the proton into the proton conductive body. The cathode electrode facilitates a reduction reaction in the presence of the proton supplied from the proton conductive body at a boundary portion between the cathode electrode and the proton conductive body.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 27, 2009
    Publication date: October 1, 2009
    Applicants: NIPPON SOKEN, INC., DENSO CORPORATION
    Inventors: Shinya TERANISHI, Keigo MIZUTANI
  • Publication number: 20090152123
    Abstract: Contemplated devices and methods include an electrolytic cell having a cathode and a carbon felt anode, wherein the carbon felt anode is configured as a flow-through anode for an aqueous solution in which a contaminant is dissolved or dispersed. The cell is operated at a current density that promotes formation of oxidizing species in neutral pH to thus destroy the contaminant and at a flow rate sufficient to prevent oxidative damage of the carbon felt.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 7, 2006
    Publication date: June 18, 2009
    Applicant: APPLIED INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL
    Inventors: Dean Butler, Robert Lewis Clarke
  • Publication number: 20090061267
    Abstract: A system for oxygen, hydrogen and carbon mass regeneration and recycling for breathing, and fuel/energy generation purposes, especially for fuel cells and rocket motors, by combination and integration of a photoelectrolytically powered electrochemical and gas handling system with one or more fuel cells.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 31, 2006
    Publication date: March 5, 2009
    Applicant: BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE
    Inventors: Bruce F. Monzyk, Paul E. George, II, Christopher J. Pestak, Jay R. Sayre
  • Patent number: 7419580
    Abstract: A catalyst comprising Pt—Co alloy, or Pt—Co—Sn alloy or Pt—ComOn mixed metal oxides is disclosed to be used as a catalyst for the direct electrochemical oxidation of glucose or other simple sugars and carbohydrates at room temperature. The catalyst can be supported on metal electrodes, graphite electrodes, porous carbon electrodes, or gas diffusion electrodes. An electrode containing this catalyst will be used as the key component in a direct glucose-air fuel cell operating in alkaline media with a good room temperature performance. This catalyst can also be applied as a key electrode material in a glucose sensor to detect glucose concentration in neutral or alkaline medium. The preparation method of the catalyst, optimum composition, and results of glucose sensor and glucose fuel cell applications are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2008
    Assignee: The University of Hong Kong
    Inventors: Kwong-Yu Chan, Xin Zhang, Chung Man Lam, Alfred C. C. Tseung, Pei Kang Shen, Jin Kua You
  • Patent number: 7201835
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of orthoesters of the general formula I, where the radicals have the following meaning R1: hydrogen, C1- to C20-alkyl, C2- to C20-alkenyl, C2- to C20-alkynyl, C3- to C12-cycloalkyl, C4- to C20-cycloalkylalkyl or C4- to C10-aryl R2, R3: C1- to C20-alkyl, C3- to C12-cycloalkyl, and C4- to C20-cycloalkylalkyl or R2 and R3 together form C2- to C10-alkylene R4: C1- to C4-alkyl, by electrochemically oxidizing a compound of the general formula II in which the radicals R1 to R3 have the same meaning as in the general formula I and R5 is a saturated or unsaturated 5- or 6-membered heterocycloalkyl radical or heterocycloaryl radical having up to 2 heteroatoms selected from the group consisting of N, O and S, where this radical is bonded to the remaining part of the molecule via a carbon atom which is situated in the adjacent position to a heteroatom, in the presence of C1- to C4-alcohols (alcohols A).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2007
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hermann Puetter, Andreas Fischer
  • Patent number: 7192512
    Abstract: A process is provided for the preparation of trialkyl orthocarboxylates by the electrochemical oxidation of alpha, beta-diketones or alpha, beta-hydroxyketones, the keto group being present in the form of a ketal group derived from C1- to C4-alkylalcohols and the hydroxyl group optionally being present in the form of an ether group derived from C1- to C4-alkylalcohols (ketals K), in the presence of C1- to C4-alcohols (alcohols A), the molar ratio of the ketals K to the alcohols A in the electrolyte being 0.2:1 to 10:1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2007
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Andreas Fischer, Hermann Pütter
  • Patent number: 7097757
    Abstract: A new class of polymers with a highly ordered state having unique electrical, electronic, optical, ferromagnetic, piezoelectric, ionic, or superconducting properties are achieved. The polymers are highly crystalline, exhibiting both long and short range order, and an associated nanoscale lattice parameter. The polymers are fabricated by forming a conductive set of nanoscale waveguides (composed of functional molecules and charge carriers, i.e., polarons, bipolarons, superpolarons, spins, ions, copper pair electrons) throughout a polymer lattice. These “molecular waveguides” are characterized by a width or diameter comparable to the size of the lattice cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: Fractal Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Matt Aldissi
  • Patent number: 6949178
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for the generation and collection of an aqueous peracid solution at the cathode of a PEM electrolyzer. The electrochemical process introduces carboxylic acid (such as distilled table vinegar, lactic acid, citric acid or combinations) to the anode and a source of oxygen to the cathode. The PEM electrolyzer has a gas diffusion cathode having a cathodic electrocatalyst that is capable of hydrogen peroxide generation. The peracid solution is generated at the gas diffusion cathode and the solution is very pure and may be used for disinfecting or sterilizing various items or solutions. In a second embodiment, the carboxylic acid may be provided directly to the cathode, such as in the form of an acid vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 27, 2005
    Assignee: Lynntech, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles L. K. Tennakoon, K. Scott McKenzie, Michelle Will, Elizabeth I. H. McGrew
  • Patent number: 6916953
    Abstract: Process for preparing organic isocyanates, which comprises the steps (a) making available a first partial amount of chlorine, with the chlorine of this first partial amount having a content of free and bound bromine and iodine of <400 ppm; (b) making available a second partial amount of chlorine; (c) reacting the first and second partial amounts of chlorine with carbon monoxide to form phosgene; (d) reacting the phosgene from step (c) with one or more primary amines to form the corresponding isocyanates and hydrogen chloride; (e) separating off and, if necessary, purifying the isocyanates formed in step (d); (f) separating off and, if necessary, purifying the hydrogen chloride formed in step (d); (g) catalytically oxidizing at least part of the hydrogen chloride separated off in step (e) by means of oxygen to form chlorine; (h) separating off the chlorine formed in step (g) and using at least a partial amount of the chlorine which has been separated off as second partial amount of chlorine in step (b).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2005
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Christian Walsdorff, Martin Fiene, Eckhard Ströfer, Klaus Harth, Jan D. Jacobs, Filip Deberdt
  • Publication number: 20040245115
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of orthoesters of the general formula I, 1
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2004
    Publication date: December 9, 2004
    Inventors: Herman Putter, Andreas Fischer
  • Publication number: 20040245116
    Abstract: Simple and economic electrolytic synthesis of peracetic acid is performed, and cold drink containers, etc., are sterilized/cleaned with an aqueous solution of peracetic acid thus obtained. Peracetic acid is electrolytically synthesized from acetic acid and/or acetate and an oxygen-containing gas as starting materials in the presence of a solid acid catalyst in an electrolytic cell. An object to be cleaned is sterilized/cleaned with an aqueous solution of peracetic acid thus obtained. Peracetic acid can be simply obtained at a reduced cost. The sterilizing/cleaning of an object to be cleaned with peracetic acid can be conducted efficiently.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2004
    Publication date: December 9, 2004
    Applicant: PERMELEC ELECTRODE LTD.
    Inventors: Takeo Ohsaka, Madhu Sudan Saha, Masaharu Uno, Yoshinori Nishiki, Tsuneto Furuta
  • Patent number: 6790338
    Abstract: A method for preparing metal salts of organic sulfonic acids such as tin alkane sulfonates by electrolysis is described. The method comprises: (A) providing a membraneless electrolytic cell having an upper section and a lower section, and comprising: (i) a metal anode positioned in the lower section of the electrolytic cell, and (ii) a cathode positioned in the upper section of the electrolytic cell, (B) charging to the cell, an aqueous solution of an organic sulfonic acid, (C) passing a current through the cell whereby the metal of the anode dissolves in the sulfonic acid and forms the desired metal sulfonate, (D) accumulating the metal sulfonate in a lower portion of the lower section of the cell, and (E) recovering an aqueous solution of the desired metal sulfonate from the lower portion of the lower section of the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2004
    Assignee: OM Group, Inc.
    Inventors: George P. Kinstle, Alex T. Magdics, Thomas E. Nappier
  • Patent number: 6764589
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the electrolytic transformation of at least one furan-base starting compound (A) in an electrolysis circuit. This process may be carried out in an electrolysis cell and include the electrolytically oxidizing the furan-based starting compound (A) to produce at least one alkoxylated furan compound (B) which has a C—C double bond in the five-membered heterocyclic ring, and hydrogen followed by hydrogenating the C—C double bond using hydrogen obtained at a cathode in the oxidizing step, hydrogen fed to the electrolysis circuit from outside or by electrocatalytic hydrogenation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2004
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Hermann Pütter
  • Patent number: 6695963
    Abstract: Disclosed is an organic electrolysis reactor for performing an electrolytic oxidation reaction of a system comprising a substrate and a reductant, comprising: a casing; an anode which comprises an anode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive; a cathode which comprises a cathode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive; and means for applying a voltage between the anode and the cathode, wherein the means for applying a voltage is disposed in the outside of the casing and connected to the anode and the cathode, wherein the anode and the cathode are disposed in spaced relationship in the casing to partition the inside of the casing into an intermediate compartment between the anode and the cathode, and an anode compartment on the outside of the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2004
    Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Otsuka, Ichiro Yamanaka, Ken Suzuki
  • Publication number: 20030183534
    Abstract: A process is provided for the preparation of trialkyl orthocarboxylates by the electrochemical oxidation of alpha, beta-diketones or alpha, beta-hydroxyketones, the keto group being present in the form of a ketal group derived from C1- to C4-alkylalcohols and the hydroxyl group optionally being present in the form of an ether group derived from C1- to C4-alkylalcohols (ketals K), in the presence of C1- to C4-alcohols (alcohols A), the molar ratio of the ketals K to the alcohols A in the electrolyte being 0.2:1 to 10:1.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 3, 2003
    Publication date: October 2, 2003
    Inventors: Andreas Fischer, Hermann Ptter
  • Patent number: 6569309
    Abstract: Disclosed is a fuel cell type reactor for performing an oxidation reaction of a system comprising a substrate, a reductant and an oxidant, comprising: a casing; an anode which comprises an anode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive; and a cathode which comprises a cathode active material and which is ion-conductive or active species-conductive, wherein the anode and the cathode are disposed in spaced relationship in the casing to partition the inside of the casing into an intermediate compartment between the anode and the cathode, an anode compartment on the outside of the anode and a cathode compartment on the outside of the cathode, and wherein the intermediate compartment has an inlet for an electrolyte solution and a substrate, the anode compartment has an inlet for a reductant, and the cathode compartment has an inlet for an oxidant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2003
    Assignee: Asahi Kasei Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Otsuka, Ichiro Yamanaka, Ken Suzuki