Thermosyphon Or Differential Density Mixing Means; E.g., Means Internally Recycling Reaction Mass Via Differential Density Pumping, Etc. Patents (Class 422/230)
  • Patent number: 10758637
    Abstract: Methodologies, systems, and devices are disclosed for generating a chemical compound. A reaction chamber holds an amount of a precursor chemical, an activator chamber holds an amount of an activator chemical, and a quenching and neutralizer chamber holds an amount of quenching and neutralizing chemicals. A pump transfers the activator chemical from the activator chamber to the reaction chamber, where the activator chemical reacts with the precursor chemical to form the desired chemical compound. The desired chemical compound is allowed to exit the reaction chamber. Subsequently, the pump transfers the quenching and neutralizing chemicals from the quenching and neutralizer chamber to the reaction chamber, resulting in a quenched and neutralized solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2020
    Assignee: TBS Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Adrienne Clark, Paul Sabin
  • Patent number: 10096387
    Abstract: A self-regulating inherently safe apparatus for generating neutrons is described herein that includes a reaction chamber that sustains neutron generation when filled with a liquid fissionable material and an expansion chamber that dampens neutron generation from the liquid fissionable material in response to expansion of the liquid fissionable material into the expansion chamber. Consequently, the apparatus may substantially dampen neutron generation for operating temperatures above a nominal operating temperature without requiring active or external control and inherently limit neutron generation to a maximum desired output power. Also described herein is a self-regulating system and corresponding method for extracting energy from fissionable material that includes a neutron generator that generates neutrons from a liquid fissionable material and a sub-critical collection of fissionable material that generates a non-sustaining plurality of fission events from neutrons received from the neutron generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2018
    Inventor: Robert F. Bennion
  • Patent number: 8211378
    Abstract: Disclosed is a reactor for separating an aluminum layer from multi-layer film wastes to reuse a multi-layer film waste without burying or incinerating the multi-layer film waste including the aluminum. The reactor comprises a cylindrical casing which is filled with a solution to dissolve aluminum layers of the multi-layer film wastes pulverized into a predetermined size, a partition dividing an inner portion of the casing into a reactor tub in which the solution reacts with the aluminum layer and a separator tub which is provided at a portion of the reactor tub to decompose the pulverized multi-layer film wastes in which the aluminum is completely dissolved by the solution, and a stirrer which is installed at an upper portion of the reactor and stirs the solution in the reactor to activate the reaction between the solution and the aluminum in the reactor tub and to transfer the multi-layer film wastes to the separator tub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2012
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Industrial Technology
    Inventor: Youngchul Lee
  • Patent number: 8114356
    Abstract: Disclosed is an optimized process and apparatus for more efficiently and economically carrying out the liquid-phase oxidation of an oxidizable compound. Such liquid-phase oxidation is carried out in a bubble column reactor that provides for a highly efficient reaction at relatively low temperatures. When the oxidized compound is para-xylene and the product from the oxidation reaction is crude terephthalic acid (CTA), such CTA product can be purified and separated by more economical techniques than could be employed if the CTA were formed by a conventional high-temperature oxidation process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 14, 2012
    Assignee: Grupo Pretrotemex, S.A. de C.V.
    Inventors: Alan George Wonders, Lee Reynolds Partin, Wayne Scott Strasser
  • Patent number: 7892497
    Abstract: To provide an organic synthesizer that can conduct a pressure reaction and an atmospheric reaction in one organic synthesizer and can realize attachment of reaction vessels to the organic synthesizer and detachment of the reaction vessels from the organic synthesizer without applying any load to gas supply/discharge pipes. An organic synthesizer comprising a reaction vessel support part (160), which can support two or more reaction vessels, and pressure regulation means (164) for regulating the pressure within the reaction vessel supported by the reaction vessel support part (160) by supplying/discharging gas. Two or more pressure regulation means (164) are provided for each reaction vessel supported by the reaction vessel support part (160). At least one pressure regulation means (164A) in the two or more pressure regulation means (164) is constructed so as to be detachable from and attachable to the other pressure regulation means (164B).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Assignee: Sibata Scientific Technology Ltd.
    Inventors: Masatoshi Shibata, Yutaka Mashiyama, Yasuyuki Suzuki, Isamu Hiruta, Toshiaki Wada, Tetsuo Tomoda
  • Patent number: 7132085
    Abstract: In a method for catalytic oxidation of a gas, the outlay required is kept at a low level for reliably treating even relatively large quantities of gas and/or high concentrations of the gas fraction that needs to be treated. For this purpose, a gas stream including the gas being treated is circulated through a reaction zone and a return-flow zone, which is in communication with the inlet and outlet sides of the reaction zone. The circulation of the gas stream can be maintained effectively in the form of a passive system if the gas stream which includes the gas to be treated is guided in the upward direction in the reaction zone and the upward flow is assisted by convection resulting from the heat released during the oxidation reaction. Furthermore, the gas stream is preferably cooled locally in the return-flow zone by spray cooling.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2006
    Assignee: Framatome ANP GmbH
    Inventor: Bernd Eckardt
  • Publication number: 20040219080
    Abstract: A gas siphon type reactor (10) is used to carry out a three phase chemical reaction under pressure, such as the reduction of uranyl nitrate to uranous nitrate by hydrogen, in the presence of a catalyst made up of platinum on a silica carrier. The control of the pressure in the reactor (10) is provided by regulating the liquid and gas flow rates from a high-pressure separator (52), into which the liquid and the gas leaving the reactor (10) are routed. The liquid in the reactor (10) is tapped from a lateral branch pipe (32) fitted with a filter (36) and emerging in the upper area (30), behind a profiled wall (34).
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 24, 2004
    Publication date: November 4, 2004
    Applicant: Compagnie Generale Des Matieres Nucleaires
    Inventors: Pietro Bilardello, Nicolas Durupt, Renaud Pontier
  • Patent number: 6548029
    Abstract: An apparatus is provided which comprises a thermosiphon shift reactor for the conversion of carbon monoxide and the generation of steam for use in a fuel processor for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and employs the hydrogen in a fuel cell. The thermosiphon shift reactor comprises a vertically extended shell defining an interior volume containing a vertical axis defining a catalyst zone. The vertically extended shell contains a catalyst zone comprising a shift catalyst wherein a high temperature shift catalyst is disposed in successively tapering layers relative to a low temperature shift catalyst and the catalyst zone is at least partially surrounded by an external jacket which defines a flow passage between the vertically extended shell and the external jacket.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 15, 2003
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Gavin P. Towler, Kurt M. Vanden Bussche
  • Patent number: 6106789
    Abstract: The invention provides an improved alkylation process and reactor apparatus. The invention utilizes a vessel containing a riser-reactor conduit, an acid settler and an acid cooler. Hydrocarbons are introduced beneath said riser-reactor conduit, mixed with acid catalyst, and passed generally upwards through the riser-reactor conduit to enter the acid settler. Within the acid settler, alkylate is separate from the acid catalyst and is removed from the vessel. Acid catalyst from the acid settler is cooled in the internal acid coolers and returned to the region beneath the riser-reactor conduit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignee: Phillips Petroleum Company
    Inventors: Max W. Thompson, John S. Olson
  • Patent number: 6080373
    Abstract: Catalyst particles are contacted with a liquid and a gas in a vertically extending cylindrical vessel. The particles and liquid are placed in the vessel into which the gas and liquid are continuously fed from the bottom thereof so that an upwardly flowing mixture comprising the particles, liquid and gas is formed. The mixture is introduced into a gas separating zone disposed adjacent to an upper portion of the vessel to separate the mixture by gravity into a gas phase, a supernatant liquid phase and a phase rich in the catalyst particles. The gas and supernatant phases are continuously withdrawn from the separating zone while the catalyst particles-rich phase is continuously recycled to the bottom of the vessel by gravity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: Chiyoda Corporation
    Inventors: Fumihiko Uemura, Hideki Sugiyama, Chieko Nagasawa, Takeshi Minami, Kazuhiko Hamato, Noriyuki Yoneda, Akihisa Yamaguchi
  • Patent number: 6030587
    Abstract: The invention relates to an improved apparatus and method for initiating and sustaining an oxidation reaction. A hazardous waste, is introduced into a reaction zone within a pressurized containment vessel. An oxidizer, preferably hydrogen peroxide, is mixed with a carrier fluid, preferably water, and the mixture is heated until the fluid achieves supercritical conditions of temperature and pressure. The heating means comprise cartridge heaters placed in closed-end tubes extending into the center region of the pressure vessel along the reactor longitudinal axis. A cooling jacket surrounds the pressure vessel to remove excess heat at the walls.Heating and cooling the fluid mixture in this manner creates a limited reaction zone near the center of the pressure vessel by establishing a steady state density gradient in the fluid mixture which gradually forces the fluid to circulate internally.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Inventors: Brent Lowell Haroldsen, Benjamin Chiau-pin Wu
  • Patent number: 5958350
    Abstract: A process for the removal of corrosive compounds from a fluid stream, comprising the steps of: in an extraction column with an outer steel tube and an inner tube of corrosion resistant material having an open inlet end and an open outlet end and being arranged coaxially with and spaced apart within at least top portion of the outer tube, introducing at elevated temperature at the inlet end of the inner tube the fluid stream and an extraction agent and effecting in the mixed stream of the fluid and extraction agent extraction of the corrosive compounds; introducing into an annular space between the walls of the outer and the inner tube a shell stream of a non-corrosive fluid, thereby absorbing in the shell stream amounts of the corrosive compounds diffusing through the wall of the inner tube; passing the shell stream to the bottom portion of the outer tube; cooling the mixed stream at the outlet end of the inner tube by introducing into the stream a cooling stream; passing the cooled stream to the bottom porti
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: Haldor Topsoe A/S
    Inventor: Sven Ivar Hommeltoft
  • Patent number: 5955041
    Abstract: This invention relates to a reactor 1 for the continuous production of linear or cyclic acetals, in particular trioxane, dioxolane, tetroxane, dimethoxymethane, diethoxymethane, diethoxyethane and dibutoxyethane. This reactor has internal adjacently arranged evaporator elements 2, which allow for flow-through of a heat transport medium, and which are at least two meters high so as to generate a thermosiphon flow. The clear cross section between the evaporator elements is 20 to 80% of the overall cross section. Using the reactor, circulation ratios of up to 250 can be achieved. Thus, the reliability and availability of a production plant is increased while the susceptibility to breakdown decreases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 21, 1999
    Assignee: Hoechst AG
    Inventors: Dieter Arnold, Bernhard Hierholzer, Hubert Wloch, Karl-Friedrich Muck
  • Patent number: 5811469
    Abstract: Hydrocarbon liquid products are filtered and removed from a three phase hydrocarbon synthesis slurry comprising gas bubbles and particulate catalyst solids in a hydrocarbon liquid, by circulating the slurry through a gas disengaging downcomer immersed in the slurry to a filtration zone external or internal of the reactor, and then back into the slurry in the reactor. The gas disengagement densifies the slurry which is passed across the filtration surface under high flow conditions, to reduce solids build up on the filter as filter cake. Circulation through the filtration zone occurs by gravity and hydrostatics due to slurry density differences. The downcomer may also be a gas and solids reducing downcomer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1998
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Stephen C. Leviness, Charles J. Mart
  • Patent number: 5811468
    Abstract: A reversibly deactivated, particulate catalyst in a hydrocarbon synthesis slurry is rejuvenated by circulating the slurry from a slurry body through (i) a gas disengaging zone to remove gas bubbles from the slurry and increase its density, (iii) a downcomer which feeds the gas reduced, dense slurry into the bottom of a rejuvenating tube and applies a positive hydrostatic pressure to the tube, (iii) a catalyst rejuvenation zone in which a catalyst rejuvenating gas, which also acts as a lift gas, contacts the catalyst in slurry to form a catalyst rejuvenated slurry and, (iv) back into the slurry body. Removing gas bubbles prior to rejuvenation improves the rejuvenation efficiency and the downcomer reduces the amount of rejuvenation gas required to maintain slurry circulation through the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1998
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Min Chang, Constantine A. Coulaloglou, Edward C. Hsu
  • Patent number: 5580531
    Abstract: Devices for making reaction products by atomizing into droplets a first liquid containing a first reactant into a gas containing a second reactant in a manner to form a reaction product within the droplets. The reaction is controlled by monitoring the transient conversion (conversion taking place in the time interval between the formation of the droplets and their coalescence into a mass of liquid) of first reactant to reaction product just before the droplets coalesce into a mass of a second liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 3, 1996
    Assignee: Twenty-First Century Research Corporation
    Inventors: Eustathios Vassiliou, Mark W. Dassel
  • Patent number: 5558842
    Abstract: Devices for making reaction products by atomizing a first liquid (in the form of droplets) containing a reactant into a gas containing a second reactant. The reaction is controlled by monitoring the pre-coalescing temperature (temperature of the droplets just before they coalesce into a mass of liquid), or transient temperature difference (difference between the pre-coalescing temperature and the temperature of the droplets just before being atomized), or transient conversion (conversion taking place in the time interval between the formation of the droplets and their coalescence into a mass of liquid) or a combination thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1996
    Assignee: Twenty-First Century Research Corporation
    Inventors: Eustathios Vassiliou, Mark W. Dassel
  • Patent number: 5451376
    Abstract: In a fine comminution apparatus arranged downstream of a coarse comminution apparatus, polyurethane foam wastes can be comminuted to the desired particle size for recycling as an additive in the production of polyurethane, in a low-dust and energy-saving manner, by carrying out the fine comminution preferably by repeatedly forcing a mixture of the coarsely comminuted material and one of the reaction components through a nozzle or through a plurality of nozzles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1995
    Assignee: Maschinenfabrik Hennecke GmbH
    Inventors: Ferdinand Proksa, Hans-Michael Sulzbach, Ferdinand Althausen, Jurgen Wirth, Reiner Raffel
  • Patent number: 5380496
    Abstract: There is provided an apparatus for suspension polymerization to produce polymer particles having uniform size. The apparatus has a droplet forming device with at least one orifice and a recycle line which recycles the aqueous dispersion medium through the droplet forming device, a first reactor and a second reactor. The apparatus can produce polymer particles having uniform particle size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 10, 1995
    Assignee: Kanegafuchi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshiyuki Hashiguchi, Masakiti Kishi, Takehiko Yagyu
  • Patent number: 5344619
    Abstract: An apparatus for dissolving dry polymer particles in water consisting of a bin which contains the powdered polymer, a feeding means for the delivery of the polymer to a vortex chamber, a feed line for the delivery of water into the vortex chamber, an eductor, a centrifugal pump and a tank which contains an agitator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1993
    Date of Patent: September 6, 1994
    Assignee: Betz PaperChem, Inc.
    Inventors: Keith L. Larwick, Kevin A. Demarest
  • Patent number: 5340549
    Abstract: In its simplest sense, the present invention provides a method for improving the contacting of plural, distinct phases in a vertically disposed vessel containing distinct fluid phases by injecting a stream of dispersed distinct phases together into the phases contained in the vessel at a sufficient velocity to force the fluid in the vessel to circulate downwardly through a central region in the vessel and upwardly in the annular region surrounding the central region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1994
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Milind B. Ajinkya, Robert M. Koros, Barry L. Tarmy
  • Patent number: 5334360
    Abstract: The tetraphosphorus polysulfides of the formula P.sub.4 S.sub.x, wherein X is at least 3, especially tetraphosphorus decasulfide, P.sub.4 S.sub.10, are prepared by (a) establishing a continuously circulating closed loop of a liquid reaction mixture which comprises desired final product tetraphosphorus polysulfide, (b) continuously introducing liquid phosphorus and liquid sulfur into such continuously circulating reaction mixture and therein continuously reacting the liquid phosphorus with the liquid sulfur, and (c) continuously separating desired final product tetraphosphorus polysulfide, in gaseous state, from such continuously circulating reaction mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 2, 1994
    Assignee: Atochem
    Inventors: Philippe Engel, Alain Courant
  • Patent number: 5256378
    Abstract: An arrangement is provided for facilitating aerobic composting of organic material. The arrangement comprises a compost tank having an upper receiving volume, a central aeration and mixing volume, and a lower compost collection receiving volume. Preferably the central volume includes an air circulation arrangement directing air therethrough, and a mixing arrangement to facilitate mixing of organic material received therein. In the preferred embodiment, the lower compost receiving volume includes a substantially horizontal floor and a conveying mechanism, to convey fully or substantially fully composting material across the horizontal floor, toward a section of the tank from which it can be readily removed. A fluid circulation arrangement is provided, to facilitate liquid dispersion and moistening of organic material throughout the compost tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1993
    Inventor: Clinton R. Elston
  • Patent number: 5190733
    Abstract: In its simplest sense, the present invention provides a method for improving the contacting of plural, distinct phases in a vertically disposed vessel containing distinct fluid phases by injecting a stream of dispersed distinct phases together into the phases contained in the vessel at a sufficient velocity to force the fluid in the vessel to circulate downwardly through a central region in the vessel and upwardly in the annular region surrounding the central region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1993
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Milind B. Ajinkya, Robert M. Koros, Barry L. Tarmy
  • Patent number: 5154898
    Abstract: In its simplest sense, the present invention provides a method and apparatus for improving the contacting of plural, distinct phases in a circulatory reactor containing a liquid-immersed circulation tube by injecting a stream of dispersed distinct phases together into the circulation tube of the circulatory reactor. Sufficient fluid movement will force the fluid in the reactor to circulate downwardly through the circulation tube and upwardly in the annular space between the tube and the reactor wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1992
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Milind B. Ajinkya, Robert M. Koros, Barry L. Tarmy
  • Patent number: 5149509
    Abstract: The apparatus comprises a container which has a central cooling chamber and an annular chamber which surrounds the cooling chamber and contains catalyst. The gas mixture to be reacted contains H.sub.2 S and SO.sub.2 enters the annular chamber and first flows through the catalyst. The cooling chamber contains at least one coolant line and is provided with a passage for gas mixture coming from the annular chamber and with a gas outlet. The cooling chamber is provided at its bottom end with a drain for the liquid elementary sulfur .
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 3, 1990
    Date of Patent: September 22, 1992
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Herbert Fischer, Wolfgang Nehb
  • Patent number: 5009796
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for exposing particles to a fluid including the steps of adding fluid and particles to a container having impeller means therein, generating a current with the impeller so as to subject the particles to centrifugal and convective forces resulting in the formation of a well-defined and localized fluidized bed of particles, and maintaining the existence of the current through the fluidized bed so that the particles are thereby exposed to the fluid. The fluidized bed is located in a region removed from the impeller when the particles are more dense than the fluid, and the fluidized bed is located in a region near the impeller when the particles are less dense than the fluid. A method of exposing a first fluid to a second fluid, the second fluid being either a gas or a liquid immiscible in the first fluid is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 23, 1991
    Assignee: Robert Adler
    Inventors: Michael A. Petrik, Robert J. Adler, Jonathan D. Wineland
  • Patent number: 5000844
    Abstract: A device for injecting additive products into a liquid includes a conduit in which flows a liquid, a nozzle which penetrates into the conduit for injecting additive products, and a chamber in fluid communication with the conduit and situated above the latter. The nozzle is situated within the chamber, and means are provided for introducing and maintaining a gaseous atmosphere in the chamber whereby the nozzle is entirely contained in the gaseous atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1991
    Inventor: Philippe Cloup
  • Patent number: 4921752
    Abstract: A laminated fabric having a face layer of plush fabric, an intermediate layer of foam material and a bottom layer of scrim fabric having an elasticity of at least 100% in the warp and fill or course direction of the fabric.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1990
    Assignee: Milliken Research Corporation
    Inventor: Paul W. Eschenbach
  • Patent number: 4817652
    Abstract: A cleaning system of the apparatus utilizing the effect of surface tension forces (4) and phase changes between a liquid and gas. In one embodiment the surface (21) to be cleaned is submerged within a vessel (30), the pressure within the vessel being increased. A rapid depressurization of the vessel causes a plurality of bubbles (12) to form around undesired particulate matter (13) on the surface (14) of the article to be cleaned, the bubbles rising to the surface of the liquid (27) within the chamber, thereby cleaning the article. A second embodiment utilizes a cleaning fluid (52) which is applied to the surface of the article (49) to be cleaned. The fluid being subsequently frozen on the surface, thereby reducing the adhesion force between the surface of the article and undesired particulate matter. The surface of the article (49) is subsequently heated, and the undesired particulate matter is removed through the medium of the cleaning fluid (52).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1987
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1989
    Assignee: Regents of the University of Minnesota
    Inventors: Benjamin Y. H. Liu, Kang H. Ahn
  • Patent number: 4676953
    Abstract: An apparatus for the continuous production of clear sodium silicate solution with an SiO.sub.2 :Na.sub.2 O weight ratio of 1-2.8:1 by fusing sand in aqueous sodium hydroxide using a pressure-sealed circulating suspension reactor having an upper portion comprising a partially tapered gravity thickener and a lower portion comprising a cylindrical jet loop mixer. The jet loop mixer has a concentric cylindrical insertion tube suspended therein, and a recirculating power jet nozzle is upwardly directed through the bottom of the jet loop mixer so that its stream is directed into the lower end of the insertion tube, causing a continuous circulation flow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 1985
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1987
    Assignee: Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien
    Inventors: Lutz Jeromin, Heinrich Krings, Dieter Legel, Rudolf Novotny, Harald Skrobek
  • Patent number: 4640822
    Abstract: Bulk mesophase can be economically produced without coking trouble from a heavy oil in an apparatus comprising: a heat-treatment vessel for heat treating the oil thereby to form pitch containing mesophase microspheres; a cyclone-type separator installed directly below the vessel and operating to cause the mesophase microspheres within the pitch introduced into the separator to coalesce thereby to separate the mesophase microspheres from the matrix pitch; and ascent and descent pipes communicatively connecting the interiors of the vessel and the separator, the ascent pipe returning matrix pitch after removal of the mesophase microspheres into the vessel together with newly supplied oil, which drives the matrix pitch by jet-pump action, the descent pipe introducing the pitch with mesophase microsphere into the top part of the separator in a horizontal tangential direction to produce a cyclone separation action therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1987
    Assignee: Koa Oil Company, Limited
    Inventors: Kosaku Noguchi, Honami Tanaka, Yukimasa Kumura, Heima Yamazaki, Eiji Kitajima, Tomonori Sunada
  • Patent number: 4631175
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for the chlorination of polyolefins in aqueous suspension. The method includes subjecting the suspension of the polyolefin to a submerged jet of chlorine gas at a velocity sufficient to atomize the chlorine; i.e., at least about sixty feet per second. By this method a very intimate mixture of chlorine and aqueous suspension is formed, whereby the chlorination proceeds more efficiently and at a lower chlorine pressure. Further advantages include a more uniformly-substituted product.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 1985
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1986
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventors: James B. Akers, Jr., Douglas E. Leng, Randall J. Normand
  • Patent number: 4545959
    Abstract: A chamber for the treatment of particulate matter in a fluidized bed, e.g. at elevated temperatures, comprises an apertured bottom for the admission of carrier gas into the overlying space. The latter is divided by upstanding partitions into at least one medial compartment and at least two additional compartments adjoining the at least one medial compartment at the opposite sides of the latter. The apparatus further comprises a duct of substantially triangular cross-section with a horizontal base and an upwardly sloping side walls located in the at least one medial compartment, with the side walls of the duct extending in directions parallel to the partitions, and the base of the duct being imperforate and resting on the wall of the chamber and preventing the entry of the carrier gas into the at least one medial compartment from below; and a nozzle arrangement in each of the upwardly sloping side walls of the duct.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1985
    Assignee: Bergwerksverband GmbH
    Inventors: Hans-Dieter Schilling, Lothar Holl
  • Patent number: 4449828
    Abstract: Mixing apparatus comprising a vessel having a centrally disposed vertical draft tube and a centrifugal impeller at the lower end of the draft tube. A plurality of vertical heat exchanger tubes surround the draft tube. Ports are provided for the inlet of raw material and the outlet of product. The impeller draws liquid down through the draft tube, mixes it in an area of turbulence below the impeller and forces it up the heat exchanger tubes. Materials react in the heat exchanger tubes as in a plug flow reactor and elsewhere in the vessel the liquids mix and react as in a back mix reactor.The equipment is usable for continuous as well as batch operations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 22, 1984
    Assignee: Ashland Oil, Inc.
    Inventor: Maher L. Mansour
  • Patent number: 4337069
    Abstract: In an apparatus, such as a liquid-gas condensation tower, in which a liquid phase is withdrawn rapidly through an exit port from a chamber, an improvement which assures complete agitation throughout the liquid phase comprises a regular array of liquid agitation devices positioned within the liquid and above a cone-shaped vortex breaker structure which is placed above the exit port.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1982
    Assignee: Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
    Inventors: Paul M. German, Jr., James A. Lamont, John C. Gee
  • Patent number: 4289731
    Abstract: An apparatus for pyrolysis of hydrocarbon starting products comprises a horizontally split casing for molten heat carrier. At least one injector having a nozzle for feeding hydrocarbon starting products to the casing and at least one pipe for removal of pyrolysis products are mounted in the upper part of the casing. The apparatus also has means for supplying heat to the heat carrier. According to the invention, the injector is mounted in such a manner that the outlet section of its nozzle is spaced apart from the surface of the heat carrier at a distance which is sufficient for the formation of a hydrodynamic crater in this surface under the action of a jet of hydrocarbon starting products flowing from the nozzle. Means for supplying heat to the heat carrier is arranged within the casing in such a manner that heat is supplied directly within the heat carrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1981
    Inventors: Elena D. Khmelevskaya, Grigory I. Dvoskin, Vladislav A. Kablikov, Zinovy F. Chukhanov, Vadim M. Volny, Tamara N. Mukhina, Genrikh L. Stolyar, Olga E. Volnaya, Nikolai F. Kuptsov
  • Patent number: 4274838
    Abstract: Organic wastes, such as animal manure, are fed into an elongated digester tank at one end thereof in slurry form. The slurry slowly moves to the other end of the tank for subsequent disposal. During the residence time in the tank decomposition of the waste occurs yielding methane gas and carbon dioxide. A cover over the digester collects the gas generated. A heat exchange arrangement causes transverse stirring of the slurry as it passes through the tank enhancing the decomposition process. Scum suppressors on the surface of the slurry prevent interference with the formation and release of the methane gas. The settling of solids is controlled by the use of gas jets disposed along the bottom of the tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1981
    Assignee: Energy Harvest, Inc.
    Inventors: Eugene M. Dale, Jerry A. Malstrom
  • Patent number: 4230668
    Abstract: Process and apparatus for producing vinyl chloride monomer characterized by conjoint chlorination and dehydrochlorination reactions carried out in the presence of fluidized solids which provide efficient heat transfer within and between the two reaction zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1980
    Assignee: The Badger Company, Inc.
    Inventors: Harold R. Sheely, F. Frederick Oricchio, Domenic C. Ferrari
  • Patent number: 4164541
    Abstract: Apparatus for producing a product such as fertilizer which has acidic and basic constituents having, a venturi pump and a mixing tank. The venturi pump is powered by mixing the constituents in a reaction chamber and expelling the resulting product through a venturi tube. The venturi tube entrains additional product adjacent to the entrance of the tube and expels the additional product along with the product just produced by the reaction in order to mix the product in the tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1979
    Inventors: Edward A. Platz, deceased, by Zelma H. Platz, executor, by William Lubas, executor
  • Patent number: 4158697
    Abstract: Apparatus for the processing of solid fuel hydrocarbons including a reactor for hydrogenation of the fuel reactant and a combustion reactor for oxidation of the residuum from the first reactor, the solid fuel reactant being dissolved in molten salt throughout its processing; and heat recovery means including a molten metal loop and a steam loop whereby the excess heat from the hydrogenation and oxidation reactors, present in the molten salt reaction matrix, is recovered in molten metal and transferred to the steam loop for energy production while avoiding cross contamination of the steam loop with salt from the reaction loop, and vice-versa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 1976
    Date of Patent: June 19, 1979
    Assignee: Clean Energy Corporation
    Inventor: Frank B. Cramer
  • Patent number: 4113438
    Abstract: An apparatus is provided wherein organic reactant is sulfonated by injecting it into a stream of gas comprising sulfur trioxide, at a venturi, and the resulting reaction mixture is quenched with a stream of cooled, recycled reaction product immediately downstream of the venturi in a conduit in which particles of reaction mixture are agglomerated into a film of the recycle stream and in which additional sulfonation reaction occurs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1976
    Date of Patent: September 12, 1978
    Assignee: The Chemithon Corporation
    Inventors: Burton Brooks, Richard J. Brooks