Plural Distinct Contact Zones Patents (Class 261/146)
  • Patent number: 9709301
    Abstract: An evaporative fluid cooling apparatus includes a cooling housing, at least two fluid coils, an air movement apparatus, and one or more spray apparatuses. The cooling housing defines a cooling chamber with an air housing input and an air housing output. The fluid coils are positioned in and extend across at least a portion of the cooling chamber in a spaced apart stacked arrangement. One of the fluid coils is positioned closer to the air housing output and has a first fluid input configured to be coupled to a fluid return from one or more air handler devices and a first fluid output coupled to a second fluid input to the other fluid coil. The other fluid coil is positioned closer to the air housing input and has a second fluid output configured to be coupled to a fluid supply to the air handler devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2016
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2017
    Inventors: Gerald McDonnell, Jeffrey Cheesman
  • Publication number: 20150069643
    Abstract: A cooling tower having an evaporative media along with a liquid distribution system that distributes hot liquid over the evaporative media. The cooling tower includes a pair of heat exchanger modules that each have a first set of passageways in fluid communication with a first flow duct and a second set of passageways in fluid communication with a second flow duct. The heat exchanger module transfers heat from a first air stream into a second air stream. The cooling tower further includes a first bypass flow path that extends between the first heat exchanger module and the second heat exchanger module whereby a bypass door regulates airflow there through.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 26, 2014
    Publication date: March 12, 2015
    Inventors: Eldon F. MOCKRY, Kenneth P. MORTENSEN, Craig J. HICKMAN
  • Publication number: 20140353857
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for an air bypass system for a natural draft cooling tower that employs a wet heat exchanger, a direct dry heat exchanger or an indirect dry heat exchanger to extract heat from a heated fluid, which is usually liquid or steam.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 15, 2014
    Publication date: December 4, 2014
    Inventors: Michel VOUCHE, Eldon Mockry
  • Publication number: 20140264976
    Abstract: A cooling tower with a plurality of fill packs has a fire stop with openings disposed below the fill packs, a water distribution system for distributing water onto the fill packs, and a cold water basin disposed below the fire stop for collecting water which has past through said fill packs. The openings in the fire stop occupy at least 80% of the area over which the fire stop extends. The fire stop is made of an intumescent material with an expansion ratio sufficient to close said openings when said material intumesces.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2013
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: PYROPHOBIC SYSTEMS, LTD.
    Inventor: John B. Page
  • Publication number: 20140262741
    Abstract: A heat pipe is configured relative to a distillation column to adjust one or more conditions in the distillation column.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Inventors: Jeffrey A. Bowers, Roderick A. Hyde, Muriel Y. Ishikawa, Nathan P. Myhrvold, Thomas Allan Weaver, Lowell L. Wood, JR., Richard N. Zare
  • Patent number: 8833744
    Abstract: A condenser includes a high pressure side condenser, a high pressure side cooling tube bank, a high pressure side hot well, a low pressure side condenser, a low pressure side cooling tube bank, a pressure shroud provided inside the low pressure side condenser, a low pressure side hot well, high pressure steam introducing portion, low pressure side condensate introducing portion, a flash box which communicates with at least one of the high pressure side hot well and the low pressure side hot well, flashes a heater drain from a feed water heater, and urges at least one of the high pressure side hot well and the low pressure side hot well to recover the flashed heater drain, and a flash steam path which introduces flash steam generated inside the flash box into at least one of the high pressure side hot well and the low pressure side hot well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Akira Nemoto, Naoki Sugitani, Yoshio Mochida
  • Patent number: 8783053
    Abstract: An evaporative cooling system that can be used to cool fluid and to cool an air supply to a building. The air supply to a cooling tower in a first evaporative system also having a fluid pump and a heat exchange element is cooled by the heat exchange element of a second evaporative cooling system. As a result, the inlet air wet bulb temperature of the primary cooling tower will be reduced, enhancing the cooling capacity of the primary cooling tower.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: McNNNAC Energy Services Inc.
    Inventor: Neil McCann
  • Publication number: 20140183764
    Abstract: An indirect evaporative cooler wherein the exhaust air from the wet passages is drawn directly from the wet passages by a first fan (66) while a second fan (64 or 42) powers the movement of air to be cooled through dry passages of the cooler.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 5, 2013
    Publication date: July 3, 2014
    Inventor: Rob Gilbert
  • Publication number: 20140138860
    Abstract: A nozzle design for diffusing high pressure steam into by flowing process fluid of substantially lower pressure while reducing the noise intensity generated. The injection nozzles include an opening having a first diameter to receive steam and a second diameter to inject the steam into a flow of liquid. The diameters of the first and second openings can vary relative to each other to enhance the flow characteristics of the steam or other gas being injected into a flow of liquid. The outer surface of a diffuser tube is coated with an insulating material, such as plastic. In alternate embodiments, the orientation of the injection holes can be angled either upstream or downstream to further enhance mixing characteristics of the steam.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 22, 2013
    Publication date: May 22, 2014
    Applicant: Hydro-Thermal Corporation
    Inventor: Hydro-Thermal Corporation
  • Patent number: 8727325
    Abstract: The present disclosure is directed at a system, apparatus and method for concentrating a solution. The system includes a humidification device and a solution flow path for flow of a solution to be concentrated to the humidification device. The humidification device includes humidification media to facilitate evaporation of liquid from the solution to be concentrated to gas as the solution to be concentrated passes through the humidification media thereby concentrating the solution. The method includes flowing a solution to be concentrated along a flow path to a humidification device including humidification media, flowing a gas through the humidification media, and flowing the solution to be concentrated through the humidification media. There is evaporation of liquid from the solution to the gas as the solution passes through the humidification media thereby concentrating the solution and producing a humidified gas. The solution to be concentrated may be salt water and the gas may be air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2014
    Assignee: Saltworks Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Benjamin Stuart Sparrow, Henry Tsin, Hojung Kim, Ross Coleman
  • Publication number: 20140091487
    Abstract: A dispensing system for dispensing a material is disclosed that includes a housing for receipt of a dispenser holding a material. A fan is disposed within the housing. Upon activation, the fan draws air into the housing and diffuses the material charged air from the housing with a substantially 360 degree dispersal pattern.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 2, 2012
    Publication date: April 3, 2014
    Inventor: David C. Belongia
  • Publication number: 20130199921
    Abstract: A humidification-dehumidification apparatus featuring enhanced heat recovery includes a shared interior wall extending along a vertical axis and defining and separating humidifying and dehumidifying chambers. Heat-transfer members extend through the shared interior wall and across a majority of each chamber, while a spray device is configured to direct a spray of liquid feed composition onto the heat-transfer members inside the humidifying chamber. The liquid feed collects on the heat-transfer members in the humidifying chamber, and water evaporates from the liquid feed on the heat-transfer members, leaving a concentrated remainder of the liquid feed in liquid form. Carrier gas passes through the humidifying chamber where evaporated water is entrained in the carrier gas to form a moist carrier gas that passes from the humidifying chamber to the dehumidifying chamber, where the water vapor condenses from the moist carrier gas on the heat-transfer members.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 6, 2013
    Publication date: August 8, 2013
    Applicant: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Ronan Killian McGovern
  • Patent number: 8491720
    Abstract: Embodiments disclosed herein generally relate to an HVPE chamber. The chamber may have two separate precursor sources coupled thereto to permit two separate layers to be deposited. For example, a gallium source and a separate aluminum source may be coupled to the processing chamber to permit gallium nitride and aluminum nitride to be separately deposited onto a substrate in the same processing chamber. The nitrogen may be introduced to the processing chamber at a separate location from the gallium and the aluminum and at a lower temperature. The different temperatures causes the gases to mix together, react and deposit on the substrate with little or no deposition on the chamber walls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 23, 2013
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Tetsuya Ishikawa, David H. Quach, Anzhong Chang, Olga Kryliouk, Yuriy Melnik, Harsukhdeep S. Ratia, Son T. Nguyen, Lily Pang
  • Publication number: 20130167536
    Abstract: A multistage pressure condenser includes, a high pressure chamber and a low pressure chamber, a pressure partition wall which partitions an inner portion of the low pressure chamber to an upper portion and a lower portion, a cooling pipe group which condenses low pressure side steam to low pressure side condensate, a reheat chamber positioned in the lower portion of the low pressure chamber and in which the low pressure side condensate which flows down through the porous plate is stored, high pressure side steam introduction portion for introducing high pressure side steam in the high pressure chamber to the reheat chamber, liquid-film forming portion which guides the low pressure side condensate which flows down through the porous plate to the reheat chamber while dispersing the low pressure side condensate on a surface, and air feeder for promoting the flow of the high pressure side steam.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 26, 2012
    Publication date: July 4, 2013
    Applicant: MITSUBISHI HEAVY INDUSTRIES, LTD.
    Inventor: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
  • Publication number: 20130093108
    Abstract: This application is directed to a fragrance dispenser attachably connected to a fan comprising: a housing having openings defined in the housing; a fragrance reservoir included in the housing for receiving a fragrance medium containing a fragrance; a cover operably associated with the opening for restricting airflow into the fragrance reservoir; and, a cover actuator operably connected to the cover having an open position allowing airflow into and out of the fragrance reservoir for dispensing a fragrance and a closed position for restricting airflow into and out of the fragrance reservoir.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 2, 2012
    Publication date: April 18, 2013
    Inventor: Nathan A. Scolari
  • Patent number: 8360402
    Abstract: A multi-pressure condenser has first and second condensers with vacuum pressures. The second condenser has a higher pressure. The first condenser has a first cooling water tube bundle, and a pressure barrier which extends below the first cooling water tube bundle. A heat-transfer tube introduces fluid from outside the first condenser into the first hot well below the barrier. Liquid is dropped into the first hot well through the through holes of the pressure barrier. The second condenser has a second cooling water tube bundle. Condensate generated in the high-pressure chamber is accumulated below the second cooling water tube bundle. The multi-pressure condenser further has a steam duct to connect the gas phase parts of the first hot well and the second condenser, and a pipe to communicate the liquid phase parts of the first hot well and the second condenser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2013
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Naoki Sugitani, Koichi Yoshimura
  • Publication number: 20120146251
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a humidifier for humidifying medical gases, comprising a humidification module including a control unit, wherein the humidification module is adapted for receiving a humidification chamber. Furthermore, the humidification module is further adapted to sense and/or receive information upon connection of the humidification chamber and/or additional equipment such as hoses, power supply pack.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 15, 2011
    Publication date: June 14, 2012
    Applicant: GRÜNDLER GmbH
    Inventors: Daniel Heine, Markus Gruendler, Christoph Gruendler, Philipp Hiereth, Martin Busch
  • Patent number: 8110396
    Abstract: The invention relates to a thermocycler module for heating and/or cooling of a thermocycling device comprising a thermal switch, a heating block and a heat sink. The thermal switch comprises a thermoconducting liquid, e.g. a magnetic fluid or a liquid metal, and a stimulating unit, e.g. a magnetic unit or a Lorentz-force unit, for moving the thermoconducting liquid. The movement of the thermoconducting liquid provides, in an on-state of the thermal switch, a thermal connection between the heating block and the heat sink.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2012
    Assignee: Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel Bommer, Thomas Schlaubitz
  • Publication number: 20110265648
    Abstract: Systems and methods for circulating air in an enclosed environment are disclosed. An inlet can be provided to receive an outside air from outside of the enclosed environment and an air handling unit coupled to the inlet to receive the outside air through the inlet and configured to receive a circulated air from the enclosed environment. The air handling unit can be configured to affect a temperature of at least one of the received outside air and the received circulated air. Based on the received outside air and the received circulated air, the air handling unit can be further configured to generate air for supplying to the enclosed environment.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 17, 2011
    Publication date: November 3, 2011
    Inventor: Udi Meirav
  • Patent number: 7364141
    Abstract: A cooling tower and/or a fan drive system are provided which enhance cooling performance, are able to reduce lateral temperature gradients at least to some degree, provide for easy removable of debris and/or provide for easy fan adjustment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2008
    Assignee: SPX Cooling Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Glenn Brenneke, Hobart Cox, Mark Kauffmann, Jason Stratman, Eric Wiedemann
  • Patent number: 7232116
    Abstract: A cooling tower and/or a fan drive system are provided which enhance cooling performance, are able to reduce lateral temperature gradients at least to some degree, provide for easy removable of debris and/or provide for easy fan adjustment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 19, 2007
    Assignee: SPX Cooling Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Jason Stratman, Glenn Brenneke, Hobart Cox, Mark Kauffmann, Eric Wiedemann
  • Patent number: 7111832
    Abstract: Low-pressure-side condensate is subjected to convection heating while dripping in high-pressure-side steam, and to surface turbulent heat transfer due to a circulating flow caused by downflow condensate falling after overflowing. Thus, the temperature of the low-pressure-side condensate can be raised efficiently with satisfactory heat transfer. A bypass connecting pipe enables high-pressure-side condensate to bypass condensate of a reheat chamber and merge with the condensate while keeping a high temperature. Thus, heating of the low-pressure-side condensate is performed sufficiently, with a space for falling being minimized for compactness. Also, condensate in a high amount of heat exchange is fed toward a condensate pump. Hence, a multistage pressure condenser permitting compactness and increased efficiency of a power plant can be constructed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 26, 2006
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventor: Koichi Inoue
  • Patent number: 6969495
    Abstract: For use in a separation column, a mat element or a beam element has at least: an upper part 2; at least one distributor-collector part (3) having one or more secondary orifices (7i) and at least one main orifice (6), whereby the passage sections of orifices (8) and (7i) are different; and a lower part (4). The distributor-collector part or parts (3) arranged between the upper part (2) and the lower part (4). A sealing element (5a) arranged between the distributor-collector part (3) and the upper part (2), and a sealing element (5b) arranged between the distributor-collector part (3) and the lower part (4). A separation element (8) arranged at distributor-collector part (3), thus delimiting two spaces (3a, 3b) for circulation of fluids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 29, 2005
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Gérard Hotier, Pierre Renard, Xavier Decoodt
  • Patent number: 6814345
    Abstract: Low-pressure-side condensate is subjected to convection heating while dripping in high-pressure-side steam, and to surface turbulent heat transfer due to a circulating flow caused by downflow condensate falling after overflowing. Thus, the temperature of the low-pressure-side condensate can be raised efficiently with satisfactory heat transfer. A bypass connecting pipe enables high-pressure-side condensate to bypass condensate of a reheat chamber and merge with the condensate while keeping a high temperature. Thus, heating of the low-pressure-side condensate is performed sufficiently, with a space for falling being minimized for compactness. Also, condensate in a high amount of heat exchange is fed toward a condensate pump. Hence, a multistage pressure condenser permitting compactness and increased efficiency of a power plant can be constructed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2004
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventor: Koichi Inoue
  • Patent number: 6488774
    Abstract: A trap apparatus is optimum for trapping a material gas discharged from a vapor deposition apparatus for depositing in a vapor phase thin films of high-dielectric or ferroelectric such as barium/strontium titanates on substrates. The trap apparatus is disposed downstream of a vacuum process chamber. The vacuum process chamber is for processing a substrate. The trap apparatus is for trapping a component having a low vapor pressure contained in a gas discharged from the vacuum process chamber. The trap apparatus includes a trap container for introducing the gas discharged from the vacuum process chamber, and a cooling device provided in the trap container for cooling the gas to a temperature equal to or lower than a condensing temperature of a gas component which is contained in the gas and easily liquidized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2002
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Kuniaki Horie, Masahito Abe, Tsutomu Nakada, Yuji Araki
  • Patent number: 6126151
    Abstract: A hybrid cooling plant includes at least one sector with a dry cooling part connected to a feed pump and including at least two heat exchangers which are connected in parallel, and with a wet cooling part located underneath the dry cooling part, wherein the dry cooling part and the wet cooling part are connected to each other by a closed connection. The highest locations of the heat exchangers are connected through a deaerating line to a vacuum pump and the heat exchangers are provided with evacuating and ventilating valves and level limit switches. The deaerating lines of the heat exchangers of a sector which operationally form a unit are connected to a deaerating vessel or reservoir.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: GEA Energietechnik GmbH
    Inventor: Vladimir Vodicka
  • Patent number: 5658503
    Abstract: A device is provided for mixing two fluids, one a liquid, the other a gas, where apertures are provided in channel tubes to mix the fluids in the individual channels. The mixing device provides a two fluid admixture for passage to downstream processing, most preferably the tubeside of a shell and tube heat exchanger. The vessel is equipped with a gas inlet means located below a liquid inlet means with respect to the height of the vertical vessel. A distributor plate is situated substantially perpendicular to said channel or channels at a point in said vessel below said apertures for influx of the liquid into the gas phase. The apparatus provides uniform distribution of gas and liquid to all parallel channels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 19, 1997
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Stephen W. Johnston, Philip C. Lewellen
  • Patent number: 5482108
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for achieving an optimal energy exchange in regenerative heat exchange between the combustion air and precooled, wet flue gases from a cooling device. By letting the moisture in said flue gases be condensed on the heat transfer surfaces the moisture will be transferred over to the air side where it is vaporized, resulting in some advantages, e.g. an increased energy exchange. According to the invention it has turned out to be possible to achieve a further increase of the energy exchange in a simple way by ensuring that the heat transfer surfaces of the flue gas side become really water-soaked when on the flue gas side, e.g. by letting the condensed water from the precooling device (15) drip or flow down onto the heat transfert surfaces such that said surfaces will remain wet during the entire passage through the combustion air side (10).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Assignee: Svenska Rotor Maskiner AB
    Inventors: Stefan Essle, Bo Sangfors
  • Patent number: 5415684
    Abstract: A fluidized bed scrubber for use in gas cleaning systems, comprising means for introducing a quantity of polluted gas into a first chamber; means for removing a portion of the pollutants from the polluted gas in the first chamber; means for introducing the polluted gas into a second chamber; and means for removing additional pollutants from the polluted gas in the second chamber. The invention also provides a method for cleaning polluted gas, comprising the steps of passing the polluted gas from a combustion source through a fluidized bed scrubber, removing a plurality of pollutants within the fluidized bed scrubber, passing the fluidized gas through a reactor, passing the fluidized gas through a filter in order to remove further quantities of pollutants, and emitting the now-clean gas into the atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1995
    Assignee: Medx, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert J. Anderson
  • Patent number: 4799941
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for condensing flue gas in combustion plants, and an arrangement of apparatus herefor. In accordance with the invention the flue gas is cooled and humidified by bringing the gas into direct contact with water, whereafter the water vapor in the gas is cooled and condensed, the heat of condensation being recovered by indirect heat exchange. The heat of condensation is transferred partially to a heat absorbing medium, preferably return water in a district heating network, and partially to a circuit in which water is circulated within the plant, this water being used for heating and humidifying the combustion air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1987
    Date of Patent: January 24, 1989
    Assignee: Scandiaconsult AB
    Inventor: Mats O. J. Westermark
  • Patent number: 4683101
    Abstract: A closed circuit evaporative fluid cooler/evaporative condenser utilizing a cross flow water-air fluid flow relationship is provided. An evaporative liquid recirculating system includes a liquid distribution spray assembly mounted above a bundle of fill sheets. A closed circuit fluid cooling/condensing heat exchanger is supported below the bundle of fill sheets. Each heat exchanger comprises a plurality of parallel coil circuits or modules, wherein the inlet of each coil circuit is at a higher elevation adjacent the air outlet side of the heat exchanger, and the fluid outlet manifold of each coil circuit is at the lowest elevation adjacent the air inlet side of the heat exchanger. This arrangement assures the coolest liquid falling from the fill sheet assembly contacts the coil assembly containing the coolest fluid and that the coolest air entering the air inlet contacts the coil assembly portion containing the coolest fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 26, 1985
    Date of Patent: July 28, 1987
    Assignee: Baltimore Aircoil Company, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert E. Cates
  • Patent number: 4494596
    Abstract: An air conditioning system is disclosed for adjusting air temperature and humidity to a predetermined level for the air supply to a paint spray booth. The system includes a multi-section sprayed surface heat exchanger combined with a bypass passage such that a portion of the air flow to be conditioned passes through the multi-section heat exchanger and the remainder of the flow bypasses the same, and is recombined and mixed downstream with the conditioned air to produce a mixture which is at the proper dry bulb temperature and relative humidity. Each multi-section heat exchanger may be shut off to increase the proportion of bypass flow. Modulation of the cooling and heating effect of each of the heat exchangers is achieved by modulating valving controlling the flow of heating or cooling medium. Similarly, the humidification effect is controlled by valving controlling a number of water spray nozzles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 22, 1985
    Assignee: Haden Schweitzer Corporation
    Inventor: Norman F. Bradshaw
  • Patent number: 4476065
    Abstract: A wet surface air cooling system is disclosed and includes a primary cooling unit having a bundle of heat exchanger tubes. Water is directed over the bundle of heat exchanger tubes and is collected in a collection basin. A secondary cooling tower is provided and a closed circulatory loop draws a portion of the water from the collection basin and directs the water to the secondary cooling tower to increase the cooling capacity of the system. The secondary cooling tower is rendered operative automatically upon sensing a particular temperature of the water in the circulation system of the primary cooling unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1984
    Assignee: Niagara Blower Co.
    Inventor: Paul M. McKey
  • Patent number: 4355683
    Abstract: An air conditioning system and/or a heating system is described in combination with a solar pond, especially a pond which is of the gradient type, wherein it is important to maintain a concentration of salt which increases with the depth of the pond. The pond is regenerated, that is, the salt concentration gradient is maintained, by components of the air conditioning system, or by special concentrator towers wherein moisture is removed from brine that is circulated to the towers from the pond.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1982
    Assignee: Midland-Ross Corporation
    Inventor: William C. Griffiths
  • Patent number: 4238462
    Abstract: A process for reacting a circulating liquid reaction solution with a gas in separate reaction zones within a single reaction vessel wherein the liquid reaction solution is continuously circulated between a first reaction zone and a second reaction zone within the reaction vessel but providing at least two side-by-side reaction chambers in open flow communication at their upper and lower ends with a gas supply means associated with each said chamber for introducing a gas in a finely divided form into the lower ends of each said chamber, and said gas supply means including flow control means whereby the rate of upwardly flow of gas in one of the chambers is greater than the rate of upwardly flow of gas in the other chamber so as to lower the density of the liquid reaction solution in the one chamber and provide continuous upwardly flow of liquid reaction solution and gas in the one chamber and downwardly flow of liquid reaction solution countercurrent to the flow of gas in the other chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1980
    Assignee: Air Resources, Inc.
    Inventor: Leslie C. Hardison
  • Patent number: 4097242
    Abstract: A sulfonation apparatus comprising a plurality of vertical first-stage reaction tubes in which the sulfonatable material and an SO.sub.3 -containing gas are flowed upwardly from the lower ends thereof and a single vertical second-stage reaction tube in which the reaction products from the upper ends of all of the first-stage reaction tubes are combined and are flowed downwardly together with fresh SO.sub.3 -containing gas in order to complete the sulfonation reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 22, 1977
    Date of Patent: June 27, 1978
    Assignee: Kao Soap Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Keiichi Tsuto, Kanji Majima, Shigeyasu Imamura
  • Patent number: 4003970
    Abstract: An adjustably operable heat transfer system for cooling tower installations, the heat transfer units consisting of a section of only "wet" operating evaporative heat exchanger units and a section of dual-purpose heat exchanger units which are adapted for alternative or simultaneous wet evaporative heat transfer and "dry" convective heat transfer. All units are operated in the wet mode, when the air temperatures are highest, for maximum heat transfer output, but a mixed mode is used, when the air temperature is lowest, dry warm air obtained through convective heat transfer being admixed to the moist warm air obtained through evaporative heat transfer, in order to prevent cloud formation by the latter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 1975
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1977
    Assignee: Balcke-Durr Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Vladimir Vodicka