Magnetic-field-controlled Resistors (epo) Patents (Class 257/E43.004)
  • Patent number: 11393494
    Abstract: A reader having a sensor stack and a top shield above the sensor stack. The top shield has an upper surface and a lower surface. The reader also includes at least one side shield below the top shield and adjacent to the sensor stack. The reader further includes a decoupling layer between the upper surface of the top shield and the at least one side shield. The decoupling layer is configured to decouple a first portion of the at least one side shield, proximate to the sensor stack, from at least a portion of the top shield.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2021
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2022
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Victor Sapozhnikov, Taras Grigorievich Pokhil, Mohammed Shariat Ullah Patwari
  • Patent number: 11325645
    Abstract: A vehicle comprises a chassis supported by wheels for moveably carrying the chassis in a driving direction, a steering wheel for turning a steering column around a rotation axis, and a steering angle sensor for measuring a rotation angle of the steering column with an encoder that is stationary to the steering column and with a magnet sensor that is disposed axially displaced from the encoder on the rotation axis. The encoder includes a first magnet with a top side directed to the magnet sensor and a second magnet attached to the first magnet opposite to the top side. The first magnet includes a recess starting from the top side, and each magnet is magnetized orthogonal to the rotation axis. The first magnet and the second magnet are displaced against each other in rotation direction. The recess has a depth lower than an axial thickness of the first magnet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2020
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2022
    Assignee: Bourns, Inc.
    Inventors: Johann Jahrstorfer, Hans Schmotz
  • Patent number: 11264557
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing a magnetic random access memory element having increased retention and low resistance area product (RA). A MgO layer is deposited to contact a magnetic free layer of the memory element. The MgO layer is deposited in a sputter deposition chamber using a DC power and a Mg target to deposit Mg. The deposition of Mg is periodically stopped and oxygen introduced into the deposition chamber. This process is repeated a desired number of times, resulting in a multi-layer structure. The resulting MgO layer provides excellent interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to the magnetic free layer while also having a low RA.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2022
    Assignee: Integrated Silicon Solution, (Cayman) Inc.
    Inventors: Bartlomiej Adam Kardasz, Jorge Vasquez, Mustafa Pinarbasi, Georg Wolf
  • Patent number: 11217628
    Abstract: A magnetic memory according to an embodiment includes: a magnetic member having a cylindrical form, the magnetic member including a first end portion and a second end portion and extending in a first direction from the first end portion to the second end portion, the first end portion having an end face, which includes a face inclined with respect to a plane perpendicular to the first direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2022
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Yasuaki Ootera, Tsutomu Nakanishi, Megumi Yakabe, Nobuyuki Umetsu, Agung Setiadi, Tsuyoshi Kondo
  • Patent number: 11205535
    Abstract: A structure includes an electronically controllable ferromagnetic oxide structure that includes at least three layers. The first layer comprises STO. The second layer has a thickness of at least about 3 unit cells, said thickness being in a direction substantially perpendicular to the interface between the first and second layers. The third layer is in contact with either the first layer or the second layer or both, and is capable of altering the charge carrier density at the interface between the first layer and the second layer. The interface between the first and second layers is capable of exhibiting electronically controlled ferromagnetism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 21, 2021
    Assignee: University of Pittsburgh—Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education
    Inventors: Jeremy Levy, Feng Bi, Patrick R. Irvin
  • Patent number: 11022660
    Abstract: The size and cost of a magnetic sensor suitable for closed loop control is reduced. A magnetic sensor includes a magnetoresistive effect element that is electrically connected between terminals and extends in the x-direction and a magnetic member that is electrically connected between the terminals and extends in the x-direction along the magnetoresistive effect element. The magnetoresistive effect element is disposed offset with respect to the center position of the magnetic member in the y-direction. Magnetic flux to be detected is collected by a magnetic member and current is made to flow in the magnetic member in accordance with the resistance value of the magnetoresistive effect element, achieving closed loop control. The magnetic member functions both as a magnetism collection function and as a cancel coil, which reduces the number of elements required, and which also achieves a reduction in size and cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 1, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Kei Tanabe
  • Patent number: 11009565
    Abstract: A magnetic field sensor includes a comparator detector for which a measured threshold value is stored prior to power down and recalled upon power up for use by the comparator detector. A corresponding method is associated with the magnetic field sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 18, 2021
    Assignee: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
    Inventors: Devon Fernandez, Haeyoung Choi
  • Patent number: 11004465
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide a Magneto-Resistance (MR) element showing a high Magneto-Resistance (MR) ratio and having a suitable Resistance-Area (RA) for device applications. The MR element of the present invention has a laminated structure including a first ferromagnetic layer 16, a non-magnetic layer 18, and a second ferromagnetic layer 20 on a substrate 10, wherein the first ferromagnetic layer 16 includes a Heusler alloy, the second ferromagnetic layer 20 includes a Heusler alloy, the non-magnetic layer 18 includes a I-III-VI2 chalcopyrite-type compound semiconductor, and the non-magnetic layer 18 has a thickness of 0.5 to 3 nm, and wherein the MR element shows a Magneto-Resistance (MR) change of 40% or more, and has a resistance-area (RA) of 0.1 [??m2] or more and 3 [??m2] or less.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2021
    Assignee: NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE
    Inventors: Shinya Kasai, Yukiko Takahashi, Pohan Cheng, Ikhtiar, Seiji Mitani, Tadakatsu Ohkubo, Kazuhiro Hono
  • Patent number: 10991756
    Abstract: Various embodiments of the present application are directed towards a bipolar selector having independently tunable threshold voltages, as well as a memory cell comprising the bipolar selector and a memory array comprising the memory cell. In some embodiments, the bipolar selector comprises a first unipolar selector and a second unipolar selector. The first and second unipolar selectors are electrically coupled in parallel with opposite orientations and may, for example, be diodes or some other suitable unipolar selectors. By placing the first and second unipolar selectors in parallel with opposite orientations, the first unipolar selector independently defines a first threshold voltage of the bipolar selector and the second unipolar selector independently defines a second threshold voltage of the bipolar selector. As a result, the first and second threshold voltages can be independently tuned by adjusting parameters of the first and second unipolar selectors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2019
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2021
    Assignee: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Sheng-Chih Lai, Chung-Te Lin, Min Cao, Randy Osborne
  • Patent number: 10982974
    Abstract: A magnet has a circular cylinder or circular tube shape and contains magnetic crystal grains, wherein an orientation of magnetization of the magnet is in a direction perpendicular to an axis of the circular cylinder or the circular tube, and directions of axes of easy magnetization of the magnetic crystal grains are isotropic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 20, 2021
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Naoki Mori, Hiroshi Ito, Yoshiaki Okada
  • Patent number: 10930702
    Abstract: A magnetic memory device may include magnetic tunnel junction patterns on a substrate, a conductive line extending between the substrate and the magnetic tunnel junction patterns and in contact with bottom surfaces of the magnetic tunnel junction patterns, and a bottom pattern located between the conductive line and the substrate and in contact with a bottom surface of the conductive line. The material of the conductive line may have a first lattice constant, and the material of the bottom pattern may have a second lattice constant that is less than the first lattice constant of the conductive line. Alternatively or additionally, the bottom pattern includes a metal nitride, and a nitrogen content of the bottom pattern is higher than a metal element content of the metal element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2019
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2021
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Dongkyu Lee
  • Patent number: 10923648
    Abstract: Various embodiments may relate to a memory cell. The memory cell may include a first cell electrode, a first insulator layer and a first magnetic free layer between the first cell electrode and the first insulator layer. The memory cell may also include a second cell electrode, a second insulator layer, and a second magnetic free layer between the second cell electrode and the second insulator layer. A magnetic pinned layer may be between the first insulator layer and the second insulator layer. A direction of magnetization of the first magnetic free layer may be changeable in response to a current flowing between a first end and a second end of the first cell electrode. A direction of magnetization of the second magnetic free layer may be changeable in response to a current flowing between a first end and a second end of the second cell electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2021
    Assignee: Agency for Science, Technology and Research
    Inventors: Karim Ali Abdeltawwab Ahmed, Sunny Yan Hwee Lua, Fei Li
  • Patent number: 10892299
    Abstract: A magnetic field controlled transistor circuit includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a channel including a magneto-resistive material. The channel is arranged between the first and second electrodes and electrically coupled to the first and second electrodes. The transistor circuit further includes a third electrode, a fourth electrode, and a control layer including an electrically conductive material. The control layer is arranged between the third and fourth electrodes and electrically coupled to the third and fourth electrodes. In addition, an insulating layer including an insulating material is provided. The insulating layer is arranged between the channel and the control layer and configured to electrically insulate the channel from the control layer. A related method for operating a transistor circuit and a corresponding design structure are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2018
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2021
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Cezar Bogdan Zota, Bernd W. Gotsmann
  • Patent number: 10877109
    Abstract: A magnetic field detection device includes a first soft magnetic body, a second soft magnetic body, and a magnetism detection element. The first soft magnetic body extends to have a first length in a first direction, and has a first width, smaller than the first length, in a second direction. The second direction is substantially orthogonal to the first direction. The second soft magnetic body is disposed to be spaced apart from and face the first soft magnetic body in the first direction, extends to have a second length in the first direction, and has a second width, smaller than the second length, in the second direction. The magnetism detection element is disposed, in the first direction, between the first and second soft magnetic bodies, and extends to have a third length in the first direction and a third width, larger than the third length, in the second direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2020
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Masaki Nagata, Kazuya Watanabe, Keisuke Uchida, Kohei Honma, Hiraku Hirabayashi
  • Patent number: 10788544
    Abstract: A magnetic sensor includes a sensor chip 30 including an element-forming surface 31 provided with a magnetism detection elements MR1-MR4, a magnetic member 40 including a first side surface 41 facing the element-forming surface 31, and a circuit board 20 including a mounting surface 21 on which the sensor chip 30 and the magnetic member 40 are mounted. The sensor chip 30 and the magnetic member 40 are mounted on the circuit board such that the element-forming surface 31 and the first side surface 41 are substantially orthogonal to the mounting surface 21 of the circuit board 20. Because the sensor chip 30 and the magnetic member 40 are mounted on the circuit board 20 in a horizontal state, the magnetic member 40 can be supported in a stable manner even when the length of the magnetic member 40 is large.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Takato Fukui
  • Patent number: 10777345
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance element (e.g. a spin valve) for detecting a changing magnetic field includes a pinning layer, pinned layer adjacent to the pinning layer, a spacer layer adjacent to the pinned layer, and a free layer adjacent to the spacer layer and arranged so that the spacer layer is between the pinned layer and the free layer. The pinned layer has a bias with a bias direction configured to reduce an effect of a static field on the detection of the changing magnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2018
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2020
    Assignee: Allegro MicroSystems, LLC
    Inventors: Rémy Lassalle-Balier, Damien Dehu
  • Patent number: 10761150
    Abstract: Provided is a magnetic field detection device that includes a first and second soft magnetic bodies, and a magnetic detector. The first and second soft magnetic bodies extend along a first plane and are disposed in confronted relation in a third direction. The first plane includes both a first direction and a second direction orthogonal to the first direction. The third direction is orthogonal to both the first and second directions. The magnetic detector is provided between the first and second soft magnetic bodies in the third direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Masaki Nagata, Kazuya Watanabe, Keisuke Uchida, Kohei Honma, Hiraku Hirabayashi
  • Patent number: 10718636
    Abstract: A magnetic position sensor having a substrate with an elongated, substantially continuous magneto-resistive section formed on the substrate. At least three electrodes are in contact with, and space at intervals along, the magneto-resistive section, thereby dividing the magneto-resistive section into at least first and second magneto-resistive regions. A magnet is configured to move in an direction which increases or decreases the magnetic field over the magneto-resistive layer, while a detection circuit configured to detect a change in voltage between the electrodes as the magnet moves from predominantly over the first magneto-resistive region to predominantly over the second magneto-resistive region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: Louisiana Tech Research Corporation
    Inventor: Bryan Cox
  • Patent number: 10705161
    Abstract: A magnetic field detection device includes a first soft magnetic body, a second soft magnetic body, and a magnetism detection element. The first soft magnetic body extends to have a first length in a first direction, and has a first width, smaller than the first length, in a second direction. The second direction is substantially orthogonal to the first direction. The second soft magnetic body is disposed to be spaced apart from and face the first soft magnetic body in the first direction, extends to have a second length in the first direction, and has a second width, smaller than the second length, in the second direction. The magnetism detection element is disposed, in the first direction, between the first and second soft magnetic bodies, and extends to have a third length in the first direction and a third width, larger than the third length, in the second direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Masaki Nagata, Kazuya Watanabe, Keisuke Uchida, Kohei Honma, Hiraku Hirabayashi
  • Patent number: 10651368
    Abstract: A multilayer structure comprising FM/NM/FM layers enhances the amplitude of the unidirectional spin Hall magnetoresistance (USMR) thanks to an additional FM/NM layer interface. The USMR can be used to detect the in-plane magnetization direction of each FM layer perpendicular to the current injection. Detection relies on second harmonic resistance measurements driven by the USMR with possible contribution of Joule heating-induced magnetothermal effects (ANE and SSE). The four different magnetization states (, , , ), of the FM/NM/FM layers give rise to four unique resistance levels, which can be read out by a simple two-terminal electric measurement. As a result, this FM/NM/FM multilayer structure can be used in a lateral, two-terminal device to store multiple magnetic bits. Moreover, the magnetic states can be manipulated by spin-orbit torques, opening the possibility for all-electrical operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2020
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Can Onur Avci, Geoffrey S. D. Beach
  • Patent number: 10643788
    Abstract: A permanent magnet including, at least once per group of ten consecutive ferromagnetic layers, a growth layer directly interposed between a top antiferromagnetic layer of a previous pattern and a bottom antiferromagnetic layer of a following pattern. This growth layer is entirely realized in a nonmagnetic material chosen from the group made up of the following metals: Ta, Cu, Ru, V, Mo, Hf, Mg, NiCr and NiFeCr, or it is realized by a stack of several sublayers of nonmagnetic material disposed immediately on one another, at least one of these sublayers being entirely realized in a material chosen from the group. The thickness of the growth layer is greater than 0.5 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2020
    Assignee: Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives
    Inventors: Bertrand Delaet, Sophie Giroud, Rachid Hida
  • Patent number: 10622553
    Abstract: Methods for forming magnetic tunnel junctions and structures thereof include cryogenic etching the layers defining the magnetic tunnel junction without lateral diffusion of reactive species.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2020
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Anthony J. Annunziata, Chandrasekharan Kothandaraman, Nathan P. Marchack, Hiroyuki Miyazoe
  • Patent number: 10593459
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect device includes: a first magnetoresistance effect element including a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a first spacer layer, a metal layer, a first electrode, an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference potential terminal, wherein the first ferromagnetic layer, the first spacer layer, the second ferromagnetic layer, and the first electrode are disposed in this order, the second ferromagnetic layer is in electrical contact with the first electrode, which is connected to the output terminal configured to output a high-frequency signal, the metal layer is connected to the input and reference potential terminals so that a high-frequency signal flowing from the input terminal to the metal layer flows to the reference potential terminal, which is in electrical contact with the first ferromagnetic layer, and the first magnetoresistance effect element has an application terminal configured to apply a DC current or a DC voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Tsuyoshi Suzuki
  • Patent number: 10585148
    Abstract: An embodiment relates to a magnetic sensor device (500) comprising a magneto-resistive structure (501). The magneto-resistive structure (501) comprises a magnetic free layer (502) configured to spontaneously generate a closed flux magnetization pattern in the free layer (502). The magneto-resistive structure (500) also comprises a magnetic reference layer (506) having a non-closed flux reference magnetization pattern. The magnetic sensor device (500) further comprises a current generator (580) configured to generate an electric current in one or more layers of the magneto-resistive structure (501). The electric current has a non-zero directional component perpendicular to the reference magnetization pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2016
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2020
    Assignee: Infineon Technologies AG
    Inventors: Anton Bachleitner Hofmann, Hubert Brueckl, Klemens Pruegl, Wolfgang Raberg, Armin Satz, Dieter Suess, Tobias Wurft
  • Patent number: 10557896
    Abstract: The magnetic sensor can prevent an increase of a positional detection error of a subject/object even in the case of applying an external magnetic field with a magnetic field intensity exceeding a predetermined range. A magnetic sensor is equipped with a magnetoresistive effect element (MR element) 11 that can detect an external magnetic field and a soft magnetic body shield 12. The soft magnetic body shield(s) 12 are/is positioned above and/or below the MR element 11 in a side view, and the size of the MR element 11 is physically included within a perimeter of the soft magnetic body shield 12.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 11, 2020
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Keisuke Uchida, Hiraku Hirabayashi
  • Patent number: 10529917
    Abstract: A magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) with a free layer that is less temperature sensitive and is reflow compatible at 260° C. The magnetic free layer may include various configurations, such as a single as-deposited crystalline magnetic layer or a composite free layer with more than one magnetic layers or a combination of composite and single magnetic layers. The layers of the composite magnetic free layer may include as-deposited crystalline magnetic free layers or a combination of as-deposited crystalline and as-deposited amorphous magnetic layers, with or without a spacer layer. An interface layer may be provided at an interface between the free layer and adjacent layer to apply tensile stress on the free layer in the direction perpendicular to the in-plane direction to enhance perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of the free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2020
    Assignee: GLOBALFOUNDRIES SINGAPORE PTE. LTD.
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Seungmo Noh, Kangho Lee, Vinayak Bharat Naik
  • Patent number: 10431371
    Abstract: A method of forming an inductor assembly includes depositing a magnetic core on a planar substrate lying in a core plane, forming an inductor coil that generates a magnetic field that passes through the magnetic core in a closed loop parallel to the core plane, and annealing the magnetic core while applying an external magnetic field that passes through the magnetic core in a radial direction to permanently fix the easy axis of magnetization parallel to the radial direction. As a result, the hard axis of magnetization of the magnetic core is permanently oriented in a generally circular closed path parallel to the closed loop of the inductor's magnetic field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2019
    Assignee: Ferric Inc.
    Inventors: Noah Sturcken, Ryan Davies, Hao Wu
  • Patent number: 10415998
    Abstract: A method for operating a rotation sensor comprising at least four magnetoresistive sensor elements is described. Each sensor element comprises a packet of a ferromagnetic reference layer and a sensitive ferromagnetic layer and a non-magnetic layer separating the reference layer from the sensitive layer. The layers are designed such that the orientation of the magnetization in the respective layer is possible in the longitudinal direction of the layer. The at least one sensor element is formed in a plane in a spiral form with at least one complete winding and the windings are implemented concentrically. The sensor element is bent into a winding in different segments. Adjacent segments enclose an angle between them and each complete winding comprises a predetermined number of segments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 17, 2019
    Assignee: SCHAEFFLER TECHNOLOGIES AG & CO. KG
    Inventors: Markus Dietrich, Oliver Rink
  • Patent number: 10381997
    Abstract: A high-frequency filter includes at least one magnetoresistive effect element; a first port through which a high-frequency signal is input; a second port through which a high-frequency signal is output; and a signal line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2019
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Tetsuya Shibata, Junichiro Urabe, Atsushi Shimura, Takekazu Yamane
  • Patent number: 10332550
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one embodiment includes an array of magnetic transducers each having: a current-perpendicular-to-plane sensor, and a stabilizing layered structure adjacent the sensor. The stabilizing layered structure includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and an antiparallel coupling layer between the ferromagnetic layers. Each transducer also includes an electrical lead layer positioned between the sensor and the stabilizing layered structure. The electrical lead layer is in electrical communication with the sensor. Each transducer also includes a spacer layer between the respective electrical lead layer and the stabilizing layered structure. A conductivity of the electrical lead layer is higher than a conductivity of the spacer layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Robert E. Fontana, Jr., Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 10330747
    Abstract: A magnetic field detection device includes a first soft magnetic body, a second soft magnetic body, and a magnetism detection element. The first soft magnetic body extends to have a first length in a first direction, and has a first width, smaller than the first length, in a second direction. The second direction is substantially orthogonal to the first direction. The second soft magnetic body is disposed to be spaced apart from and face the first soft magnetic body in the first direction, extends to have a second length in the first direction, and has a second width, smaller than the second length, in the second direction. The magnetism detection element is disposed, in the first direction, between the first and second soft magnetic bodies, and extends to have a third length in the first direction and a third width, larger than the third length, in the second direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2019
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Masaki Nagata, Kazuya Watanabe, Keisuke Uchida, Kohei Honma, Hiraku Hirabayashi
  • Patent number: 10311902
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present invention provide methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting damage to tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors. In one embodiment, resistances of a TMR sensor are measured upon application of one or both of negative polarity bias current and positive polarity bias current at a plurality of current magnitudes. Resistances of the TMR sensor can then be analyzed with respect to current, voltage, voltage squared, and/or power, including analyzes of changes to slopes calculated with these values and hysteresis-induced fluctuations, all of which can be used to detect damage to the TMR sensor. The present invention also describes methods to utilize the measured values of neighbor TMR sensors to distinguish normal versus damaged parts for head elements containing multiple TMR read elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2019
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Milad Aria, Icko E. T. Iben, Guillermo F. Paniagua
  • Patent number: 10295615
    Abstract: A magnetic sensor includes a rectangular or substantially rectangular substrate and at least one first magnetoresistive element on the substrate. The first magnetoresistive element has a pattern that, in plan view, has a rectangular or substantially rectangular outer shape and includes first slits that extend in a radiating manner from a center of the pattern and approach an outer edge of the pattern and second slits between adjacent first slits and extend from the outer edge of the pattern toward the center of the pattern. The pattern is connected to circle around the center of the pattern while alternately changing direction between a first direction toward the outer edge of the pattern and a second direction toward the center of the pattern.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2019
    Assignee: MURATA MANUFACTURING CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Daisuke Mori
  • Patent number: 10281532
    Abstract: A magnetic sensor includes first magnetoresistive elements and second magnetoresistive elements, which define pairs. Rates of change of resistance of the first magnetoresistive elements are higher than rates of change of resistance of the second magnetoresistive elements. The first magnetoresistive elements each include a plurality of first connected patterns along a circumference of an imaginary circle in plan view and arrayed in a circumferential direction or a diameter direction of the imaginary circle. The second magnetoresistive elements are located inside the imaginary circles and are surrounded by the first magnetoresistive elements in plan view.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2019
    Assignee: MURATA MANUFACTURING CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Daisuke Mori
  • Patent number: 10256022
    Abstract: A magnetic field generator includes a plurality of magnetic field generation units arranged in a predetermined pattern to generate a plurality of external magnetic fields. Each of the plurality of magnetic field generation units includes a first ferromagnetic material section and a first antiferromagnetic material section. The first antiferromagnetic material section is in contact with and exchange-coupled to the first ferromagnetic material section. The first ferromagnetic material section has its overall magnetization. The plurality of magnetic field generation units include two magnetic field generation units configured so that the overall magnetizations of their respective first ferromagnetic material sections are in different directions from each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2019
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Yosuke Komasaki
  • Patent number: 10175948
    Abstract: A system according to one embodiment includes a pinned layer; a spacer layer above the pinned layer; a free layer above the spacer layer; a heating device, for heating the free layer to induce a paramagnetic thermal instability in the free layer whereby a magnetization of the free layer randomly switches between different detectable magnetic states upon heating thereof; and a magnetoresistance detection circuit for detecting an instantaneous magnetic state of the free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 8, 2019
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Patrick M. Braganca, Jordan A. Katine, Yang Li, Neil L. Robertson, Qingbo Wang, Haiwen Xi
  • Patent number: 10121499
    Abstract: A read sensor that includes a free layer having a magnetization that changes according to an external magnetic field. The read sensor also includes an additional magnetic layer and a non-magnetic layer. The non-magnetic layer may include a corrugated surface facing the additional magnetic layer. The corrugated surface is configured to enhance uniaxial anisotropy in the read sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2018
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventors: Sameh Hassan, Wonjoon Jung, Mark Kief, Marcus Ormston
  • Patent number: 10090090
    Abstract: The invention provides a nanocomposite magnet, which has achieved high coercive force and high residual magnetization. The magnet is a non-ferromagnetic phase that is intercalated between a hard magnetic phase with a rare-earth magnet composition and a soft magnetic phase, wherein the non-ferromagnetic phase reacts with neither the hard nor soft magnetic phase. A hard magnetic phase contains Nd2Fe14B, a soft magnetic phase contains Fe or Fe2Co, and a non-ferromagnetic phase contains Ta. The thickness of the non-ferromagnetic phase containing Ta is 5 nm or less, and the thickness of the soft magnetic phase containing Fe or Fe2Co is 20 nm or less. Nd, or Pr, or an alloy of Nd and any one of Cu, Ag, Al, Ga, and Pr, or an alloy of Pr and any one of Cu, Ag, Al, and Ga is diffused into a grain boundary phase of the hard magnetic phase of Nd2Fe14B.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2018
    Assignees: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA, NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS SCIENCE
    Inventors: Hidefumi Kishimoto, Noritsugu Sakuma, Masao Yano, Weibin Cui, Yukiko Takahashi, Kazuhiro Hono
  • Patent number: 10056266
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing a resistive device, includes depositing a first electrically conductive layer on a substrate; forming an etching mask on the first conductive layer; etching the first conductive layer through the mask, such as to obtain a plurality of electrically conductive pillars separated from one another; and forming storage elements with variable electrical resistance at the tops of the electrically conductive pillars, such that each storage element is supported by one of the electrically conductive pillars, the step of forming the storage elements including the following operations depositing a first layer by non-collimated cathode sputtering at normal incidence relative to the substrate; and depositing a second layer on the first layer by cathode sputtering, the second layer including a first chemical species sputtered at an oblique incidence.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2018
    Assignees: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES, CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE (CNRS), UNIVERSITE GRENOBLE ALPES
    Inventors: Bernard Dieny, Maxime Darnon, Gabriele Navarro, Olivier Joubert
  • Patent number: 10032499
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic memory device includes a first magnetic body and a second magnetic body. The first magnetic body extends in a first direction. The second magnetic body extends in the first direction. A distance between the second magnetic body and the first magnetic body changes periodically along the first direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 24, 2018
    Assignee: Toshiba Memory Corporation
    Inventors: Masaki Kado, Tsuyoshi Kondo, Hirofumi Morise, Yasuaki Ootera, Takuya Shimada, Michael Arnaud Quinsat, Shiho Nakamura
  • Patent number: 10012706
    Abstract: The invention relates to the identification of molecules using an apparatus which includes: a head module comprising: an electromagnetic write-head configured to magnetically excite the molecule to be identified with an alternating magnetic field; and a magneto-resistive read sensor for measuring a resonant response of the magnetically excited molecule to be identified. The apparatus also includes a processor coupled to the magneto-resistive sensor, the processor being configured to compare the resonant response to a table of known resonant responses to identify a chemical composition of the molecule to be identified.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2018
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Allen K. Bates, Anna W. Topol, Daniel J. Winarski
  • Patent number: 9972774
    Abstract: A magnetic memory having a base layer with a wetting layer and seed layer is disclosed. The wetting layer and seed layer promotes FCC structure along the (111) orientation to improve PMA. A surface smoother, such as a surfactant layer, is provided between the wetting and seed layers. This enhances the smoothness of the seed layer, resulting in smoother interface in the MTJ stack, which leads to improved thermal endurance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2018
    Assignee: GLOBALFOUNDRIES SINGAPORE PTE. LTD.
    Inventors: Taiebeh Tahmasebi, Chim Seng Seet
  • Patent number: 9892840
    Abstract: Magnetoresistive random access memory devices include a first magnetic layer, a tunnel barrier layer formed on the first magnetic layer, and a second magnetic layer formed on the tunnel barrier layer. The tunnel barrier includes first regions having a first thickness and second regions having a second thickness that is greater than the first thickness. The tunnel barrier layer includes a first barrier layer formed from a first material and a second barrier layer formed from a second material different from the first material, the second layer being present only in the second regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2017
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2018
    Assignee: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Guohan Hu, Daniel C. Worledge
  • Patent number: 9852835
    Abstract: A structure includes an electronically controllable ferromagnetic oxide structure that includes at least three layers. The first layer comprises STO. The second layer has a thickness of at least about 3 unit cells, said thickness being in a direction substantially perpendicular to the interface between the first and second layers. The third layer is in contact with either the first layer or the second layer or both, and is capable of altering the charge carrier density at the interface between the first layer and the second layer. The interface between the first and second layers is capable of exhibiting electronically controlled ferromagnetism.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2017
    Assignee: University of Pittsburgh—Of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education
    Inventors: Jeremy Levy, Feng Bi, Patrick R. Irvin
  • Patent number: 9842989
    Abstract: A magnetic memory having a base layer with a wetting layer and seed layer is disclosed. The wetting layer and seed layer promotes FCC structure along the (111) orientation to improve PMA. The seed layer includes first and second seed layer separated by a surface smoother, such as a surfactant layer. This enhances the smoothness of the seed layer, resulting in smoother interface in the MTJ stack, which leads to improved thermal endurance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2017
    Assignee: GLOBALFOUNDRIES SINGAPORE PTE. LTD.
    Inventors: Taiebeh Tahmasebi, Kah Wee Gan, Chim Seng Seet
  • Patent number: 9799826
    Abstract: Magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) devices include a first magnetic layer. A tunnel barrier layer is formed on the first magnetic layer. The tunnel barrier includes first regions having a first thickness and second regions having a second thickness that is greater than the first thickness. A second magnetic layer is formed on the tunnel barrier layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 24, 2017
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Guohan Hu, Daniel C. Worledge
  • Patent number: 9766304
    Abstract: An integrated magnetoresistive sensor of an AMR (Anisotropic Magneto Resistance) type, formed by a magnetoresistive strip of ferromagnetic material and having an elongated shape with a preferential magnetization direction. A set/reset coil has a stretch, which extends over and transversely to the magnetoresistive strip. A concentrating region, also of ferromagnetic material, extends over the stretch of the set/reset coil so as to form a magnetic circuit for the field generated by the set/reset coil during steps of refresh and maintenance of magnetization of the magnetoresistive coil.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 19, 2017
    Assignee: STMicroelectronics S.r.l.
    Inventor: Dario Paci
  • Patent number: 9747933
    Abstract: A magneto-resistive effect element (MR element) has an upper shield that is magnetized in a cross track direction, a lower shield that is positioned at an interval relative to the upper shield in a down track direction, and a multilayer film that is positioned between the upper shield and the lower shield and that faces an air bearing surface (ABS). The multilayer film has a free layer where its magnetization direction fluctuates relative to an external magnetic field, a pinned layer where its magnetization direction is pinned against the external magnetic field, a nonmagnetic spacer layer that is positioned between the free layer and the pinned layer, and an insulating layer that is positioned at a back side of the free layer viewed from the ABS. The MR element further has a pair of side shields that are positioned at both sides of the free layer and the insulating layer in a cross track direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2017
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Hisayoshi Watanabe, Naomichi Degawa, Satoshi Miura, Masachika Hashino, Tetsuya Hiraki, Hidekazu Kojima
  • Patent number: 9739639
    Abstract: A rotation angle detection device includes a lever, a cylindrical part, a magnet, and a magnetic sensing element. The lever includes a base and a shaft projecting in the direction of the rotation axis of the base and integrated with the base. The cylindrical part has a first end close to or in contact with the base, and a second end opposite to the first end and farther from the base than the first end. The shaft is inserted in the cylindrical part and is rotatably supported by the cylindrical part. The magnet is attached to the end of the shaft. The magnetic sensing element faces the magnet with a predetermined gap therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2017
    Assignee: Panasonic Intellectual Property Management Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yasuhiro Yamashita, Kiyotaka Sasanouchi, Takumi Obayashi
  • Patent number: 9739812
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect type magnetic sensor has a problem in that the increase in the surrounding temperature decreases the magnetic characteristic of a magnetic film itself and thereby decreases the sensitivity of the sensor. A sensor element includes: a magnetic film having magnetoresistance effect; a pair of electrodes for applying an electric current to the magnetic film, the pair of electrodes being opposed across the magnetic film; a longitudinal bias magnetic field addition magnet to generate a first bias magnetic field in an opposing direction of the electrodes; and a lateral bias magnetic field addition magnet to generate a second bias magnetic field in an orthogonal direction to the longitudinal bias magnetic field addition magnet, in which a temperature characteristic of the longitudinal bias magnetic field addition magnet is higher than a temperature characteristic of the lateral bias magnetic field addition magnet.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2017
    Assignee: SIRC CO., LTD
    Inventor: Hiroaki Tsujimoto