Radiation Tracer Methods Patents (Class 250/302)
  • Patent number: 4251514
    Abstract: A method of detecting antibodies to native deoxyribonucleic acid (n-DNA), anti-nuclear antibodies, antibodies to non-histone containing protein, rheumatoid factors, antibodies to thyroglobulin, and an immunofluorescent assay for such detection is described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1981
    Assignee: American Hospital Supply Corporation
    Inventor: Delfin F. Rippe
  • Patent number: 4251726
    Abstract: Deuterium tagging in an amount at least ten (10) times the natural abundance of the deuterium isotope occurrence is disclosed. A composition of matter, including the group consisting of hydrogen containing compounds having at least one atom which is not oxygen and at least about ten (10) times the naturally occurring deuterium is disclosed. Preferred use is set forth in tagging explosives. A method of detecting the tagged article, such as explosives concealed in airline luggage includes subjecting tagged compounds with energy quanta sufficient to carry out the reactionD.fwdarw.n+p-2.23 MeVand detecting the number of neutrons generated is disclosed where n is a neutron, p is a proton and 2.23 MeV is the threshold energy required for the reaction. The apparatus, including a conveyor and a vertically scanning shutter is disclosed in combination with a linear accelerator for generating the X-ray energy in the order of 4 MeV and a boron triflouride proportional counter for detecting neutrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1981
    Inventor: Luis W. Alvarez
  • Patent number: 4250383
    Abstract: A method of and apparatus for inspecting the threads of tubular elements for flaws, cracks and the like are disclosed. The invention is particularly useful in performing thread inspections of the box and pin ends of drill collars according to known processes using a fluorescent solution and ultraviolet radiant energy. An inspection unit is provided which encloses the threads to be inspected in a light-excluding manner and houses a source of ultraviolet energy. The threads are visually inspected through an aperture in the inspection unit by either rotating the inspection unit or the tubular element to be inspected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1981
    Inventor: Burton L. Hewitt
  • Patent number: 4250382
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of detecting a cured silicone coating applied to a paper substrate or the like in web form, comprising adding an effective amount of a fluorescent pigment to the silicone coating formulation to be applied to the substrate, applying the coating to the substrate, curing the silicone coating, scanning the coated surface of the substrate with a UV light source, and detecting the fluorescence of the coating. Also disclosed is the coated paper product with which the method of the invention can be employed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 10, 1981
    Assignee: Scott Paper Company
    Inventor: Craig R. Libby
  • Patent number: 4248854
    Abstract: The invention provides a reaction product of chrysotile asbestos with an antigenic serum protein, preferably albumin, that has particular utility as an antigen in producing antibody to asbestos. The reaction product of asbestos with an antigenic serum protein also can be used in a method for producing an antibody toward asbestos by immunizing a laboratory animal with the reaction product, of asbestos and a serum protein, allowing it to remain in the blood of the animal for a sufficient period of time and thereafter recovering antibody globulins from the laboratory animal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1979
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1981
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Herbert R. Lukens, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4238384
    Abstract: Additives, such as stabilizers, antioxidants, anti-static agents etc., are intimately blended with an irradiation-responsive substance, such as an optical brightener, and incorporated in a thermoplastic polymeric material which is then subjected to irradiation to determine the degree of uniformity of distribution of the additive-brightener blend.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1980
    Assignee: Sandoz, Inc.
    Inventors: Morris Blumberg, Chester C. Swasey
  • Patent number: 4237379
    Abstract: A method of inspecting electrical devices such as integrated circuit devices which have conductors covered by a protective layer of passivating material to determine the quality of the protective layer includes treating the circuit with a fluorescein containing dye and exposing the treated device to UV radiation while applying a voltage between two conductors. Fluorescence is observable in well passivated areas of the device but not in unpassivated or inadequately passivated areas. When a device is tested before dicing from a wafer, adjacent devices to which no voltage is applied fluoresce in both passivated and unpassivated areas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1980
    Assignee: RCA Corporation
    Inventors: Cheryl A. Deckert, Robert B. Comizzoli, George L. Schnable
  • Patent number: 4235869
    Abstract: Methods and compositions are provided for improved protein binding assays by preparing compositions having indirectly labeled ligands substantially free of label conjugated to materials other than the indirectly labeled ligand. The method for preparing the compositions involves employing a monovalent receptor to which the label is conjugated and combining the monovalent receptor labeled conjugate to the ligand, either in pure or impure form. The mixture is then segregated according to molecular weight and the ligand conjugated to the labeled receptor isolated. This conjugate may then be directly used as a reagent in a protein binding assay, where the assay mixture is substantially free of label other than labeled receptor bound to ligand.The labels will be for the most part of relatively low molecular weight, while the receptor is preferably a Fab fragment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1978
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1980
    Assignee: Syva Company
    Inventor: Moshe Schwarzberg
  • Patent number: 4225783
    Abstract: The present invention encompasses a method for enumerating microbial cells in an aqueous test sample comprising: fluorescently labeling the microbial cells in test sample intermixing a known amount of monodispersed fluorescently labeled beads of about cell size into the test sample, and determining the ratio of bacterial cells to fluorescently labeled beads, the reagents for practicing this method. The methods and reagents of the present invention are particularly useful in counting bacterial cells in urine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 1978
    Date of Patent: September 30, 1980
    Assignee: Abbott Laboratories
    Inventors: William J. Palin, Timothy C. Miller
  • Patent number: 4208583
    Abstract: Apparatus for the detection and analysis of particulate material carried in a fluid stream comprising a sampling device through which the fluid stream may be passed, said sampling device incorporating means for arresting and carrying an accumulation of particles restrained from flow in the fluid stream, means for directing ultra-violet radiation onto the sampling device at a location where the accumulation of particles results, and means whereby optical radiation analysis may be performed of the radiation emitted by the accumulation of particles consequent upon their excitation by the ultra-violet radiation means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1978
    Date of Patent: June 17, 1980
    Assignee: Reyrolle Parsons Limited
    Inventor: Dennis M. Ryder
  • Patent number: 4197104
    Abstract: Ferrite particles having a plurality of distinct Curie temperatures are encapsulated within a glass matrix to provide tagging material especially useful in identifying explosive materials even after detonation. In one embodiment, phosphor is dispersed within the glass matrix or an intrinsically fluorescent glass is employed to facilitate visual identification and collection of tag particles following detonation. The tags are also usable in tagging other articles, especially where harsh environmental conditions are likely to be encountered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 8, 1980
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Casimir W. Krystyniak, Marcus P. Borom
  • Patent number: 4191885
    Abstract: Method for rapid and accurate weight determination of molten metal in a slag-containing bath preferably without any necessity for direct gross weighings in a hostile steel works environment or otherwise, by the addition to the molten bath of a known weight amount of a "trace" element (preferably of a type which is completely diluted in the molten metal, to the practical exclusion of the slag); awaiting the even dispersal of the trace element in the molten metal (aiding the speed of dispersal by promoting a boiling action, if necessary); taking a sample of the molten metal; analyzing the sample to determine the weight percent of trace element in the molten metal (for example by spectrometric analysis); and determining the weight of the metal from the known values of weight of the trace element added and its weight percent in the molten metal after addition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1978
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1980
    Assignee: Hylsa, S.A.
    Inventors: Federico A. Rodriguez, Jorge Becerra Novoa, Julian Sanchez Ramirez
  • Patent number: 4186304
    Abstract: A liquid dye penetrant composition for use in nondestructive testing of objects to locate cracks and other defects or flaws therein, said composition comprising (1) a nonionic surfactant, such as an ocyalkylated aliphatic alcohol, (2) a small amount of a dye soluble in the surfactant and (3) a substantial and preferably a major proportion, of a high boiling narrow-cut isoparaffinic solvent consisting essentially of a mixture of isoparaffins having a chain length of about 10 to about 17 carbon atoms, and an average chain length of about 13 to about 14 carbon atoms, as extender. Such composition is applied to the surface of an object containing cracks and other defects, water is applied to the surface of the object to remove excess liquid dye penetrant composition from the surface without removing such penetrant from such cracks and other defects, and with or without a developer, the surface of the object is viewed under suitable lighting conditions, e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 1978
    Date of Patent: January 29, 1980
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4174384
    Abstract: Immunoassays are provided employing antibodies and a fluorescer-quencher (F-Q) chromophoric pair, wherein one or both of the chromophoric pair are bonded to antibodies. Depending on the particular ligand of interest, various reagent combinations can be employed, where the amount of quenching is directly related to the amount of ligand present in the assay medium.In carrying out the assay, the unknown and antibody specific for the ligand of interest to which is bound one of the F-Q pair, are combined in an aqueous buffered medium. Depending on the protocol, different assay reagents are employed in the aqueous buffered medium: (1) ligand analog bonded to the other of the F-Q pair; (2) antibodies specific for the ligand to which is bound the other of the F-Q pair or; finally, (3) a combination of a plurality of ligands bonded together through linking groups to a hub molecule, usually a polymer, in combination with antibody bound to the other of the F-Q pair.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 13, 1979
    Assignee: Syva Company
    Inventors: Edwin F. Ullman, Moshe Schwarzberg
  • Patent number: 4172224
    Abstract: A process for the nondestructive testing of ceramic objects to detect the presence of defects and micro-cracks in the surface in which a solution of silver nitrate is applied to the surface of the object which penetrates into the surface defects, drying the object so that the silver nitrate remains in the defects, and preparing an X-ray radiograph whereby any defects and micro-cracks will appear in the radiograph.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 23, 1979
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventors: Norman Lapinski, Allen Sather
  • Patent number: 4160016
    Abstract: A novel sensitive method for determining qualitatively and quantitatively the presence of a wide variety of physiologically active organic compounds (ligand) and their receptors is provided. The method employs a reagent whch involves bonding a compound having structural similarity to the compound to be determined (ligand analog) to a fluorescing compound. The unknown compound is referred to as a ligand, the conjugate of the structurally similar compound and fluorescer is referred to as ligand analog-fluorescer, and compounds which recognize a specific structure and bind to such structure are referred to as receptors and are normally antibodies.The fluorescer which is chosen will have either a change in quantum yield or a change in its emission and/or absorption spectra or all of them, when the ligand analog-fluorescer is bound to receptor, as compared to being unbound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1977
    Date of Patent: July 3, 1979
    Assignee: Syva Company
    Inventor: Edwin F. Ullman
  • Patent number: 4152592
    Abstract: A water washable substantially biodegradable dye penetrant composition having excellent sensitivity and high stability, for use in non-destructive testing of objects to locate voids and defects therein, said composition consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, and a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of certain ethoxylated linear alcohols, particularly the biodegradable nonionic surfactants comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 10 to 17 carbon atoms. In the method of application of the dye penetrant compositions, such composition is applied to the surface of an object containing cracks and flaws, water is applied to the surface of the object to remove excess liquid dye penetrant composition from the surface without removing such penetrant from the cracks and defects, and with or without a developer, the surface of the object is viewed under suitable lighting conditions, e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1979
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4146790
    Abstract: The present invention provides an apparatus in which one or more light concentrators comprising thin layers of transparent solid or liquid materials with embedded fluorescent centers are combined with absorbers in order to convert solar light into heat energy at high temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1979
    Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.
    Inventors: Adolf Goetzberger, Waldemar Greubel
  • Patent number: 4146604
    Abstract: A novel composition of matter, process and apparatus is provided for distinguishing and absolutely counting leukocytes, erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and other cells as well as differently counting and classifying the different types of leukocytes. The composition of matter comprises a plurality of compatible dyes for uniquely distinguishing leukocytes, erythrocytes, reticulocytes, and other cells randomly distributed in a medium. At least one of the dyes imparts a characteristic fluorescence to all leukocytes stained therewith. The nature of the dye composition is such that when the stained leukocytes are irradiated with radiation having the characteristic absorption wavelengths of each dye, the relative intensities of the light emitted and/or transmitted by each leukocyte type defines that particular leukocyte type.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 1974
    Date of Patent: March 27, 1979
    Assignee: Block Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Marcos Y. Kleinerman
  • Patent number: 4144452
    Abstract: A fluorometric system to determine the kind and amount of substances derived from a biological fluid (e.g., serum or urine) or tissue in which the substances to be detected (e.g., antigen, antibody, hormone or enzyme) are coated onto a substrate surface in fluorescent form. Multiple coating areas of different samples may be employed. The fluorometric system includes a source of filtered light to excite fluorescence, an optical system for conducting the excitation light to such coating, and optical systems for receiving emitted fluorescence and for detecting the same. The system efficiency and optical characteristics disclosed avoid photo-bleaching; limit fading; and are especially adapted to provide accurate surface reading fluorometry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1977
    Date of Patent: March 13, 1979
    Assignee: International Diagnostic Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard A. Harte
  • Patent number: 4125144
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a refractory materials used in processing molten metals comprising combining at least one of the refractory materials selected from the group consisting of SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, MgO, ZrO.sub.2 with an activatable element for labeling which has an activation cross section of over 1 barnand apparatus made from a plurality of differently labeled refractory components.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1978
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Junichi Kawamoto, Yasuo Ito, Akio Ito, Tamotsu Nakamua, Motoyuki Nakamura, Yoshiaki Yamaoto, Koji Yonekura
  • Patent number: 4124484
    Abstract: Dry developer composition in powder form and process for using same in the inspection of metal surfaces for cracks and defects open to the surface by the penetrant process. The powder composition of this invention has special significance in providing easier to see flaw indications when used with the fluorescent penetrant method of inspection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: November 7, 1978
    Inventor: Amos G. Sherwin
  • Patent number: 4087685
    Abstract: A rapid, non-destructive system and method for insitu detection and identification of luminescent organic particulates or films on non-luminescent devices, such as semiconductor wafers and chips. The major optical components of the system comprises a luminescent vertical illuminator, an image device and a detector. The method is based on the principle that a very large number of organic materials luminesce when excited by ultraviolet radiation. By scanning the luminescent emission spectra of the known organic materials used in manufacture, a characteristic curve of intensity versus wavelength is obtained and matched to curves of known organic materials, thereby permitting detection and identification of the particulates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 2, 1978
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Howard Arthur Froot
  • Patent number: 4084091
    Abstract: The approximate concentration of a carburetor additive in a motor fuel is determined by a paper chromatographic method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1978
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventor: Stephen P. Thomas
  • Patent number: 4077773
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for detection of monoalkylhalides is disclosed. This apparatus contemplates detection of extremely small traces of monoalkylhalides through the nucleophilic substitution of a heavier halogen (preferably iodine) by introducing a sample gas having a monoalkylhalide therein in trace concentrations to be detected and passing it through a closed container providing a surplus of heavier halide ions. An exemplary source of a heavier halide is a container having an alkali iodide therein heated to a temperature sufficiently elevated to initiate iodine disassociation, such as 250.degree. C. An exchange of an iodine for a covalently bound fluorine or chlorine atom is achieved. The monoalkylhalide then has a larger molecular diameter and more complex electronic structure than that originally provided. It also has an enhanced affinity for slow or low energy electrons. This enhances the operation of detection equipment exemplified by an electron capture detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1976
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1978
    Inventor: Stanley D. Stearns
  • Patent number: 4071770
    Abstract: Perinatal lung maturity is evaluated by determining the fluorescence polarization of a sample of pulmonary effluent containing pulmonary surfactant labeled with a fluorescent dye. The sample is excited with polarized radiation for causing the dye to fluoresce. I.sub.81 and I.sub.195, the intensities of fluorescence polarized in directions parallel to, and perpendicular to, the direction of polarization of the excitation radiation, are measured. From these measurements, the fluorescence polarization P, where P = (I.sub..parallel. - I.sub..perp.)/(I.sub..parallel. + I.sub.195), is determined. The value of P, which is functionally related to the microviscosity of the constituents of the surfactant, has been found to decrease with perinatal lung maturity. When the sample is amniotic fluid containing fetal pulmonary effluent, the evaluation of lung maturity can be carried out antepartum. Postpartum evaluation can be carried out by sampling neonatal tracheal or pharyngeal aspirates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 31, 1978
    Assignee: Elscint, Ltd.
    Inventors: Meir Shinitzky, Abraham Bruck
  • Patent number: 4069419
    Abstract: Dry developer composition in powder form for use in penetrant inspection of surface flaws in bodies, consisting essentially of silica, preferably fumed silica, e.g. the material marketed as Cab-O-Sil M-5, and talc, particularly the powder marketed as Desertalc Mikro 507, in certain relative proportions. The resulting powder developer is particularly effective when employed in a dye penetrant inspection process comprising applying to a part surface a fluorescent penetrant, and especially a dye penetrant containing as carrier for the dye a biodegradable surfactant comprised of certain aliphatic oxyalkylated alcohols, followed by application of such dry developer to the part surface to provide bright fluorescent indications of surface flaws when inspected under fluorescent illumination.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1975
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1978
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4056724
    Abstract: A fluorometric system to determine the kind and amount of substances derived from a biological fluid (e.g., serum or urine) or tissue in which the substances to be detected (e.g., antigen, antibody, hormone or enzyme) are coated onto a substrate surface in fluorescent form. Multiple coating areas of different samples may be employed. The fluorometric system includes a source of filtered light to excite fluorescence, optical systems for conducting the excitation light to such coating, and optical systems for receiving emitted fluorescence and for detecting the same. The system efficiency and optical characteristics disclosed avoid photo-bleaching; limit fading; and are especially adapted to provide accurate surface reading fluorometry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 1, 1977
    Assignee: International Diagnostic Technology
    Inventor: Richard A. Harte
  • Patent number: 4054535
    Abstract: Variable sensitivity biodegradable water washable dye penetrant compositions for use in non-destructive dye penetrant inspection of parts, such compositions basically consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, and a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of a surfactant comprised of certain straight chain, primary, aliphatic oxyalkylated alcohols, particularly biodegradable surfactants comprised of the nonionic condensation products of linear primary aliphatic alcohols having from 10 to 18 carbon atoms, with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, preferably in the form of a mixture thereof, such as the material marketed as Plurafac A-24, or in the form of certain ethoxylated secondary alcohols, particularly the biodegradable nonionic surfactants comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 11 to 15 carbon atoms, such as Tergitol 15-S-5 or Tergitol 15-S-9, the variations in sensitivity being provided by the addition to the above
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1975
    Date of Patent: October 18, 1977
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4049568
    Abstract: Biodegradable water washable dye penetrant composition in the form of a gel for use in non-destructive dye penetrant inspection of parts, and which can be applied to part surfaces at varying angles without dripping, and being resistant to decomposition and liquefaction when applied to heated surfaces, e.g. up to about 300.degree.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1975
    Date of Patent: September 20, 1977
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4044253
    Abstract: Surface defects in composite and adhesively bonded structures that penetrate to a metal substrate are detected by applying a solution of 8-hydroxyquinoline to a surface of such a structure and viewing the surface under ultraviolet light. The presence of a flaw or crack leading from the surface to the metal substrate is indicated by a fluorescent glow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1977
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventor: Robert L. Crane
  • Patent number: 4041310
    Abstract: Water washable substantially biodegradable dye penetrant composition for use in non-destructive dye penetrant inspection of parts for locating cracks and flaws therein, consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, a carrier or solvent for said dye in the form of certain ethoxylated linear alcohols, particularly the biodegradable nonionic surfactants comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 11 to 15 carbon atoms, and an average of from 3 to 12 moles of ethylene oxide, and glycol monobutyl ether for thinning the dye penetrant solution substantially without affecting the sensitivity of the penetrant or its biodegradability, and facilitating application of the liquid dye penetrant composition by spraying to the surface of an object or part to be inspected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 7, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 9, 1977
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4035641
    Abstract: Liquid oxygen-compatible water washable substantially biodegradable dye penetrant composition having excellent sensitivity and high stability, for use in non-destructive dye penetrant inspection particularly of parts or mechanical components which are later placed in contact with liquid oxygen, and which are compatible with a wide variety of metals including steel alloys, such composition consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of certain oxyalkylated alcohols, preferably ethoxylated linear alcohols,particularly the biodegradable nonionic surfactants comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 11 to 15 carbon atoms, and an average of from 3 to 12 moles of ethylene oxide, and a nonhalogenated solvent which is volatile at room temperature, e.g. a ketone such as methyl ethyl ketone or acetone, or a suitable alcohol such as ethyl alcohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 12, 1977
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4025310
    Abstract: An improved method for the fluorometric measurement of a fluorescent label on a solid support surface in which the surface is read while coated with a continuous aqueous layer. For reading in a horizontal position, the surface is coated by immersion into a contained aqueous solution, and removed and read prior to evaporation to discontinuity. For reading in a vertical position, a layer of humectant is deposited on the surface to retain the water content.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1976
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1977
    Assignee: International Diagnostic Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Gunner Bolz, Fred H. Deindoerfer, Charles R. Gifford, Naomi Kameda
  • Patent number: 4002905
    Abstract: A water washable substantially biodegradable dye penetrant composition having excellent sensitivity and high stability, for use in non-destructive testing of objects to locate voids and defects therein, said composition consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, and a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of a mixture of certain ethoxylated linear alcohols, particularly a combination of biodegradable nonionic surfactants each comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 11 to 15 carbon atoms, one of which contains an average of 5 moles of ethylene oxide, and another of which contains an average of 9 moles of ethylene oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 11, 1977
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 4000422
    Abstract: A method for detection of surface discontinuities by luminescence which consists in the successive treatment of the surfaces of materials subject to testing and inspection with the following compositions of a penetrant, cleaning fluid and a developer, whereupon they are inspected under an ultraviolet light at wavelength of 340-420 nm. Liquid constituents are in volume percent.______________________________________ a) penetrant ditolylmethane 45-55 lower aliphatic alcohol 35-45 surface-active substance of non-ionogenic type 8-12 1,8-naphthoylene-1',2'-benzimidazole 7-9 gr/l or a composition: high-molecular aromatic hydrocarbons with 15-20 boiling point of about 700.degree. C paraffin hydrocarbons with boiling point of 120-240.degree.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1974
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1976
    Inventors: Nadezhda Vasilievna Kuzmina, Ljudmila Ivanovna Vanina, Nadezhda Vasilievna Vdovenko, Leonid Davidovich Melikadze, Leonid Yakovlevich Malkes, Nikolai Grigorievich Vasiliev, Alexandr Sergeevich Borovikov
  • Patent number: 3995157
    Abstract: Flaws in the surface of a physical object, such as cracks, breaks, and other physical discontinuities in metal surfaces are detected by inspection under ultraviolet irradiation after the surface has been coated with a novel flaw detection medium comprising an organic liquid solution of particular organic phosphor materials with an organic binder. The soluble organic phosphor materials found useful in this manner exhibit luminescence when excited by ultraviolet irradiation and are selected from the general class of heterocyclic aromatic nitrogen compounds. In the present inspection method, a coating of the flaw detection medium is applied to the surface being inspected and the dried coating then removed except at the flaw sites prior to inspection. The present liquid flaw detection medium can also be prepackaged for convenient dispensing from a pressurized container through use of conventional propellants such as fluorinated hydrocarbons or their equivalent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1976
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Fred F. Holub, Gerald J. Kennedy, Warren F. Weinstein
  • Patent number: 3992631
    Abstract: A fluorometric system to determine the kind and amount of substances derived from a biological fluid (e.g., serum or urine) or tissue. The substances to be detected (e.g., antigen, antibody, hormone or enzyme) is coated onto a substrate in fluorescent form. Multiple coating areas of different samples may be employed. The fluorometric system includes a source of light to excite fluorescence, a fiber optic cable to conduct the excitation light to such coating, and a second fiber optic cable to conduct emitted fluorescence to a detector device. The system minimizes any gap distance in the path from the sample to the detector which permits the loss of excessive fluorescence. A branched fiber optical cable with the main trunk terminating adjacent the sample with one branch for transmitting light to the sample and the other for transmitting fluorescence light to the detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1976
    Assignee: International Diagnostic Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard A. Harte
  • Patent number: 3989949
    Abstract: Liquid oxygen-compatible water washable substantially biodegradable dye penetrant composition having excellent sensitivity and high stability, for use in non-destructive dye penetrant inspection particularly of parts or mechanical components which are later placed in contact with liquid oxygen, such composition consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of certain ethoxylated linear alcohols, particularly the biodegradable nonionic surfactants comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 11 to 15 carbon atoms, and an average of from 3 to 12 moles of ethylene oxide, and a nonflammable liquid halocarbon which is volatile at room temperature, e.g. 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1975
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1976
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 3981185
    Abstract: Postemulsifiable dye penetrant inspection system and method employing substantially biodegradable dye penetrant compositions and emulsifiers, for use in non-destructive testing of objects to locate voids and defects therein, the dye penetrant composition consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, and a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of certain straight chain, primary, aliphatic oxyalkylated alcohols, particularly biodegradable surfactants comprised of the nonionic condensation products of linear primary aliphatic alcohols having from 10 to 18 carbon atoms, with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, preferably in the form of a mixture thereof, or in the form of certain ethoxylated secondary alcohols, particularly the biodegradable nonionic surfactants comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 11 to 15 carbon atoms, such surfactants and the resultant dye penetrants having limited water solubility and normally requiring
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1974
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1976
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 3980884
    Abstract: A representative reading for the concentration of a suspension of luminous and magnetizable particles is provided in every case, even when luminous but non-magnetizable particles are also present. That is, the presence of non-magnetizable luminous particles in the suspension have no effect on the determination. A rotating wheel-like member has its lowermost portions immersed in a supply of the magnetic particle suspension in a fluid carrier. The circumferential periphery includes a permanent magnet having a gap extending continuously around the periphery and covered over by a plastic rim. As the wheel-like member rotates, the magnetic particle suspension forms a bead along the magnet gap. Ultra violet radiation directed onto the bead causes the magnetic particles to fluoresce and the degree of fluorescence is measured by photosensitive means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1975
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1976
    Assignee: Institut Dr. Friedrich Forster, Prufgeratebau
    Inventor: Hans Link
  • Patent number: 3975634
    Abstract: A water washable substantially biodegradable dye penetrant composition having good sensitivity and high stability, for use in non-destructive testing of objects to locate voids and defects therein, said composition consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, and a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of certain straight chain, primary, aliphatic oxyalkylated alcohols, particularly the biodegradable surfactants comprised of the nonionic condensation products of linear primary aliphatic alcohols having from 10 to 18 carbon atoms, with ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, preferably in the form of a mixture thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1976
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 3971952
    Abstract: Abnormal behavior of mammalian cells is detected in vitro by measuring the fluidity or an associated phenomenon of the lipid layer of the cell surface membrane. Abnormal behavior of cells, in particular if caused by malignant transformations, is associated with increase of fluidity of the liquid layer of the cell membrane, as compared with normal cells. The fluidity can be determined, e.g., by measuring the degree of fluorescence polarization of the radiation emitted from a suspension of cells labelled in the lipid layer with a fluorescent compound. 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was found to be a suitable fluorescent probe.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 1974
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1976
    Assignee: Yeda Research & Development Co. Ltd.
    Inventors: Michael Inbar, Meir Shinitzky
  • Patent number: 3965350
    Abstract: A dye penetrant composition adapted to enter minute surface defects when applied over a workpiece surface, which consists essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, in a lactam solvent, particularly N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and providing improved clarity and definition when inspected under suitable, e.g. fluorescent, light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 22, 1976
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina
  • Patent number: 3959650
    Abstract: A method is described for determining the presence of an antigen-specific antibody in a vertebrate. Effluvial tissue is exposed to antigens from known sources and is subsequently examined to detect the presence or absence of a conjugate compound formed between a particular antigen and an antibody constituent of the tissue sample. The antigen may be labeled with a fluorescent or radioactive moiety to assist in the detection of conjugate compound formation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1976
    Assignee: Intelcom Rad Tech
    Inventor: Herbert R. Lukens, Jr.
  • Patent number: 3958119
    Abstract: A method is provided for evaluating fluorescent penetrants in which a penetrant to be evaluated is applied to a bevelled edge of a laminate of adhesively bonded metal sheets, the edge having shallow, parallel grooves formed therein between the metal sheets. After removal of excess penetrant from the edge, a developer is applied thereto and the edge is exposed to ultraviolet light. By observing the appearance of the bevelled edge, e.g., the brightness of the parallel lines resulting from penetrant being drawn from the grooves through action of the developer, an indication of the efficacy of the penetrant is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1974
    Date of Patent: May 18, 1976
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventor: Toy T. Shigekawa
  • Patent number: 3956630
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is disclosed for the on-machine measurement of coat weights of coatings applied to paper webs or the like. The invention provides an accuracy of plus or minus 0.1 pound per ream of coating in the coat weight range of from about 0 to 5 pounds per ream. Higher coat weights can be measured by practicing the method of the present invention, however the accuracy of the measurements of higher coat weights is reduced with an upper limit in the range of from about 10 to 20 pounds per ream depending upon the coating formulation being applied. The invention permits separate coat weight measurements of a web coated both sides and is carried out by including a small amount of a fluorescing optical brightener in the coating applied. The level of fluorescence of the optical brightener is continuously measured under a UV light source and the readings obtained are converted to determine the coat weight applied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1976
    Assignee: Westvaco Corporation
    Inventor: Frank W. Mellows
  • Patent number: 3950642
    Abstract: The method of inspecting shot peened surfaces of a workpiece for the extent of coverage comprises coating the surface to be peened of a workpiece with a material containing a fluorescent dye and then shot peening the part to be peened until the amount of fluorescent coating remaining, as indicated by the amount of fluorescent radiation given off when exposed to ultraviolet light, compares with the amount of fluorescent radiation given off from a previously prepared control specimen which has the same material characteristics as the workpiece and was coated with the same fluorescent material and shot peened to a desired coverage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1975
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1976
    Assignee: Metal Improvement Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Paul G. Feld
  • Patent number: 3944828
    Abstract: A method for detecting surface discontinuities in a part which comprises applying a non-water miscible fluorescent penetrant to the part to permit the penetrant to enter and become lodged in surface discontinuities, applying an emulsifying agent to the part to emulsify excess penetrant, washing the part with water to remove the emulsifying agent and emulsified penetrant while leaving penetrant lodged in the discontinuities, and thereafter applying particles of a dry hydrophobic developer over the part so that upon removal of excess developer, the part may be inspected for penetrant exuded out of the discontinuities and into the hydrophobic particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1974
    Date of Patent: March 16, 1976
    Assignee: Magnaflux Corporation
    Inventor: Adolf Mlotfijalkowski
  • Patent number: 3939092
    Abstract: A water washable substantially biodegradable dye penetrant composition having excellent sensitivity and high stability, for use in non-destructive testing of objects to locate voids and defects therein, said composition consisting essentially of an organic dye, preferably a fluorescent dye, and a carrier or solvent for said dye, in the form of a mixture of certain ethoxylated linear alcohols, particularly a combination of biodegradable nonionic surfactants each comprised of ethoxylates of a mixture of secondary alcohols having linear alkyl chains of from 11 to 15 carbon atoms, one of which contains an average of 5 moles of ethylene oxide, and another of which contains an average of 9 moles of ethylene oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1974
    Date of Patent: February 17, 1976
    Assignee: Rockwell International Corporation
    Inventor: Orlando G. Molina