Metal Contaminant Removal Patents (Class 208/251R)
  • Patent number: 6162350
    Abstract: Hydroprocessing of petroleum and chemical feedstocks using bulk Group VIII/Group VIB catalysts. Preferred catalysts include those comprised of Ni--Mo--W.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 19, 2000
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Stuart L. Soled, Kenneth L. Riley, Gary P. Schleicher
  • Patent number: 6159374
    Abstract: A method for removing corrosive inorganic cations--such as calcium magnesium cations--from a crude oil stream by mixing the stream with a softened brine wash water that has been softened by removal or replacement of precipitating divalent or trivalent cations with non-precipitating cations. The crude oil stream and the wash water are mixed at a temperature from about 98.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C. to form an emulsion wherein the corrosive inorganic cations are transferred from the crude oil to the wash water, The emulsion is then broken to form a crude oil fraction and an aqueous fraction containing at least a portion of the corrosive inorganic cations from the crude oil. This method is particularly useful in areas where freshwater is not readily available.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: BetzDearborn Inc.
    Inventor: Paul R. Hart
  • Patent number: 6120678
    Abstract: Improved performance in the phase separation of aqueous brines from hydrocarbons within an electrostatic desalter operation is obtained by the addition to the crude oil emulsions entering the desalter of an effective asphaltene dispersing amount of an alkyl phenol-formaldehyde liquid resin polymer, optionally in the presence of a lipophilic/hydrophilic vinylic polymer. The preferred resin is a nonyl phenol-formaldehyde resin having a molecular weight of from 1,000-20,000, and the preferred vinylic polymer is a copolymer of lauryl (meth)acrylate and hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate. Best results from the electrostatic desalter are obtained when also using a demulsifier chemical treatment along with the asphaltene dispersing treatments. Desalter efficiency is increased and desalter brine effluent quality is greatly increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2000
    Assignee: Nalco Chemical Company
    Inventors: William K. Stephenson, Joe Scott Walker, Bordan W. Krupay, Sheraldean A. Wolsey-Iverson
  • Patent number: 6093311
    Abstract: The present invention is a process to remove a +2 ionic charged metal from a petroleum feed. The process includes contacting feed with carbon dioxide at a temperature between 40.degree. C. and 200.degree. C. and autogenous pressure. In a preferred embodiment the metal is a Group II metal. In particular, the metal is calcium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co
    Inventors: Saul Blum, Guido Sartori, David W. Savage, Bruce H. Ballinger
  • Patent number: 6086750
    Abstract: This disclosure sets out a metal salt removal procedure for use with a crude oil flow. A small amount of water is injected to form water bubbles surrounded by oil. An ethylene oxide reacted with polypropylene glycol at 350.degree. F. or so yields a water soluble demulsifier added at the rate of a few ppm to the water in oil mix. The added reaction product, a polyol enables metal salt isolation in the water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2000
    Inventor: Paul Eaton
  • Patent number: 6077421
    Abstract: A composition including a solid substrate, a metal chelant, and a saturated hydrocarbon linker attached between the substrate and the chelant. The position is used in the method for removing from a liquid medium a metal having atomic number equal to or greater than 27, the method including the steps of passing the liquid medium through the composition that is in solid, particulate form and separating the medium from the composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Dhananjay Puranik, Robert E. Morris, Eddie L. Chang
  • Patent number: 6068759
    Abstract: A process is provided for recovering lube oil base stocks from used lubricating oil formulations containing base oil stock and organo-metallic component which obviates preseparation of water and light hydrocarbons contaminants. The process comprises directly contacting used lubricating oil with a heated vapor, e.g., steam, under conditions which at least partially decompose the organo-metallic component and provide a desired volume of pumpable bottoms containing organo-metallic compound decomposition products and an overhead comprising gases and distillatable hydrocarbons, with no substantial carryover of metals into the overhead. The process may be carried out under conditions which minimize decomposition of high molecular weight additives such as VI improvers, to provide a bottoms fraction which may be added to asphalt or fuel oil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2000
    Assignee: Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC
    Inventors: Howard F Moore, Donald P Malone, Patricia K Doolin, David J Zalewski
  • Patent number: 6013176
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for demetallating a petroleum stream by contacting a metals-containing petroleum feed in the presence of a base selected from Group IA and IIA hydroxides and carbonates and ammonium hydroxide and carbonates and mixtures thereof an oxygen containing gas and a phase transfer agent at a temperature of up to 180.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce a treated petroleum feed having a decreased metals content. The invention provides a method for enhancing the value of petroleum feeds that traditionally have limited use in refineries due to their metals, e.g., Ni and V content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2000
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Mark Alan Greaney, Roby Bearden, Jr., Michael Charles Kerby
  • Patent number: 6007705
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for demetallating a petroleum stream by contacting a metals-containing petroleum feed in the presence of an aqueous base selected from Group IA and IIA hydroxides and carbonates and ammonium hydroxide and carbonate and mixtures thereof, an oxygen containing gas and a phase transfer agent at a temperature of up to 180.degree. C. for a time sufficient to produce a treated petroleum feed having a decreased metals content. The invention provides a method for enhancing the value of petroleum feeds that traditionally have limited use in refineries due to their metals, e.g., Ni and V content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1999
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co
    Inventors: Mark Alan Greaney, Paul James Polini
  • Patent number: 5989506
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for removing and recovering mercury, an impurity, from a hydrocarbon feedstream. The process comprises separating the hydrocarbon feedstream into a gaseous portion and a liquid hydrocarbon portion and separately treating the gaseous and liquid portions by adsorption in separate purifier beds. The gas and liquid purifier beds are regenerated sequentially with a heated regenerant stream that following desorption and recovery of mercury is further purified in a secondary regenerable adsorption bed. The sequential regeneration of the two separate purifier beds and the secondary adsorbent bed significantly reduces the capital and operating cost for the process and serves to concentrate the mercury in the secondary adsorbent bed where it can be removed at a lower cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1999
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventor: John Markovs
  • Patent number: 5976358
    Abstract: The present invention is a process to remove a +2 ionic charged metal from a petroleum feed. The process includes contacting the feed with a resin that includes carboxyl, sulfonic and/or phosphonic groups. In a preferred embodiment the metal is a Group II metal. In particular, the metal is calcium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Guido Sartori, David W. Savage, Saul C. Blum, Bruce H. Ballinger
  • Patent number: 5972201
    Abstract: Magnetic separation of fluid cracking catalyst and magnetic hooks can be improved by adding antimony, in the feed or during catalyst manufacture, to enhance the magnetic susceptibility, thus increasing the separation efficiency of the older less active fluid cracking catalyst from the more desirable fraction for recycle. Antimony can also be used as a tag for determination of age distribution of said catalyst. Concentration levels of 0.005-15 wt. % antimony (Sb) on the catalyst or sorbent are preferred. The invention is particularly preferred on catalyst and sorbents which comprise at least about 0.001 wt. %, more preferably above about 0.01 wt. % iron, because the antimony has been found to enhance the magnetic susceptibility of iron-containing particulates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignee: Marathon Ashland Petroleum LLC
    Inventors: Terry L. Goolsby, Maurice M. Mitchell
  • Patent number: 5919352
    Abstract: A process wherein a residuum feedstock is upgraded in a short vapor contact time thermal process unit comprised of a horizontal moving bed of fluidized hot particles, then fed to a fluid catalytic cracking process unit. Hot flue gases from the fluid catalytic cracking unit is used to circulate solid particles and to provide process heat to the thermal process unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1999
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Willibald Serrand, David G. Hammond, Mitchell Jacobson, John F. Pagel, Martin C. Poole
  • Patent number: 5891324
    Abstract: An activated carbon based adsorbent carrying an acid is provided for eliminating mercury or mercury compounds contained in hydrocarbons. Preferably the activated carbon base is provided with more than 80 ml/g micropore volume having radii less than 8 angstroms. Preferably the acid carried on the activated carbon is hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, or phosphoric acid. Hydrochloric acid is most preferred. The active carbon base is preferably manufactured by activating a carbonaceous material in an atmosphere comprising less than 30 vol. % water vapor. The adsorbent can be used to eliminate mercury or mercury compounds contained in hydrocarbons by contacting the adsorbent with the hydrocarbons in liquid phase. Particular hydrocarbons include naphtha and intermediates of oil products or petrochemical products. Minimal amounts of carried acid are desorbed from the adsorbent to the hydrocarbons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1999
    Assignee: Kuraray Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kiyoto Ohtsuka
  • Patent number: 5840178
    Abstract: A heavy feed, such as a resid which contains coke precursors and metals, is upgraded by dissolving a feed soluble metal alkoxide in the feed which is heated to a temperature sufficient to decompose the alkoxide, but below 450.degree. F. The alkoxide decomposition precipitates at least a portion of the coke precursors and metals out of the feed as a separate phase, thereby effectively removing them to form an upgraded feed. The upgraded feed, with or without the precipitate present, is then sent to a cat cracker or to other upgrading. When fed into a cat cracker, such as a FCC, the upgraded feed is converted to lower boiling liquids with less deactivation of the cracking catalyst than would occur if the metals and coke precursors remained in the feed, even with the precipitate present in the feed. In the cat cracker, the precipate which contains the alkoxide metal and coke precursors and metals from the feed, is converted into coke particles having a particle size smaller than the catalyst particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1996
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1998
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Jean C. Huang, Belinda G. Lambeth, Patrick H. Terry, Daniel P. Leta
  • Patent number: 5817228
    Abstract: The invention is a method for demetallating petroleum streams by subjecting a hydrocarbon soluble metals-containing petroleum stream and an aqueous electrolysis medium to a sufficient anodic potential at a pH sufficient to produce a treated petroleum stream having a decreased metals content. The invention is useful for enhancing the value of petroleum streams that traditionally have limited use in refineries due to their content of metals, particularly Ni and V.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1998
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Mark Alan Greaney, Michael Charles Kerby
  • Patent number: 5814209
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process for the ecological usage of acid effluents. Also disclosed is a sorption agent which is characterized in that an acid effluent, created from the production of fullers earth which contains as main ingredients Fe.sup.2+/3+ -, Al.sup.3+ -, Ca.sup.2+ - and Mg.sup.2+ cations and inorganic anions, is reacted with an alkali silicate. The resultant precipitate is separated in an aqueous phase and, when necessary, purified and dried. The sorption agent can be used for the bleaching of oils or for the removal of soaps, phospholipids and heavy metals from oils, specifically edible oils.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1998
    Assignee: Sud-Chemie AG
    Inventors: Reinhard Hahn, Klaus Schurz, Hans Buckl, Wolfgang Eisenschmid
  • Patent number: 5795463
    Abstract: Metals are removed from used, contaminated oils, such as crankcase oils from cars, by a low temperature, batch tank process. The oil is hydrated by adding enough water to prevent premature crystallization of a reagent salt from solution in a succeeding stage of the process. The batch is heated to a low, required reaction temperature. A quantity of a primary demetalizing agent, comprising an ammonium based salt, or its requisite acid and base to from the salt in-situ, is added in the range of stoichiometric to multiples of stoichiometric, in accordance with the analysed quantum of metals present in the oil batch. The mixture is stirred to react the metals present with the salt, and is then cooled, to precipitate the thus formed sludge, which is then physically separated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1998
    Inventor: Richard A. Prokopowicz
  • Patent number: 5772866
    Abstract: Compositions of an non-alkkoxylated alkylphenol-formaldehyde resin and poly(alkylene glycol) are effective at breaking water-in-oil emulsions in a liquid hydrocarbon. Preferably, the composition is employed in a crude oil desalting system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1998
    Assignee: BetzDearborn Inc.
    Inventor: Paul R. Hart
  • Patent number: 5746908
    Abstract: A process for desalting a crude oil comprises (1) injecting steam into the oil to form a steam-injected oil; (2) adding water to the steam-injected oil to form a mixture; (3) introducing the mixture to a desalter; (4) inducing the formation of aqueous phase and oil phase; and (5) separating the oil phase from the aqueous phase. Where there are two desalting stages for desalting crude oil, the process can be carried out in either the first stage or second stage, or both stages. The process can also be similarly employed in a multistage desalting process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1998
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Kent E. Mitchell
  • Patent number: 5746907
    Abstract: A method is provided to remove metals from a residual oil containing an initial amount of a selected metal, the method comprising the steps of:providing a vessel for exposing the residual oil to a DC electric field having a strength of about one kV/inch or greater,passing the residual oils through the vessel whereby at least ten percent by weight of the initial amount of the selected metal is removed by attraction to an electrode; andpassing the residual oil that has been passed through the vessel over a hydrodemetalization catalyst in the presence of hydrogen. Metal containing particles and other toluene insoluble organic and inorganic solids are effectively removed from residual oil streams by treatment with a DC electrical field prior to hydrodemetalization resulting in significant increases in useful lives for downstream hydrodemetalization catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 5, 1998
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Antonius Franziskus Heinrich Wielers, Vitold Raimond Kruka
  • Patent number: 5744025
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for hydrotreating a metal-contaminated hydrocarbonaceous feedstock of which at least 60% wt. boils at a temperature 370.degree. C., the process comprising contacting the feedstock at elevated temperature and elevated pressure in the presence of hydrogen with one or more catalyst beds each of a first catalyst, a second catalyst and a third catalyst, wherein(i) the first catalyst comprises a Group VI and/or a Group VIII hydrogenation metal component on an inorganic oxide support having at least 40% of its pore volume in pores with diameters in the range from 17 nm to 25 nm and a surface area in the range from 100 m.sup.2 /g to 160 m.sup.2 /g;(ii) the second catalyst comprises a Group VI and/or a Group VIII hydrogenation metal component on an inorganic oxide support having at least 40% of its pore volume in pores with diameters in the range from 3 nm to 17 nm and a surface area in the range from 160 m.sup.2 /g to 350 m.sup.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1998
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Andries Qirin Maria Boon, Constantinus Johannes Jacobus Den Ouden, Opinder Kishen Bhan
  • Patent number: 5726056
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of removing metals from a fossil fuel comprising the steps of contacting the fossil fuel with a biocatalyst selected from the group consisting of an enzyme which degrades porphyrin molecules under conditions suitable for the removal of the metals from the fossil fuel; and separating the metals from the fossil fuel. Preferred embodiments of the biocatalyst include heme oxygenase and cytochrome C reductase, such as cytochrome C reductase from Bacillus megaterium, Catharanthus roseuse, Escherichia coli, animal cells, plant cells or yeast cells. The cytochrome C reductase can be contacted with the fossil fuel in an aqueous medium as a substantially cell-free preparation or cell preparation. In one embodiment of the invention, the metals are recovered from the resulting metal containing stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 10, 1998
    Assignee: Energy BioSystems Corporation
    Inventors: Guo-Wei Xu, Kenneth W. Mitchell, Daniel J. Monticello
  • Patent number: 5702590
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for the removal of mercury and/or other heavy metals from a cracker feed with the aid of an adsorbent. The process is characterized in that the feed is also subjected to magnetic filtration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 30, 1997
    Assignee: DSM N.V.
    Inventors: Geert I. V. Bonte, Johannes C. J. De Kock
  • Patent number: 5660717
    Abstract: Hydrolyzable cations contained in crude oil are removed from crude oil by treatment of the crude oil with an aqueous solution containing 100 to 5000 ppm of a water soluble anionic polymer containing at least 20 mole percent mer groups from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, sulfomethylated polyacrylamide, aminomethanephosphonic acid modified acrylic acid and their water soluble alkali metal and ammonium salts. By removing the hydrolyzable cations, corrosion occurring on metal surfaces in contact with the treated oil during subsequent refining is reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 26, 1997
    Assignee: Nalco/Exxon Energy Chemicals, L. P.
    Inventor: Paul M. Lindemuth
  • Patent number: 5656152
    Abstract: A continuous water washing process for removing salts from refinery process streams is disclosed. The salt and salt precursor content of a process stream is determined, and iterative calculations made to ensure an aqueous phase forms downstream of the water injection point with a salt and ion concentration within acceptable limits. Preferably chemical speciation calculations are used to check for corrosive, transient aqueous phases intermediate the point of water injection and the process outlet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1997
    Assignee: Mobil Oil Coporation
    Inventors: Bruce D. McLaughlin, Yiing-Mei Wu
  • Patent number: 5656151
    Abstract: A process for determining if intermittent water injection is the best way to remove deposits such as salts from refinery process streams. A water vapor pressure, P1, at stream conditions and a water vapor pressure, Ps, at saturation conditions in the stream, are used to calculate a ratio P1/Ps. If the ratio is less than 0.1 intermittent water washing is preferred. An optimized intermittent injection procedure, frequency, duration, and constraints, is disclosed. Chemical speciation calculations ensure that all accumulated salts are removed, and that an aqueous phase forms downstream of the water injection point having a salt concentration within acceptable limits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1997
    Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation
    Inventors: Bruce D. McLaughlin, Yiing-Mei Wu
  • Patent number: 5656070
    Abstract: Corrosion inhibiting composition include the use of certain plant derived catechol complexes in aqueous based compositions, such as process water, and other aqueous and non-aqueous solvent based coating compositions. The compositions have corrosion inhibiting and/or biocide activity. The compositions find particular usefulness as coatings, including paints, on iron and aluminum metal surfaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1997
    Assignee: Ensci Inc.
    Inventor: Thomas J. Clough
  • Patent number: 5641395
    Abstract: An improved "magnetic hook"-promoted catalytic process, catalyst and method of manufacture for heavy hydrocarbon conversion, optionally in the presence of nickel and vanadium on the catalyst and in the feed stock to produce lighter molecular weight fractions, including more gasoline, lower olefins and higher isobutane than normally produced. This process is based on the discovery that two "magnetic hook" elements, namely manganese and chromium, previously employed as magnetic enhancement agents to facilitate removal of old catalyst, or to selectively retain expensive catalysts, can also themselves function as selective cracking catalysts, particularly when operating on feeds containing significant amounts of nickel and vanadium, and especially where economics require operating with high nickel- and vanadium-contaminated and containing catalysts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1995
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1997
    Assignees: Ashland Inc., OrganoCat, Inc.
    Inventors: William P. Hettinger, Jr., Sharon L. Mayo
  • Patent number: 5626742
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a continuous in-situ process for the removal of organically bound sulfur existing as mercaptans, sulfides and thiophenes comprising the steps of (a) contacting a heavy oil with aqueous sodium hydroxide at a temperature of about 380.degree. C. to about 450.degree. C. for a time sufficient to form sodium sulfide, and (b) steam stripping the sodium sulfide of step (a) at a temperature sufficient to convert said sodium sulfide to sodium hydroxide and recirculating the sodium hydroxide from step (b) back to step (a) and removing hydrogen sulfide and the metals from the organically bound metal complex of the sodium sulfide to convert it back to sodium hydroxide, in which case the sulfur may be recovered as H.sub.2 S rather than the metal sulfide. Optionally, molecular hydrogen may be added in the first step. The present invention is useful in removing organically bound sulfur that has been recognized to be difficult to remove, such as thiophenes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1997
    Assignee: Exxon Reseach & Engineering Company
    Inventors: Glen Brons, Ronald D. Myers
  • Patent number: 5607575
    Abstract: A process for removing iron impurities, inter alia iron or iron compounds, from petroleum oil distillation residues is disclosed in which a high gradient magnetic separator incorporates a pack of ferromagnetic fillers in the form of a generally flat or curved sheet-like strip. The ferromagnetic filler is a Fe--Cr alloy of a selected composition and the strip is of selected geometric characteristics such that the rate of removal of iron impurities can be maintained substantially at a maximum throughout the separation mode of operation prior to and after washing of the ferromagnetic filler.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1997
    Assignee: Nippon Oil Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kozo Kamiya, Toru Morita, Yuichiro Fujiyama, Masaru Ushio
  • Patent number: 5593573
    Abstract: Sulfuric acids or salts thereof are used to remove metals, particularly organically-bound calcium, from hydrocarbonaceous feedstocks. An aqueous solution of the acid or its salts is used to extract the metals from the feedstock prior to processing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 14, 1997
    Assignee: Chevron Research Company
    Inventor: David C. Kramer
  • Patent number: 5591326
    Abstract: A catalytic desalting process for processing whole crude oils. The desalting process uses an M41S catalyst to remove salts from the whole crude. Solids may also be removed from the whole crude using a porous material having a pore size greater than about 10 microns. The catalytic desalting process does not generate waste water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1997
    Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation
    Inventor: Stuart S. Shih
  • Patent number: 5543041
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a supply system for pre-treating a petroleum distillation residual oil to be fed to a hydrogenation apparatus. In order to remove iron fine particles having a particle size of less than 25.mu. in the feed oil which could be not removed in the prior art, by constituting a system comprising a heater for heating the feed oil to a given temperature by heat exchange with a high temperature bottom oil of a fractionating tower after hydrogenation treatment of the feed oil, a filter equipped with a back washing mechanism for filtering solid materials in the feed oil after heating, and a high gradient magnetic separator for magnetically separating magnetic iron fine particles having a particle size of less than 25.mu. contained in the feed oil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1996
    Assignees: Nippon Oil Company, Ltd., Nippon Petroleum Refining Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hajime Okazaki, Manabu Kazato, Masaoki Ouchi, Haruki Nagano, Masaru Ushio, Kozo Kamiya
  • Patent number: 5531886
    Abstract: A process for the elimination of arsenic from hydrocarbons with a retention mass wherein the retention mass is pretreated before being brought into contact with the feedstock to be purified. The retention mass contains at least one element selected from the group formed by iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, tungsten, palladium and chromium. At least 5% by weight of these element(s) are in the sulfide form. The pretreatment involves impregnation with a sulfur compound carried out simultaneously with reduction. The arsenic elimination process is carried out between 120.degree. C. and 250.degree. C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 2, 1996
    Assignee: Institut Francals du Petrole
    Inventors: Charles Cameron, Jean Cosyns, Patrick Sarrazin, Jean Paul Boitiau, Philippe Courty
  • Patent number: 5525201
    Abstract: Certain base catalyzed oxyalkylated-cardanol-alkylphenol-aldehyde resins may be utilized in refinery demulsification operations. These materials find particular utility in breaking water-in-oil emulsions resulting from the water wash of crude oils. The materials may also be employed to break other water-in-oil refinery emulsions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Nalco Chemical Company
    Inventors: Hernando Diaz-Arauzo, Paul M. Lindemuth, Bryan T. O'Reilly
  • Patent number: 5516969
    Abstract: Heavy metals are removed from waste lubricating oil by heating in the presence of an oxidation catalyst and a free radical initiator at temperatures in the range of about 150.degree.-200.degree. C. Corrosion and oxidation inhibitors previously added to the oil are thereby oxidized to form a separable sludge which contains the bulk of heavy metal contamination. The process is of particular advantage in removing contaminating radioactive nuclides from lubricating oils used in nuclear generating facilities.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1996
    Assignee: Ontario Hydro
    Inventors: John P. Krasznai, Walter J. Janis
  • Patent number: 5514272
    Abstract: A process for significantly decreasing the acid sludge settling time in waste oil recovery processes comprising the steps of heating used oil to a high temperature above 700 degrees Fahrenheit, cooling the heated oil, adding an oxidizing agent to the oil, allowing the acid sludge to settle within a period of approximately 24 to 72 hours, separating the acid-sludge-free oil from the acid sludge which settles out of solution as a result of addition of the oxidizing agent, and adding a polishing agent and separating the re-refined oil from the spent polishing agent. The process produces a high quality re-refined oil rapidly and economically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 7, 1996
    Inventor: Benjamin S. Santos
  • Patent number: 5466365
    Abstract: A process for deasphalting and demetallizing petroleum vacuum distillation residues using dimethylcarbonate (DMC) in the presence of an overpressure of carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and comprising:mixing a vacuum distillation residue with dimethylcarbonate (DMC) under a pressure of CO.sub.2, under temperature and pressure conditions such as to maintain the DMC in a prevalently liquid state, and forming a homogeneous solution with the deasphalted oils;cooling the entire system to a temperature such as to form three phases;then venting the gas at this temperature;recovering a deasphalted and partly demetallized primary oil from the light phase;recovering a deasphalted and partly demetallized secondary oil from the intermediate phase;f) recovering the used DMC for its possible reuse.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1995
    Assignee: Eniricerche S.p.A.
    Inventors: Cesar Savastano, Roberto Cimino
  • Patent number: 5463167
    Abstract: A method of removing contaminants from a hydrocarbon stream which involves contacting the hydrocarbon stream containing a heavy-metal contaminant with a porous material under conditions suitable for adsorption of the contaminant by the porous material. A process for preparing an adsorbent which involves forming a mixture of metal oxide powder and support powder, shaping the mixture into an aggregate, and reducing the aggregate to transform the metal oxide to the metallic state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 31, 1995
    Assignee: Exxon Chemical Patents Inc.
    Inventor: John D. Y. Ou
  • Patent number: 5449463
    Abstract: One aspect of the invention provides a method of preventing crude oil from becoming emulsified in desalter wash water. According to the method, the wash water is treated with an effective amount of a dispersion of a water-soluble cationic polymer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1995
    Assignee: Nalco Chemical Company
    Inventors: Phillip L. Elliott, Michael L. Braden, Donald J. Newman
  • Patent number: 5421994
    Abstract: A process for the recovery of mercury and arsenic for which elementary mercury and/or mercury mercaptides are recovered prior to the recovery of arsenic and wherein the recovery temperature of the arsenic is higher than the recovery temperature of the mercury.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1993
    Date of Patent: June 6, 1995
    Assignee: Institut Francais Du Petrole
    Inventors: Patrick Sarrazin, Charles Cameron, Jean-Paul Boitiaux, Philippe Courty, Yves Barthel
  • Patent number: 5403471
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for refining distillation residual fractions of a crude petroleum oil. The process employs a high gradient magnetic separator for magnetically depositing iron impurities from such distillation residual oil onto a ferromagnetic filler in the separator. The ferromagnetic filler is cleaned at predetermined intervals by a selected class of washing liquids so that the refining operation can be carried out continually.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1995
    Assignee: Nippon Oil Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaru Ushio, Kozo Kamiya, Toru Morita
  • Patent number: 5401392
    Abstract: For removing mercury and any arsenic in hydrocarbon charges containing mercury and sulfur, the charge is contacted with an arsenic collecting material having catalytic properties ("catalyst") in hydrogen, the material containing at least one metal selected from the group consisting of nickel, cobalt, iron, palladium, and platinum; at least one metal selected from the group consisting of chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, and uranium; and an active phase carrier. Downstream of the catalyst or mixed therewith is a mercury collecting material containing a sulfide of at least one metal selected from the group consisting of copper, iron, and silver or sulfur, and an active phase carrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1995
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Philippe Courty, Pierre Dufresne, Jean P. Boitiaux, Germain Martino
  • Patent number: 5401393
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for synthesizing a reactive sulfur-containing adsorbent material for removing metals, preferably mercury, from hydrocarbon fluids. The method includes impregnating a porous polystyrene resin with elemental sulfur, and heating the impregnated resin/sulfur mixture to chemically fix the sulfur to the resin. The elemental sulfur may be in solid, liquid, or vapor phase under conditions of contact with the resin. Also disclosed is the reactive adsorbent synthesized by this method. Also, a process is disclosed for removing mercury from hydrocarbon fluids by using a reactive adsorbent of the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 28, 1995
    Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation
    Inventors: Darrell D. Whitehurst, Tsoung Y. Yan
  • Patent number: 5384040
    Abstract: A process for the elimination of mercury and possibly of arsenic from hydrocarbons wherein compounds containing mercury are transformed into elemental mercury, the charge is fractioned, and then the fractions rich in mercury are purified through contact with a mercury collecting mass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 24, 1995
    Assignee: Institute Francais Du Petrole
    Inventors: Larry Mank, Yves Barthel, Charles Cameron, Patrick Sarrazin
  • Patent number: 5354454
    Abstract: A continuous process for deasphalting and demetallating a residue from crude oil distillation, by means of dimethyl carbonate as extraction solvent, comprises:mixing a residue from crude oil distillation with a recycled liquid stream containing oil and dimethyl carbonate, in order to produce a homogeneous solution;cooling said homogeneous solution and separating a refined light, liquid, phase; an extracted middle phase; and a heavy phase containing asphaltenes;recovering a primary, deasphalted/demetallated oil from said light phase;partially recycling said middle phase to the mixing step, and recovering a secondary deasphalted oil from the residual fraction;recovering asphaltenes from said heavy phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1994
    Assignee: Eni Chem Synthesis S.p.A.
    Inventors: Cesar Savastano, Roberto Cimino, Salvatore Meli
  • Patent number: 5332491
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for dispersing iron sulfide in hydrocarbon streams found in refinery and petrochemical plant operations. The dispersant comprises a free radically polymerized copolymer of an .alpha.-olefin of from about 10 to about 36 carbon atoms and maleic anhydride wherein the anhydride moieties along the copolymer backbone are substantially unhydrolyzed. The copolymer has a ratio of .alpha.-olefin to maleic anhydride of from about 1 to about 5 and a molecular weight of from 5000 to about 100,000.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1994
    Assignee: Nalco Chemical Company
    Inventors: Sherri L. Fisher, Bradley D. Mercer
  • Patent number: 5328594
    Abstract: This invention relates to an improved catalytic process for carrying out heavy hydrocarbon conversion, usually, but not necessarily, in the presence of nickel and vanadium on the catalyst and in the feedstock, by catalytic cracking gas oils and heavy carbometallic oils to lighter molecular weight fractions. The process is facilitated by the continuous addition of one or more heavy rare earth additives, including gadolinum, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, and thulium, all having exceptionally high paramagnetic properties, which as they accumulate on aged catalyst, are used to achieve enhanced magnetic separation of aged catalyst. These additives are unusual in that they not only act dramatically as magnetic hooks to assist in removing old, nickel and vanadium poisoned catalyst, but also act to achieve increased activity and improve selectivity of the remaining catalyst, and of equal importance, tend to resist catalyst deactivation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1994
    Assignee: Ashland Oil, Inc.
    Inventor: William P. Hettinger
  • Patent number: 5302282
    Abstract: A process for the production of high quality lube oil blending stock from atmospheric fractionation residue and waste lubricants by means of contacting the waste lubricant with a hot hydrogen-rich gaseous stream to increase the temperature of this feed stream to vaporize at least a portion of the distillable hydrocarbonaceous compounds thereby producing a distillable hydrocarbonaceous stream which is immediately hydrogenated in an integrated hydrogenation zone. The vaporization of the waste oil is also conducted in the presence of an asphalt residue which is produced in the integrated process. The resulting effluent from the integrated hydrogenation zone provides at least one high quality lube oil blending stock stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 12, 1994
    Assignee: UOP
    Inventors: Tom N. Kalnes, Steven P. Lankton, Robert B. James, Jr.