Radiation Tracer Methods Patents (Class 250/302)
  • Patent number: 6476386
    Abstract: In a method for scanning microscopy, for which the surface of a sample is scanned point-by-point using a tunnel tip and locally resolved tunnel current measurement is performed, during scanning the tunnel tip is remagnetized by a predetermined remagnetization frequency, and from the tunnel current (It) or a z coordinate of the distance between the tunnel tip and the sample or a value derived from this, locally resolved signal components are derived, occurring at the remagnetization frequency and being characteristic for magnetic sample properties, whereby on the basis of the derived signal components an imaging of the magnetic structure of the sample surface is performed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2002
    Assignee: Max-Planck- Gesselschaft zur Forderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
    Inventors: J├╝rgen Kirschner, Wulf Wulfhekel
  • Patent number: 6476385
    Abstract: A cleaning inspection kit inclusive of various compositions of water-soluble invisible fluorescent ink and various applicators therefor which are suited for a number of different surfaces, and a hand-held ultra-violet light. The appropriate applicator is used to mark an area with invisible compound prior to cleaning. After the area has been cleaned an inspection is made with the ultra violet light to expose the original area and to determine whether remnants of the original mark are still there. If so, the area could not have been properly cleaned. However, if the original mark is gone then the area was cleaned. The system allows management to inspect the quality of cleaning and maintenance services. The kit is simple to use as the inks are applied by convenient pen, powder or spray applicators, and a portable ultra-violet light is provided for fluorescing the inks. The method is non-destructive as all of the ink compositions wash away upon normal cleaning.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2002
    Inventor: Peter M. Albert
  • Patent number: 6469300
    Abstract: An apparatus and a method for injecting a concentrated fluorescent dye into a sealed air-conditioning system prior to the system going into service are revealed. The apparatus is made of a heated reservoir connected to a heated hose which is connected to a heated injector. The method involves heating a fluorescent dye to form a molten liquid fluorescent dye, maintaining the liquid fluorescent dye at a constant temperature and viscosity and injecting the liquid fluorescent dye into a component of a sealed air-conditioning system prior to the system going into service.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2002
    Assignee: UView Ultraviolet Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Phil Trigiani, Tony Ferraro
  • Patent number: 6427544
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for inspecting a part to detect defects in the part. The process comprises the steps of placing a part to be inspected in an immersion tank, introducing a mixture of a penetrant dye and a supercritical carbon dioxide solvent into the immersion tank, maintaining the part immersed in the mixture for a time sufficient for the penetrant dye to penetrate any defects in the part, removing the part from the immersion tank, and inspecting the part for the presence of any defects. A system for carrying out the process is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2002
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Stuart A. Sanders
  • Publication number: 20020092981
    Abstract: Systems and method for determining a source of abrasion in film equipment by using a test film having fluorescent material thereon and illuminating the film equipment using a fluorescence creating light source to cause fluorescence of any part having fluorescent material deposited thereon by the test film.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 17, 2001
    Publication date: July 18, 2002
    Inventor: John T. Pregent,
  • Patent number: 6410926
    Abstract: A method for determining the thickness of a dryable or curable film-forming coating by incorporating a fluorescent component into the coating. The fluorescent component is either a resin solid of the coating, a fluorescent dye or a fluorescent dye attached to a resin solid of the coating. The coating is exposed to ultraviolet or visible light which causes the fluorescent component to fluoresce. The intensity of the fluorescence of the coating is measured and the thickness or weight of the coating is determined from a known mathematical relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the coating when exposed to the light and the thickness or weight of the coating. Additionally, a curable or dryable film-forming coating composition including a curable or dryable organic resin reacted with a fluorescent tag is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2002
    Assignee: PPG Industries Ohio, Inc.
    Inventors: Calum H. Munro, Michael L. White, Michael J. Pawlik, Ralph C. Gray, Gregory J. McCollum
  • Patent number: 6403957
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for preparation of a substrate containing a plurality of sequences. Photoremovable groups are attached to a surface of a substrate. Selected regions of the substrate are exposed to light so as to activate the selected areas. A monomer, also containing a photoremovable group; is provided to the substrate to bind at the selected areas. The process is repeated using a variety of monomers such as amino acids until sequences of a desired length are obtained. Detection methods and apparatus are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2000
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2002
    Assignee: Affymetrix, Inc.
    Inventors: Stephen P. A. Fodor, J. Leighton Read, Lubert Stryer, Michael C. Pirrung
  • Patent number: 6392227
    Abstract: A liquid for producing a marker vapor includes a fluorescent substance in solution in a carrier liquid. The fluorescent substance has a first vaporization temperature range at which the fluorescent substance vaporizes. The carrier liquid has a second vaporization temperature range at which the carrier liquid vaporizes. The second vaporization temperature range overlaps the first vaporization range. The liquid is vaporized and directed into a body being inspected. Leaks then become visible when the body is inspected using radiation of a wavelength that causes the fluorescent substance to fluoresce.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2002
    Assignee: Star EnviroTech, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Leslie Banyard, Ronald Matthew Dykes
  • Patent number: 6344331
    Abstract: A biphase immunoassay method is provided in which a water immiscible liquid is qualitatively or quantitatively measured by mixing a sample of the water immiscible liquid with an aqueous solution containing a specific binding partner of the analyte. Binding occurs at or across the interface between the respective liquids and the degree of association of the analyte with its binding partner is dependent upon the concentration ratio rather than absolute quantities. The degree of association may be determined and used to determine the presence and/or concentration of analyte in the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2002
    Assignee: Molecular Light Technology Research Limited
    Inventors: Raymond Lathan Ball, Jeremy Paul Aston, Jennifer Cryer, Ian Weeks
  • Patent number: 6329143
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for preparation of a substrate containing a plurality of sequences. Photoremovable groups are attached to a surface of a substrate. Selected regions of the substrate are exposed to light so as to activate the selected areas. A monomer, also containing a photoremovable group, is provided to the substrate to bind at the selected areas. The process is repeated using a variety of monomers such as amino acids until sequences of a desired length are obtained. Detection methods and apparatus are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2001
    Assignee: Affymetrix, Inc.
    Inventors: Lubert Stryer, Michael C. Pirrung, J. Leighton Read, Stephen P. A. Fodor
  • Patent number: 6326144
    Abstract: The present invention provides a composition comprising fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals associated to a compound, wherein the nanocrystals have a characteristic spectral emission, wherein said spectral emission is tunable to a desired wavelength by controlling the size of the nanocrystal, and wherein said emission provides information about a biological state or event.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Moungi G. Bawendi, Frederick V. Mikulec, Vikram C. Sundar
  • Patent number: 6306610
    Abstract: The present invention provides a composition comprising fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals associated to a compound, wherein the nanocrystals have a characteristic spectral emission, wherein said spectral emission is tunable to a desired wavelength by controlling the size of the nanocrystal, and wherein said emission provides information about a biological state or event.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2001
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Moungi G. Bawendi, Frederic V. Mikulec, Vikram C. Sundar
  • Patent number: 6252657
    Abstract: A reflection fluorometer comprises a light guiding capillary with a fluorescent coating of the inner wall side, and a light source for excitation. The light source is positioned so that the light meets the outer longitudinal side of the capillary and part of the light penetrates the capillary. At least one sensor is positioned for sensing light at the front end of said capillary to measure the fluorescent light which leaves the capillary on that end. The capillary is constructed from light guiding material for the light that is excited in the area of the evanescent field, and the refractive index of an inner coating on the capillary is smaller than the refractive index of the capillary material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Inventor: Wolfram Bohnenkamp
  • Patent number: 6225625
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for preparation of a substrate containing a plurality of sequences. Photoremovable groups are attached to a surface of a substrate. Selected regions of the substrate are exposed to light so as to activate the selected areas. A monomer, also containing a photoremovable group, is provided to the substrate to bind at the selected areas. The process is repeated using a variety of monomers such as amino acids until sequences of a desired length are obtained. Detection methods and apparatus are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2001
    Assignee: Affymetrix, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael C. Pirrung, J. Leighton Read, Stephen P. A. Fodor, Lubert Stryer
  • Patent number: 6219572
    Abstract: When imaging a region of a patient using a contrast agent, for example in magnetic resonance imaging apparatus including a superconducting magnet 2, it is usual to take an image before and after injection of a contrast agent from an injector 5 into the patient. The invention provides a second injector 8 which contains a sample of the patient's blood or saline or other injectable medium which leads directly to the region of interest being imaged in the patient via a catheter 9, which has an expandible tip which can be expanded to block off the vessel in question. The injector can then be used to inject a bolus of injectable medium into the region of interest, whereupon a further image can be taken, and the catheter can be collapsed to unblock the vein whereupon an image in the presence of the contrast agent can be taken.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: Picker International, Inc.
    Inventor: Ian Robert Young
  • Patent number: 6157038
    Abstract: Apparatus and process for fabricating an electrostatographic imaging member assembly including providing a hollow electrostatographic drum having a first end and a second end, the first end having a surface selected from the group consisting of an uncoated surface, a surface coated with only a first component of a multiple component adhesive, a surface coated with only a second component for the multiple component adhesive, the second component containing a fluorescent tracer which fluoresces when irradiated with activating radiation, and a surface coated with a mixture of the first component and the second component containing the fluorescent tracer, directing activating radiation at the surface of the first end, detecting the amount of fluorescence emitted from the surface of the first end, and generating a signal which is substantially proportional to the intensity of fluorescence emitted from the surface of the first end, the signal ranging through at least three levels of strength, the first level repres
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Eugene A. Swain, John J. Darcy, III
  • Patent number: 6150656
    Abstract: A method of locating a component requiring a supplemental restraining device on a portion of a gas turbine engine includes applying a fluorescent material to the component, and irradiating the component and surrounding components on the portion of the gas turbine engine with electromagnetic radiation that causes the fluorescent material to emit visible light and thereby increase the visibility of the component. The method may be used to install and/or inspect a lock-wire that in the presence of the electromagnetic radiation has a visibly contrasting appearance compared to that of the component requiring a lock-wire.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 21, 2000
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Michael P. Garrity
  • Patent number: 6070454
    Abstract: A leak detecting dye for use in heating, ventilating, air conditioning, or refrigeration systems employing a dye powder form of dyes such as naphthalimide, perylene, coumarin, and thioxanthane.The dye is formulated into a useful liquid or paste mixture by mixing the dye powder (or dye in granular or crystalline form) with a solvent, a lubricant, or a refrigerant. In liquid or paste form, it is suitable for introduction into the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2000
    Assignee: Bright Solutions, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard C Cavestri
  • Patent number: 5998789
    Abstract: A fluorescent dyed polymer sheet receives excitation energy from ultraviolet wavelengths from 200 nanometers to 370 nanometers and converts to visible light wavelengths. This conversion allows for use of existing ultraviolet light sources to produce visible light for visualizing, photographing, documenting and analyzing electrophoresis gels produced with visible stains. An ultraviolet transilluminator is designed to fluoresce Ethidium bromide stained gels when exposed to ultraviolet light. This process allows visualization of the DNA and RNA bands providing images that can be photographed with black and white photographic cameras or video cameras. By placing the proper fluorescent dyed polymer on the surface of the ultraviolet transilluminator the polymer sheet receives excitation energy from the ultraviolet bandwidth and converts it to visible light wavelength emissions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1999
    Inventors: Alvin Kovalsky, Max D. Miller
  • Patent number: 5929437
    Abstract: Radioactive particles are provided for use in tracing the flow path in or near a well of fluids injected into the well. The particles include an element which can be made radioactive by bombardment with neutrons and a material to encapsulate the element. The encapsulant is preferably an organic polymer having a high softening temperature. The particles may be injected into a well in treating fluids and their location may be later determined by gamma ray logging of the well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1999
    Assignee: Protechnics International, Inc.
    Inventors: Douglas W. Elliott, David L. Holcomb
  • Patent number: 5879946
    Abstract: A method for allowing authentification of a bulk liquid e.g. petrol or another mineral oil based product, comprises introducing into the liquid a small amount of a chemiluminescent substance. Samples for authentification are subjected to the conditions required to trigger the chemiluminescent reaction and monitored for chemiluminescent emission.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 9, 1999
    Assignee: Molecular Light Technology Limited
    Inventors: Ian Weeks, Sian Aerona Herbert
  • Patent number: 5828712
    Abstract: Fluid flow rates are determined with a nonradioactive tracer agent in the operation of a water cooled nuclear fission reactor employed for driving electrical power generators. The technique is proposed for use to routinely calibrate other flow measuring means such as restricted flow nozzles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1998
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Martin Sullivan Laurent, Michael Eildon Ball, Lynn Lawrence Sundberg, James Leon Simpson
  • Patent number: 5825028
    Abstract: The present invention is a quality control method that denotes non-uniformities of structural features on a planarizing surface of a polishing pad across substantially the whole surface area of the pad. In one embodiment of the method, an indicating compound applied to the planarizing surface of a polishing pad adjoins to the structural feature on the planarizing surface of the pad in proportion to the density of the structural feature. Excess indicating compound is then removed from the planarizing surface of the pad to leave the portion of the indicating compound that adjoined to the structural feature in the pad. The indicating compound is readily visible, and thus non-uniform areas on the planarizing surface with a high density of the structural feature are stained a darker shade of color than other areas on the pad. The planarizing surface is subsequently evaluated to determine whether the surface area with an excess density of indicating compound is within a desired range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 20, 1998
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Guy F. Hudson
  • Patent number: 5807605
    Abstract: A method for visualization of a lubricant coating on a surface of an article includes dissolving a fluorescent agent into a lubricant. The method then includes applying the fluorescenated lubricant to coat a surface of the article. The coated article is then irradiated with an electromagnetic radiation capable of inducing a fluorescent emission in the fluorescent agent and the fluorescent emission is observed to detect the coverage of the lubricant on the surface of the article.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1998
    Assignee: Becton Dickinson and Company
    Inventors: Kevin G. Tingey, Victor A. Williamitis, Charles W. Daugherty, Jeanne E. Lambert, Steven H. Mersch
  • Patent number: 5804822
    Abstract: A lamp system is for use in non-destructive testing to illuminate luminescent materials, such as fluorescent dyes. The lamp system has a control unit and a lamp. The lamp has a bulb and a filter. The bulb generates at least a first wavelength of invisible energy and the filter limits other visible wavelength light from the lamp. The lamp has a handle with a trigger. The control unit pulses the lamp on and off when the trigger is depressed. The luminescent material absorbs the first wavelength of energy and pulses in response when the lamp illuminates the material. The system can be AC or DC operated. It can be operated from an automotive battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: Brasscorp. Ltd.
    Inventors: Jack Brass, Steven Goldfarb
  • Patent number: 5783822
    Abstract: The present invention provides improved traceable well cement compositions and methods. The compositions are basically comprised of hydraulic cement, sufficient water to form a pumpable slurry and a normally non-radioactive tracer compound which becomes radioactive and emits detectible rays over a relatively short time period when exposed to neutrons. The methods of the invention relate to cementing a zone in a well and subsequently detecting the subterranean location of the cement composition therein. A traceable well cement composition of the invention is formed and introduced into a subterranean zone to be cemented. Neutrons are then emitted from a source in the well so that the tracer compound emits detectible rays, the rays are detected and the location of the cement composition in the well is determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1998
    Assignee: Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.
    Inventors: Ronnie J. Buchanan, Jiten Chatterji, James F. Heathman
  • Patent number: 5723976
    Abstract: Minute defects in an encapsulated electronic component are detected by immersing the component in an aqueous solution of a water-soluble fluorescent substance having the property of fluorescing when moistened and stopping fluorescing when dry. The solution is allowed to permeate into minute defects of the component whereupon the component is opened. The defects are detected by observing an image of the component while moistening and drying the component to detect fluorescing and stopping fluorescing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1998
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Toshiaki Yoshida, Tetsuo Norimatsu
  • Patent number: 5717217
    Abstract: A method for monitoring the properties of a coating comprising the steps of adding a fluorescence probe to a coating composition which has the ability to undergo microscopic changes in viscosity, the ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence emission of said probe at two wavelengths changing in response to said changes in said viscosity of said coating composition; curing said coating; causing said compound to fluoresce; measuring the fluorescence of said compound; calculating the ratio of the intensities of fluorescence emission of said compound at two or more wavelengths; relating said ratio to the monitored property of said coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1998
    Assignee: Spectra Group Limited, Inc.
    Inventors: Douglas C. Neckers, Jian Chang Song, Afranio Torres-Filho
  • Patent number: 5650619
    Abstract: The present invention is a quality control method that denotes non-uniformities of structural features on a planarizing surface of a polishing pad across substantially the whole surface area of the pad. In one embodiment of the method, an indicating compound applied to the planarizing surface of a polishing pad adjoins to the structural feature on the planarizing surface of the pad in proportion to the density of the structural feature. Excess indicating compound is then removed from the planarizing surface of the pad to leave the portion of the indicating compound that adjoined to the structural feature in the pad. The indicating compound is readily visible, and thus non-uniform areas on the planarizing surface with a high density of the structural feature are stained a darker shade of color than other areas on the pad. The planarizing surface is subsequently evaluated to determine whether the surface area with an excess density of indicating compound is within a desired range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1995
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1997
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Guy F. Hudson
  • Patent number: 5606171
    Abstract: A method for monitoring a property of a polymeric mass such as a coating or film comprising the steps of adding a fluorescence probe compound capable of fluorescing to a polymeric composition which has the ability to undergo changes in microviscosity, the ratio of the intensity of the fluorescence emission of said compound at two wavelengths changing in response to said changes in said microviscosity of said composition; curing said composition; causing said compound to fluoresce; measuring the fluorescence of said compound; calculating the ratio of the intensities of fluorescence emission of said compound at two or more wavelengths; relating said ratio to the monitored property of said composition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1997
    Assignee: Spectra Group Limited, Inc.
    Inventors: Douglas C. Neckers, Jian C. Song, Afranio Torres-Filho, Wolter F. Jager, Zhijun J. Wang
  • Patent number: 5572021
    Abstract: Methods are provided for detecting the surface and/or subterranean locations of well treating fluids after the treating fluids have been introduced into wells and used for performing treatments therein. The methods of determining the subterranean locations of treating fluids basically comprise introducing a treating fluid into a well having a non-hazardous thermal neutron absorbing material combined therewith and performing a treatment in the well with the fluid. Fast neutrons from a source thereof are emitted in the well after the treatment whereby they interact with elements in the well and are thermalized. The thermal neutrons backscattered in the well are detected, and a count representing the detected thermal neutrons is generated. The subterranean locations of the treating fluid are determined by comparing the thermal neutron counts in the well before and after placement of the thermal neutron absorbing treating fluid therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 5, 1996
    Assignee: Halliburton Company
    Inventors: James F. Heathman, Robert F. Shelley, Jiten Chatterji
  • Patent number: 5543617
    Abstract: A method of measuring flow velocities in flowing fluids includes injecting into the flow a non-radioactive tracer having a neutron capture cross section higher than that of the flowing fluids, for example a gadolinium compound, and measuring the neutron capture cross section in the fluid downstream of the injection point to detect the passage of the tracer and hence determine the time of flight. By making the tracer miscible with only one phase (typically the continuous phase) of a multi-phase fluid, it is possible to measure the flow velocity of that phase. The neutron capture cross section can be measured by irradiating with neutrons from a pulsed neutron generator and measuring capture .gamma. rays with a scintillation detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1996
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventors: Bradley A. Roscoe, Jeffrey S. Schweitzer, Kenneth E. Stephenson
  • Patent number: 5464986
    Abstract: A fluorescent spectrophotometer measures the fluorescent characteristics of fluorescent probes within functional compositions of a specimen. The fluorescent spectrophotometer emits light appropriate for exciting the fluorescer or fluorescers contained within the specimen. The excited fluorescer emits within an emission wavelength spectrum. Fluorescers having a narrower wavelength region over which an abrupt change in emission intensity occurs are chosen for use as a fluorescent probe. The fluorescent spectrophotometer detects the change in intensity through this narrower area and performs a derivative calculation on the intensity curve. The fluorescent spectrophotometer is able to distinguish the fluorescer from other fluorescers or interfering fluorescent backgrounds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1995
    Assignee: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company
    Inventors: Jeffrey A. Boettcher, Lanny L. Harklau
  • Patent number: 5453625
    Abstract: A method and system is disclosed for measuring a functional characteristic of one or more thin film coatings applied to a thin film using a photoisomer. A photoisomer is mixed into each functional coating in known amounts. Photodetection of the photoisomer as a part of the functional coatings is used to control a functional characteristic of the thin film during the manufacturing process. The photoisomer is activated with light of a selected wavelength range, and light fluorescence is measured in another selected wavelength range.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 26, 1995
    Assignee: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company
    Inventors: Del R. Lawson, Jeffrey A. Boettcher, Lanny L. Harklau
  • Patent number: 5416323
    Abstract: Leakage is detected between a process fluid and a temper fluid, or from a process fluid to a temperature-conditioning fluid, wherein one but not both of said A and said B fluids is an industrial process fluid and wherein at least one of said A and said B fluids is a gaseous stream, in an industrial process. The industrial process includes an A and a B fluid, and one of the A and B fluids receives heat from or transfer heat to the other of the A and the B fluids by an indirect contact method, and one but not both of the A and the B fluids is an industrial process fluid. In particular, the A fluid is a temperature-conditioning fluid that receives heat from a process fluid, for instance wherein the A fluid is the water of a waste-heat boiler and the B fluid is a gaseous process stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1995
    Assignee: Nalco Chemical Company
    Inventors: John E. Hoots, Luciano E. Savorgnan, Glenn J. St. Amant
  • Patent number: 5396075
    Abstract: A method for in situ characterization of a medium of a dispersed phase in a continuous phase, including the steps of adding a fluorescent dye to one phase capable of producing fluorescence therein when the fluorescent dye is optically excited, optically exciting the fluorescent dye at a wavelength to produce fluorescence in the one phase, and monitoring the fluorescence to distinguish the continuous phase from the dispersed phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1995
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Eric N. Kaufman
  • Patent number: 5354990
    Abstract: The distribution of fluid flowing through a packed bed reactor is determined by placing a plurality of fiber optic sensors at desired locations within the packed bed reactor. A light analyzable tracer component is injected into the fluid flowing through the reactor. Light is supplied to each of the sensors causing any tracer component in the vicinity of the sensor to emit electromagnetic radiation. The emitted electromagnetic radiation is detected at each fiber optic sensor, thereby permitting the amount of tracer in the vicinity of each sensor to be determined, and consequently providing a measure of the distribution of fluid flowing through the reactor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 1993
    Date of Patent: October 11, 1994
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Co.
    Inventors: David C. Dankworth, Robert M. Koros
  • Patent number: 5329127
    Abstract: A method of identifying different plastics, wherein each plastic is provided with a plurality of fluorescent dyes which differ in terms of their emission frequencies and/or in terms of the duration of their fluorescence, so that a fluorescence pattern, which is distinguished by the duration of the fluorescence and/or by the frequencies occurring, can unambiguously be assigned to each plastic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1994
    Assignee: Bayer AG
    Inventors: Arno Becker, Klaus Luttermann, Uwe Claussen, Peter Orth, Ludger Heiliger, Aziz E. Sayed
  • Patent number: 5324940
    Abstract: For the identification of macro-organisms, especially fish, visible implant tags having identification codes of fluorescent colorants are implanted into at least partially transparent tissue of the macro-organisms such that the visible implant tags are visible. The encoded information is obtained from the tags by measuring the spectrum of light emitted by the fluorescent colorants. The tagged fish need not be captured to read the tags. The information may be obtained through a significant depth of medium and also independently of the size of the tag or its orientation. Florescent dyes or, more preferably, fluorescent pigments may be used for the identification codes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 1, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 28, 1994
    Assignee: Northwest Marine Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Philip A. Ekstrom
  • Patent number: 5306911
    Abstract: A method for determining at least one dynamic flow characteristic of a multiphase flow circulating in a pipe, said flow being composed of an aqueous phase and a hydrocarbon (oil) phase. Oxygen atoms in the aqueous phase are activated by irradiation with neutrons at a chosen first location in the pipe. The concentration of activated oxygen at a chosen second location in the pipe is measured with a detector as a function of time t, so as to obtain at least one signal S(t). Then a relationship is fitted to the signal S(t) so as to derive the values of the velocity U of the aqueous phase. The slip velocity v.sub.s of a dispersed phase relative to the velocity of a continuous phase is also advantageously determined. From the values of velocities U and v.sub.s and from the volume fraction y.sub.1 of the continuous phase in the pipe (obtained by an ancillary measurement), the volumetric flow rates of the phases are determined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Andrew Hunt
  • Patent number: 5304800
    Abstract: Leakage is detected between a process fluid and a temperature-conditioning fluid, or from a process fluid to a temperature-conditioning fluid, in an industrial process. The industrial process includes an A and a B fluid, and one of the A and B fluids receives heat from or transfer heat to the other of the A and the B fluids by an indirect contact method, and one but not both of the A and the B fluids is an industrial process fluid. At least one specie of tracer chemical is maintained in the A fluid, and that specie of tracer chemical is not a normal component of the B fluid. At least one of the A and the B fluids is subjected to at least one analysis at least one site. Such analysis at least detects the presence of the specie of tracer chemical when the fluid subjected to the analysis is the B fluid, and such analysis at least determines the concentration of the specie of tracer chemical when the fluid subjected to the analysis is the A fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1994
    Assignee: Nalco Chemical Company
    Inventors: John E. Hoots, Brian V. Jenkins, Philip M. Eastin, Eric R. Brundage
  • Patent number: 5225675
    Abstract: The invention provides a method of improving cleaning operations for metals. A fluorescent dye is introduced into metal treatment solution and the surface of a metal product is treated with the treatment solution. The metal product with the treatment solution on its surface is worked to deform the metal product. The treatment solution is removed from the surface of the metal product to clean the metal product. The cleaned metal product is illuminated with excitation energy capable of stimulating fluorescence in the fluorescent dye. Fluorescence of the fluorescent dye is optically monitored to determine effectiveness of the removing step.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1993
    Assignee: Inco Alloys International, Inc.
    Inventor: David B. O'Donnell
  • Patent number: 5200615
    Abstract: A method and apparatus particularly for monitoring leakage of a fluid contained within a double-walled tank into its interstitial space is disclosed. The sensor includes an element which is subject to physical change upon exposure to the material contained in the tank. The condition of the element is remotely monitored to determine leakage. In the case of an underground tank or oceangoing vessel, a second similar sensor sensitive to water may be employed to differentiate leakage into the interstitial space of the material in the tank from ground or sea water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 6, 1993
    Inventor: Joram Hopenfeld
  • Patent number: 5187366
    Abstract: A sensor for detecting leakage of a particular fluid into an area to be monitored, such as an interstitial space of a double-walled tank or pipeline, comprises first and second fiber optics. A first end of the first fiber optic is disposed to a source of light and a first end of the second fiber optic is disposed to a detector of light. The second ends of the fiber optics are axially aligned with one another. Under normal circumstances light is transmitted from the source to the first fiber optic across the gap into the second fiber optic, and is detected by the detector. The fiber optics are arranged such that when the sensor is exposed to a material to be monitored, effective light-transmission between the second ends of the fiber optics is prevented, preventing light from being transmitted from the source to the detector. This provides a simple and fool-proof method of detecting leakage of the fluid to be monitored into the area to be monitored.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 16, 1993
    Inventor: Joram Hopenfeld
  • Patent number: 5178635
    Abstract: A system for providing controlled release of an active agent in an eye includes a device with a shape thereof for enabling placement of the device under a conjunctiva of an eye and additionally preventing migration of the device in the eye after placement of the device under the conjunctiva. The device may be formed of a material permeable to the passage of an agent disposed in said device. In addition, a tracer may be incorporated in the device to enable visual indication of the amount of active agent in said device when said device is disposed under the conjunctiva. To selectively treat specific areas of the eye, an impermeable layer may be provided for preventing diffusion of the active agent from a selected area of the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 12, 1993
    Assignee: Allergan, Inc.
    Inventors: Arlene E. Gwon, David Meadows
  • Patent number: 5162654
    Abstract: An apparatus is disclosed to optically determine which of four fluorophores is attached to a band of DNA molecules on an electrophoresis gel. The apparatus includes four separate band pass interference filters and four wedge prisms to create four discrete areas of light on a detector. Digital comparison of the relative intensity of light sensed in the four discrete areas determines the identity of the excited fluorophore.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1992
    Assignee: Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
    Inventors: Anthony J. Kostichka, Lloyd M. Smith
  • Patent number: 5115136
    Abstract: The invention provides an ultraviolet remote visual inspection system which enables the operator to detect minute cracks and hairline flaws in normally inaccessible places of manufactured parts. The system includes a fiberscope in combination with a source of white light and ultraviolet light and a plurality of cannisters for holding dye penetrant and other materials which can be used to facilitate the inspection. The fiberscope includes an articulated probe having a working channel, an ultraviolet light guide and an objective lens. The plurality of cannisters are connected to the working channel through a manifold. Dye penetrant, cleaning solution, drying air and developer can be individually delivered to the remote surface to be tested through the working channel from the cannisters. The fiberscope is provided with an adjuster for bending the articulated probe in different directions to facilitate application of the aforesaid materials and the subsequent visual inspection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 1990
    Date of Patent: May 19, 1992
    Assignee: Olympus Corporation
    Inventor: Michael D. Tomasch
  • Patent number: 5047632
    Abstract: A method for determining at least one dynamic flow characteristic of a multiphase flow circulating in a pipe, the flow being composed of a lighter dispersed-phase and a heavier continuous-phase. A tracer is discharged (or activated) into the flow at a chosen first location in the pipe by mixing (or activating) a portion of the tracer with the continuous-phase therein. The tracer concentration at a chosen second location in the pipe is measured with a detector as a function of time t, so as to obtain a signal S(t). Then a relationship is fitted to the signal S(t) so as to derive the values of the velocity U of the continuous phase and/or of a dispersion coefficient k. The slip velocity v.sub.s of the dispersed phase relative to the velocity of the continuous phase is also advantageously determined. From the values of velocities U and v.sub.s and from the volume fraction y.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 10, 1991
    Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation
    Inventor: Andrew Hunt
  • Patent number: 5037763
    Abstract: An article such as a drawn optical fiber (21) or an array of optical fibers is provided with a curable coating material. The array of optical fibers may be held together with a curable matrix material (45). Included in the coating material or the matrix material is a fluorescent constituent the fluorescence emission of which changes as a function of the degree of cure of the coating or matrix material. After the in-line curing of the coating material or of the matrix material, the fluorescence emission of the fluorescent constituent is monitored to determine the degree of cure of the curable material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1990
    Date of Patent: August 6, 1991
    Assignee: AT&T Bell Laboratories
    Inventor: James R. Petisce
  • Patent number: 5015849
    Abstract: A detection system is disclosed for detecting the presence of a marking material placed on a textile substrate prior to a series of dyeing and finishing steps. Following such steps, the substrate carrying the marking material is illuminated by light having a preferred wavelength of about 900 nanometers. The light is preferably absorbed by the marking material, thereby reducing the amount of light reflected from the substrate carrying the marking material and triggering an alarm. In a preferred embodiment, the marking material contains carbon particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1989
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1991
    Assignee: Milliken Research Corporation
    Inventor: Michael W. Gilpatrick