By Reflection Patents (Class 359/318)
  • Patent number: 7099064
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are an electrostatic-type variable diffractive light modulator, which includes lower micromirrors that are provided on a glass substrate to be spaced apart from each other, and actuates upper micromirrors that are spaced apart from the substrate by an electrostatic actuating method, thus allowing the upper and lower micromirrors to diffract incident light entering a lower portion of the substrate, and a method of manufacturing the electrostatic-type variable diffractive light modulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoon-Shik Hong, Dong-Ho Shin, Jong-Hyeong Song, Yoon-Joon Choi, Yurlov Victor
  • Patent number: 7085036
    Abstract: A substrate is provided with a light reflection film in which the heights of a plurality of convex portions or the depths of concave portions formed on a base material are specified to be substantially the same. The two-dimensional shapes of the plurality of convex portions or concave portions are specified to be the two-dimensional shapes of independent circles and polygons, or of either of them. In addition, the plurality of convex portions or concave portions are arranged in the direction of the plane on a random basis. The substrate is formed using a mask in which light transmission portions or light non-transmission portions are formed in units of dots, the number thereof being smaller than the number of dot regions. The dots are arranged irregularly in each of the units, and a plurality of units are included.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2006
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Toshihiro Otake, Mutsumi Matsuo, Tadashi Tsuyuki
  • Patent number: 7046422
    Abstract: A reflection-type light modulating array element has: a substrate; a movable member provided with a beam body provided on the substrate through a first gap, a light reflector capable of rotational displacement by twisting of the beam body, and an electrically conducting part formed at least in a partial portion of the movable member; a lower electrode provided on a substrate side to face the movable member through the first gap, and an upper electrode provided on a side opposite to the lower electrode to face the movable member through a second gap, and thereby the movable member is between the lower electrode and the upper electrode, wherein a voltage is applied to the upper electrode, the lower electrode and the electrically conducting part to cause an rocking displacement of the light reflector and thereby deflect a reflection direction of a light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 15, 2004
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2006
    Assignee: Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Koichi Kimura, Katsuto Sumi
  • Patent number: 7042643
    Abstract: An Interferometric Modulator (IMod) is a microelectromechanical device for modulating light using interference. The colors of these devices may be determined in a spatial fashion, and their inherent color shift may be compensated for using several optical compensation mechanisms. Brightness, addressing, and driving of IMods may be accomplished in a variety of ways with appropriate packaging, and peripheral electronics which can be attached and/or fabricated using one of many techniques. The devices may be used in both embedded and directly perceived applications, the latter providing multiple viewing modes as well as a multitude of product concepts ranging in size from microscopic to architectural in scope. In another aspect, a structure for modulating light comprises modulators of light each including an interference cavity for causing interference modulation of the light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2006
    Assignee: IDC, LLC
    Inventor: Mark W. Miles
  • Patent number: 7042625
    Abstract: Disclosed is a light modulator having a digital micro blaze diffraction grating. In the light modulator, a fine protrusion is formed on an edge of a lower surface of a diffraction member so that a reflective surface inclines due to the fine protrusion when the diffraction member is drawn downward.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 9, 2006
    Assignee: Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoon Shik Hong, Dong Ho Shin, Seung Heon Han, Yoon Joon Choi
  • Patent number: 7027369
    Abstract: An optical pickup apparatus (10) for reading data from a plurality of tracks of an optical disc (34) at the same time by focussing spots (M, . . . ) of each light beam on a plurality of tracks, passing the reflected light beams of spots (M, . . . ) sequentially through an objective lens (30), a collimator lens (28), and a focus adjusting lens (50) in this order, and detecting the reflected light beams with photodiodes (52M, . . . ) disposed along a photodiode light reception plane (68). In order to make each reflected light become incident upon each photodiode (52M, . . . ), a case (72) and a bracket (78) are separated from a chassis (70), and support the focus adjusting lens (50) and the photodiodes (52M, . . . ) respectively. The case (72) and bracket (78) are made so that they can be fixed to the chassis (70) at optional positions in a predetermined area along a direction of the optical axis (66).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2006
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Kenwood
    Inventors: Hiroshi Miyazawa, Hidemi Tachizawa
  • Patent number: 7000291
    Abstract: A money clip comprising a generally flat housing having an internal cavity and an elastic band secured to the housing for encircling and holding a wad a paper money between the band and housing. A magnifying glass is normally concealed within the cavity and is pivotally connected to the housing. The magnifying glass may be manually swung outwardly and inwardly of the cavity, to a location adjacent the housing, through an opening formed in the housing. The magnifying glass may be swung outwardly of the housing temporarily and by manually holding the clip with magnifying glass positioned over an object the print on the object may be read by the user, without disturbing the wad of paper money held by the money clip. Thereafter, the magnifying glass may be swung back into the housing cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2006
    Inventor: Edward A. Fuller
  • Patent number: 6995898
    Abstract: A substrate is provided with a light reflecting film in which the depths of a plurality of concave portions formed on the surface of the base or the heights of a plurality of convex portions formed on the surface of the base are substantially equal, the planar shapes of the plurality of concave portions or the convex portions are overlapped circles and overlapped polygons, or any one of the aforesaid circles and polygons, and a plurality of concave portions or convex portions are randomly arranged over a plane, the substrate with the light reflecting film being prepared by using a mask comprising light-transmitting parts or non-light-transmitting parts formed by a plurality of dots less than the number of the dot regions as one unit, in which the light-transmitting parts or the non-light-transmitting parts are randomly arranged in the unit, and a plurality of the one unit is repeated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2006
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Toshihiro Otake, Mutsumi Matsuo, Tadashi Tsuyuki
  • Patent number: 6963441
    Abstract: An electro-optically deactivated transmissive material comprises a plurality of chemicals which are sufficient, in combination, to enable formation of an electro-optic material having an index of refraction that is responsive to an electric field. The chemicals are combined with a glassifier so as to form a transmissive material that is less responsive to the electric field than said electro-optic material. The deactivated material has substantially the same refractive index as the electro-optic material in the absence of an electric field. In a preferred embodiment, the deactivated material is arranged with active material to form an optical switch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 8, 2005
    Assignee: Teloptics, Corporation
    Inventor: Gene H. Haertling
  • Patent number: 6947205
    Abstract: An electric field activated bi-stable molecular system configured within an electric field generated by a pair of electrodes is provided for use, e.g., as electronic ink or other visual displays. The molecular system has at least one rotor portion connected to at least one stator portion, wherein the rotor portion rotates with respect to the stator portion between at least two different states upon application of the electric field, thereby inducing a band gap change in the molecular system, wherein in a first state, there is extended conjugation throughout the major portion of the molecular system, resulting in a relatively smaller band gap, and wherein in a second state, the extended conjugation is destroyed, resulting in a relatively larger band gap. A primary advantage of the molecular system is improved contrast. Because the colorant of the present invention is molecular and thus effectively monoplanar, there should be no backside reflection or scattering from the colorant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 3, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2005
    Assignee: Hewlett-Packard Development Company, LP.
    Inventors: Xiao-An Zhang, R. Stanley Williams, Kent D. Vincent
  • Patent number: 6897994
    Abstract: An imaging system is disclosed that includes an illumination source, a diffractive modulator, imaging optics, and a coherence reduction system. The illumination source is for producing an illumination field. The diffractive modulator is for receiving the at least partially coherent illumination field and producing a modulated illumination field. The imaging optics are for directing the modulated illumination field toward an imaging surface. The coherence of one of the illumination field and the modulated illumination field is reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2005
    Assignee: Agfa Corporation
    Inventors: Ralph Thoma, Volker Melzer, Ronian Siew, Tobias Damm, Peter Mueller
  • Patent number: 6891987
    Abstract: A true-time delay feeder for multiple aperture beam steering devices. The feeder comprises a plurality of tunable time delay modules. The tunable time delay modules provide different delays to different beamlets without changing the spectrum of each beamlet. The tunable true-time delay modules provide for temporal synchronization and spatial coherence of the beam front.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2005
    Assignee: HRL Laboratories, LLC
    Inventors: Stanislav I. Ionov, David S. Sumida
  • Patent number: 6862125
    Abstract: A single-compartment reversible mirror device having a solution of aprotic molten salt, at least one soluble metal-containing species comprising metal capable of being electrodeposited, and at least one anodic compound capable of being oxidized was prepared. The aprotic molten salt is liquid at room temperature and includes lithium and/or quaternary ammonium cations, and anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3?), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N?), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N?) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C?). A method for preparing substantially pure molten salts is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2003
    Date of Patent: March 1, 2005
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Benjamin P. Warner, T. Mark McCleskey, Anthony K. Burrell, Simon B. Hall
  • Patent number: 6829079
    Abstract: An optical path control apparatus includes a first substrate. A second substrate is movably provided for the first substrate. A mirror section is provided on the second substrate. A driving section moves the second substrate such that a first optical path of input light to the mirror section is optically connected to one of a plurality of second optical paths.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2004
    Assignee: NEC Corporation
    Inventors: Mikio Oda, Mitsuru Yamamoto, Hikaru Kouta, Yasuhiro Sasaki, Sakae Kitajo, Yuzo Shimada
  • Patent number: 6801681
    Abstract: An optical switch is fabricated using micro-electro-mechanical system (“MEMS”) techniques. A thin mirror is fabricated in the major plane of the substrate and rotates about an axis perpendicular to the major plane to move into and out of an optical beam path. The mirror surface is open for chemical polishing and deposition, resulting in a high-quality mirror. In one embodiment, the backside of the mirror is patterned with reinforcing ribs. In another embodiment, a two-sided mirror is fabricated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2004
    Assignee: Optical Coating Laboratory, Inc.
    Inventors: Patrick E. Feierabend, John S. Foster, Bryant P. Hichwa, Richard T. Martin, Paul J. Rubel, Kimon Rybnicek, John W. Stocker, Jeffery F. Summers
  • Patent number: 6791757
    Abstract: An apparatus for filtering electromagnetic waves and sensing deposition of chemical species, the apparatus having a substrate having a surface relief structure containing at least one dielectric body with physical dimensions smaller than the wavelength of the filtered electromagnetic waves, such structures repeated in a two dimensional array covering at least a portion of the surface of the first substrate. The apparatus may include one, two, or more such arrays, spaced from one another to create one or more cavities between the arrays.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2004
    Assignee: CoHo Holdings, LLC
    Inventors: Douglas S. Hobbs, James J. Cowan
  • Patent number: 6781730
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for spectral grooming of light having a multiple spectral bands. The light is received at an input port and encounters an optical train disposed between the input port and at least one output port. The optical train provides optical paths for routing the spectral bands and includes a dispersive element disposed to intercept light traveling from the input port. An attenuation mechanism is provided for independently attenuating the individual spectral bands. The attenuation mechanism has multiple configurable attenuation elements disposed so that each spectral band is attenuated in accordance with a state of one of the configurable attenuation elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2004
    Assignee: PTS Corporation
    Inventors: Samuel P. Weaver, Anthony W. Sarto
  • Patent number: 6757095
    Abstract: A semiconductor structure and method for transmitting optical signals modulates an optical property of the semiconductor structure to selectively transmit portions of an externally supplied light beam as optical signals. The use of the externally supplied light beam eliminates the need to fabricate a light emitting device onto the semiconductor structure. Thus, the semiconductor structure can be based on an indirect bandgap material such as silicon. Consequently, the semiconductor structure can be readily integrated into a conventional silicon-based integrated circuit using conventional semiconductor manufacturing processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: June 29, 2004
    Assignee: Agilent Technologies, Inc.
    Inventor: Ken A. Nishimura
  • Patent number: 6710758
    Abstract: A reflective spatial light modulator (SLM) includes a first substrate, a second substrate and an electro-optic material positioned between the first and second substrates. The first substrate includes a reflective ground layer that acts as a continuous first electrode and the second substrate includes a pixel layer having a plurality of pixel elements formed in a pattern. The pixel elements are formed of a transparent conductive material and are separated by inter-pixel regions formed of a non-conductive material. A transmissivity of the electro-optic material in a vicinity of each of the plurality of pixel elements is controlled by a potential difference applied between the first electrode and a respective one of the pixel elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2004
    Assignee: Corning Incorporated
    Inventors: Lisa A. Caracci, John P. Kondis, Robert G. Lindquist, Rui-Qing Ma, Carina R. Reisin, Bradley A. Scott
  • Patent number: 6686580
    Abstract: An image sensor package includes a substrate and an image sensor coupled to the substrate. The image sensor includes an upper surface having an active area. A reflector lid is coupled to the substrate. The reflector lid has a first panel having a planar surface. The planar surface is at least partially reflective and is angled relative to the upper surface of the image sensor to reflect electromagnetic radiation to the active area of image sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2004
    Assignee: Amkor Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas P. Glenn, Steven Webster, Roy Dale Hollaway
  • Patent number: 6646782
    Abstract: An all solid-state light valve and tunable filter that uses color-selective absorption at a metal-dielectric interface by surface plasmons. The solid-state surface plasmon light valve and tunable filter comprises a substrate, a bottom electrode, a solid-state electro-optic material, and a top electrode through which electromagnetic radiation may pass through and whose optical properties may be modified by suitable modulation of an electrical bias, i.e., an applied voltage between the top and bottom electrodes. The bottom electrode must be specifically fabricated using a refractory metal to allow the formation of the solid-state electro-optic material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2003
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Stephen D. Russell, Randy L. Shimabukuro
  • Patent number: 6643054
    Abstract: A beam deflector 1 for a beam of light 9 comprises: a first plate of electro-optical material disposed between a pair of electrode arrangements and a pair of plano-parallel mirrors, the refractive index of the electro-optical material being variable by the application of electric voltages, wherein a first mirror of the pair facing towards the incident light has a lower reflectivity than the second mirror, the first or second mirrors comprising a plurality of dielectric layers having refractive indices different from each other. Further, a switching system comprises: a plurality of terminals (53) for optical signals and beam deflectors (1) allocated to each other in pairs, each beam deflector being controllable such that it deflects the light beam (9) directed thereto into a selectable direction in order for the beam to enter at least one selected terminal end (55).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2003
    Assignee: Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung
    Inventor: Kai Weidlich
  • Patent number: 6639713
    Abstract: An apparatus at least partially intercepts a plurality of light beams propagating along a respective plurality of beam paths. The apparatus includes a single crystal silicon substrate and an array including a plurality of modules. Each module includes a reflector comprising single crystal silicon and a reflector surface lying in a reflector plane substantially perpendicular to the substrate surface. Each module further includes a reflector support which mounts the reflector to move substantially within the reflector plane with a displacement component along the surface normal direction of the substrate surface. Each module further includes a reflector driver responsive to electrical current to selectively move the reflector between a first position and a second position.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2003
    Assignee: Umachines, Inc.
    Inventors: Chen-Wei Chiu, Aramais Avakian, Tom Tsao, Fukang Jiang, Jeff Dickson, Yu-Chong Tai
  • Patent number: 6614574
    Abstract: A light modulating switch (210) including a switching element (218) having a first portion (226) of electro-optic material to which first and second electrodes (213, 224) are associated. A second portion (228) is composed of material having an index of refraction matching that of the first portion (226) when no voltage is applied to electro-optically activate the first portion (226), but the index of refraction of the second portion (228) is less than the index of refraction of the first portion (226) when the first portion (226) is electro-optically activated by application of voltage to the electrodes (213, 224).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Assignee: Teloptics Corporation
    Inventor: Alexander B. Romanovsky
  • Patent number: 6608621
    Abstract: An image displaying method and apparatus is provided which can display an image at a high luminance. A first horizontal line image signal is written in a write memory, read in parallel from a read memory during a horizontal blanking period next to the horizontal image signal period, and amplified to thereafter perform modulation. The first horizontal line image signal is displayed at least until the next horizontal image signal line period terminates. The above operations are sequentially repeated to scan all horizontal lines.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 17, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2003
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Noritaka Mochizuki
  • Patent number: 6552842
    Abstract: A reflective coherent spatial light modulator (RCSLM) includes a subwavelength resonant grating structure (SWS), the SWS including at least one subwavelength resonant grating layer (SWL) have a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels. Each pixel represents an area capable of individual control of its reflective response. A structure for modulating the resonant reflective response of at least one pixel is provided. The structure for modulating can include at least one electro-optic layer in optical contact with the SWS. The RCSLM is scalable in both pixel size and wavelength. A method for forming a RCSLM includes the steps of selecting a waveguide material and forming a SWS in the waveguide material, the SWS formed from at least one SWL, the SWL having a plurality of areas defining a plurality of pixels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2003
    Assignee: UT-Battelle, LLC
    Inventors: John T. Simpson, Roger K. Richards, Donald P. Hutchinson, Marcus L. Simpson
  • Patent number: 6522446
    Abstract: The invention is directed to the use of anisometrically shaped metal particles in liquid light valve suspensions, light valve films and light valves. The anisometric metal particles may have various geometric shapes including, for example, fibrils, and an average length in the range between about 1 micron and 50 nanometers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2003
    Assignee: Research Frontiers Incorporated
    Inventor: Robert L. Saxe
  • Patent number: 6522471
    Abstract: A system of beam narrowing for resolution enhancement produces a narrowed beam for use in surface imaging. The system of beam narrowing for resolution enhancement uses a Fabry-Perot cavity to sharpen the intensity profile of a light source imaged through the system. The optical distance between reflective surfaces forming the Fabry-Perot cavity is tuned to select one of the surfaces as a target surface. The beam width is thereby optimized to a minimum width at the selected target surface. Multiple Fabry-Perot cavities can be cascaded by interposing one or more additional partly reflective surfaces between a first surface and a second underlying surface. The optical distances between all of the surfaces are tuned to select a target surface. The beam width is optimized at the selected target surface to produce a beam narrower than the beam produced by a single Fabry-Perot cavity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2003
    Assignee: Z Tek Inc.
    Inventor: Bryan Kevin Clark
  • Publication number: 20030011870
    Abstract: A substrate is provided with a light reflection film in which the heights of a plurality of convex portions or the depths of concave portions formed on a base material are specified to be substantially the same. The two-dimensional shapes of the plurality of convex portions or concave portions are specified to be the two-dimensional shapes of independent circles and polygons, or of either of them. In addition, the plurality of convex portions or concave portions are arranged in the direction of the plane on a random basis. The substrate is formed using a mask in which light transmission portions or light non-transmission portions are formed in units of dots, the number thereof being smaller than the number of dot regions. The dots are arranged irregularly in each of the units, and a plurality of units are included.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 19, 2002
    Publication date: January 16, 2003
    Inventors: Toshihiro Otake, Mutsumi Matsuo, Tadashi Tsuyuki
  • Patent number: 6505939
    Abstract: Projection system comprising at least two light sources, a projection lens and a spatial light modulator located between the light sources and the projection lens, which light modulator comprises a plurality of light-deflection devices each provided with an element which is tiltable about a tilt axis. The light sources are arranged with respect to the spatial light modulator in such a way that, in operation, the centers of the light beams coming from the light sources and projected on each element are located on a projection line which extends substantially parallel to the tilt axis of the element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 14, 2003
    Assignee: Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.
    Inventors: Serge Joel Armand Bierhuizen, Marten Sikkens, Anthonie Hendrik Bergman
  • Patent number: 6504644
    Abstract: An apparatus for creating a pattern on a workpiece sensitive to radiation, such as a photomask, a display panel or a microoptical device. The apparatus includes a radiation source, a spatial modulator (SLM) having a multitude of modulating elements (pixels), a projection system, an electronic data processing and delivery system controlling said modulator, a precision mechanical system for moving said workpiece and an electronic control system. Specifically, the drive signals can set the pixels in a number of states larger than two, and intermediate modulation states are used for pixels along edges of pattern features. The design of the modulating elements and the exposure method create, for differently placed and/or differently oriented edges in the pattern, a symmetry in the aperture stop of the projection system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2003
    Assignee: Micronic Laser Systems AB
    Inventor: Torbjorn Sandstrom
  • Patent number: 6487000
    Abstract: A microelectromechanical structure, usable in an optical switch for directing a light beam towards one of two light guide elements, including: a mirror element, rotatably movable; an actuator, which can translate; and a motion conversion assembly, arranged between the mirror element and the actuator. The motion conversion assembly includes a projection integral with the mirror element and elastic engagement elements integral with the actuator and elastically loaded towards the projection. The elastic engagement elements are formed by metal plates fixed to the actuator at one of their ends and engaging the projection with an abutting edge countershaped with respect to the projection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2002
    Assignee: STMicroelectronics S.r.l.
    Inventors: Ubaldo Mastromatteo, Bruno Murari
  • Publication number: 20020135864
    Abstract: An apparatus at least partially intercepts a plurality of light beams propagating along a respective plurality of beam paths. The apparatus includes a single crystal silicon substrate and an array including a plurality of modules. Each module includes a reflector comprising single crystal silicon and a reflector surface lying in a reflector plane substantially perpendicular to the substrate surface. Each module further includes a reflector support which mounts the reflector to move substantially within the reflector plane with a displacement component along the surface normal direction of the substrate surface. Each module further includes a reflector driver responsive to electrical current to selectively move the reflector between a first position and a second position.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 25, 2001
    Publication date: September 26, 2002
    Inventors: Chen-Wei Chiu, Aramais Avakian, Tom Tsao, Fukang Jiang, Jeff Dickson, Yu-Chong Tai
  • Patent number: 6441947
    Abstract: An optical beam steerer includes one or more layers of electro-optically active material in which is formed a chirped distributed Bragg reflector. An electric field generated across the electro-optically active material in the direction of propagation of the chirped distributed Bragg reflector causes the index of refraction within the material to change. The electric field varies in a direction normal to the direction of propagation of the chirped distributed Bragg reflector which causes a variation in the local index of refraction proportional to the strength of the electric field. Changes in the index of refraction cause the wavefront of the incident optical beam to experience different delays such that the incident optical beam is reflected out of the beam steerer at an angle that is tangential to the direction of variation of the applied electric field. Two dimensional beam steering is provided by the creation of two electric fields that are orthogonal to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2002
    Assignee: HRL Laboratories, LLC
    Inventor: Stanislav I. Ionov
  • Publication number: 20020109900
    Abstract: A reset driving scheme for adressing a switching mirror display (20) enables current to flow in two directions through the switching elements (30). The display is forced into a predefined state and drives the display into the other optical states by using an adressable TFT (31) providing a continous current. A circuit that fulfils these requirements is indicated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 8, 2002
    Publication date: August 15, 2002
    Inventors: Mark Thomas Johnson, Iain Mcintosh Hunter, Steven Charles Deane
  • Patent number: 6373620
    Abstract: A light beam deflector comprising a modified asymmetric Fabry-Perot (Gires-Tournois) etalon having a back reflecting and electrically conducting mirror and a front partially transmitting mirror spaced apart by an electro-optic material, there also being a transparent sheet resistor between the electro-optic material and the front mirror. The invention further comprises a pair of electrodes contacting two generally parallel edges of the transparent sheet resistor so that if different voltages are applied between the electrodes with respect to the back conducting mirror, a front to back electric field which varies in a linear manner from one electrode to the other will be produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2002
    Assignee: Corning Applied Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Feiling Wang
  • Patent number: 6369933
    Abstract: An optical correlator includes a first reflective mode spatial light modulator for inputting an input image and a second reflective mode spatial light modulator for inputting a reference image for comparing with the input image. The optical correlator also includes an optics arrangement for (i) directing light into the first spatial light modulator, (ii) directing light along a first optical path from the first spatial light modulator into the second spatial light modulator, and (iii) directing light along a second optical path from the second spatial light modulator into an image plane. The optics arrangement includes a first lens having a focal length f1 and a second lens having a focal length f2. The first lens is positioned substantially adjacent the first spatial light modulator and the second lens is positioned substantially adjacent the second spatial light modulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2002
    Assignee: Display tech, Inc
    Inventor: Michael J. O'Callaghan
  • Patent number: 6356377
    Abstract: A variable optical delay line using MEMS devices. A reflector on a micro machine linear rack is positioned and spaced from an input source and/or an output to receive and reflect input light waves toward the output. The distance between the reflector and the input and output is variable and thereby enables selective path delay compensation of the input light wave signals. Other disclosed embodiments utilize pivoting MEMS mirrors and selective adjustment of the mirror pivot angles to provide the selective path delay compensation required in a light wave system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 29, 2000
    Date of Patent: March 12, 2002
    Assignees: Agere Systems Guardian Corp., Lucent Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: David John Bishop, Randy Clinton Giles
  • Publication number: 20020008899
    Abstract: An object of the invention is to provide a light reflective film which can prevent moire fringes from occurring. A rough face in which a plurality of rows of pyramidal convex portions that are linearly continuous are adjacently formed in parallel with one another is formed on one face of a die film. The rows of convex portions that are linearly continuous are inclined at a predetermined angle with respect to an edge of the die film. An optical film is produced by transferring the die film. A light reflective film is produced by vapor-depositing a light reflection film on the optical film. In a liquid crystal display panel having the light reflective film, the pitch of occurring moire fringes becomes so small that the moire fringes cannot be visually seen, and moire fringes can be prevented from occurring.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 24, 2001
    Publication date: January 24, 2002
    Inventors: Mitsuhiro Tanaka, Yuji Saai
  • Publication number: 20020001120
    Abstract: An optical modulation element is capable of forming a reflective diffraction grating in which heights of a plurality of elements each having a reflecting surface periodically change. The reflecting surfaces of at least one of the plurality of elements are driven in a direction of height by piezoelectric elements. The plurality of elements each having the surface as the reflecting surface are two-dimensionally arrayed by juxtaposing long sides. A rear surface side of an effective reflecting portion of each of the elements is fixed to the piezoelectric element.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 24, 2001
    Publication date: January 3, 2002
    Inventor: Noritaka Mochizuki
  • Patent number: 6317251
    Abstract: A light beam deflector comprising a modified asymmetric Fabry-Perot (Gires-Tournois) etalon having a back reflecting and electrically conducting mirror and a front partially transmitting mirror spaced apart by an electro-optic material, there also being a transparent sheet resistor between the electro-optic material and the front mirror. The invention further comprises a pair of electrodes contacting two generally parallel edges of the transparent sheet resistor so that if different voltages are applied between the electrodes with respect to the back conducting mirror, a front to back electric field which varies in a linear manner from one electrode to the other will be produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2001
    Assignee: Corning Applied Technologies Corporation
    Inventor: Feiling Wang
  • Patent number: 6215579
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for modulating an incident light beam for forming a two-dimensional projection image. The apparatus includes a plurality of elongated elements each having a reflective surface. The elongated elements are suspended substantially parallel to each other above a substrate with their respective ends supported, forming a column of adjacent reflecting surfaces grouped according to display elements. Alternate ones of each group are deformable by a applying a voltage with respect to the substrate. An approximately flat center section of each deformed element is substantially parallel to and a predetermined distance from a center section of each undeformed element. Limiting the predetermined distance avoids hysteresis in deforming the elements and avoids adhesion of the elements to the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2001
    Assignee: Silicon Light Machines
    Inventors: David M. Bloom, Asif Godil
  • Patent number: 6185031
    Abstract: The invention provides an optical switching method and apparatus by which the response time of a variation in refractive index of light can be further reduced. An electric field applied to a light passing element made of a substance containing conjugated system electrons is controlled to vary the condition of electrons of the substance of the light passing element to vary the refractive index of the light passing element. Then, the outgoing direction of light introduced into the light passing element is controlled to deflect the outgoing light from the light passing element, and the deflected outgoing light is introduced so as to be irradiated upon a selected control object element to control the control object element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 6, 2001
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Masataka Shingu, Hisayoshi Yamoto, Tohru Sugimoto
  • Patent number: 6169624
    Abstract: Micromachined grating modulators which exhibit achromatic behavior are described. One embodiment includes narrow and wide ribbons suspended above a substrate and alternatingly interleaved with each other. Narrow and wide reflective surfaces are formed on the narrow and wide ribbons. Compensating reflective surfaces are formed in the gaps between and beneath the ribbons. The width of the ribbons as well as the width of the gaps and the compensating reflecting surfaces are designed so that incident optical beam can be modulated or attenuated in an achromatic fashion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2001
    Inventors: Asif A. Godil, David M. Bloom
  • Patent number: 6104525
    Abstract: An inventive array of M.times.N thin film actuated mirrors includes an active matrix, a passivation layer, an etchant stopping layer and an array of M.times.N actuating structures. The active matrix includes a substrate, an array of M.times.N transistors, an adhesion layer, a diffusion barrier layer, an array of M.times.N connecting terminals and a stress balancing layer. The passivation layer is formed on top of the active matrix and the etchant stopping layer is formed on top of the passivation layer. The array of M.times.N actuating structures includes a first thin film electrode, a thin film electrodisplacive member, a second thin film electrode, an elastic member and a conduit. The diffusion barrier layer located between the substrate and the connecting terminal prevents diffusion of silicon (Si) from the substrate to the connecting terminals.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2000
    Assignee: Daewoo Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Dong-Hoon Min
  • Patent number: 6094293
    Abstract: An optical switch includes a light emitter for emitting light and light receivers. A reflector is used for changing a path of light emitted from the light emitter. The reflector is held by a permanent magnet having first and second magnetic poles of opposite polarities. A supporting member is provided for the reflector and the first permanent magnet so that the reflector and the first permanent magnet can move between a first position and a second position. In the first position, the reflector and the first permanent magnet interact so the emitted light travels into one light receiver of the light receivers. On the other hand, in the second position, the reflector and the first permanent magnet interact so the emitted light travels into another of the light receivers. The switch further includes an electromagnet for generating first and second magnetic fields selectively for moving the reflector and the first permanent magnet between the first and second positions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yoshinori Yokoyama, Munehisa Takeda, Hitoshi Ota, Aritomo Uemura, Tadayoshi Kitayama
  • Patent number: 6052217
    Abstract: Thin film AMA and method for manufacturing the thin film AMA are disclosed. The thin film AMA has an active matrix, a supporting member, actuating parts, a reflecting member, and a flatness enhancing member. The flatness enhancing member such as the stress balancing layer or the stiffening member is formed beneath the reflecting member in order to enhance the flatness of the reflecting member without a bending of the reflecting member. Therefore, the reflecting member can have the level surface by the flatness enhancing member though the deformation stress such as residual stress is generated in the reflecting member during forming the reflecting member, so the light efficiency is enhanced and the quality of the picture projected onto the screen is increased.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2000
    Assignee: Daewoo Electronics Co. Ltd.
    Inventor: Kyu-Ho Hwang
  • Patent number: 6028689
    Abstract: Provided is a movable micromirror assembly wherein a mirror is mounted on, e.g. four flexible support arms, which are mounted in turn on a center support post. The post and arms resiliently support such mirror over, e.g. four address electrodes. The micromirror device is actuated like a parallel-plate capacitor by applying an address potential to the electrodes, which draw a part or all of the mirror toward same, countered by the spring force of the proximate support arms. Motion of the micromirror can be achieved along two axes since the device can be tilted and retracted according to the varying potentials applied to each of the four electrodes and the attractive force applied in turn to various portions of the micromirror in spaced proximity therewith. The support system of the micromirror is positioned beneath the mirror so that no reflective service area is lost to these features.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventors: M. Adrian Michalicek, Victor M. Bright, John H. Comtois
  • Patent number: 6002513
    Abstract: An optical modulator comprises at least two optically coupled MARS modulators, at least one having positive spectral tilt and at least one having negative spectral tilt. Both tilt and attenuation can be independently controlled by adjusting the air gaps of the constituent modulators. Preferred designs present linear spectral tilt.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Assignee: Lucent Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Keith Wayne Goossen, Wayne Harvey Knox
  • Patent number: 5999307
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for facilitating controllable switching an interface between a reflective state in which light incident upon the interface undergoes total internal reflection, and a non-reflective state in which total internal reflection is prevented at the interface. The apparatus incorporates a member (preferably an elastomer) which is deformable with respect to the interface. The member's Young's Modulus in portions of the member adjacent the interface is substantially greater (i.e. stiffer) than the member's Young's Modulus in portions of the member away from the interface. The stiffened portion of the member adjacent the interface may be in the form of a microstructure. A pair of electrodes coupled to a voltage source can be provided to controllably deform the member into optical contact with the interface, within a continuously variable range of optical contact values, to produce the non-reflective state in selectably varying degrees.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 7, 1999
    Assignee: The University of British Columbia
    Inventors: Lorne A. Whitehead, J. Thomas Tiedje, Robin John Noel Coope