Including Rhodium, Ruthenium, Or Osmium Catalyst Patents (Class 429/526)
  • Patent number: 10096837
    Abstract: Provided are: a supporting carbon material for a solid polymer fuel cell, said supporting carbon material making it possible to produce a high-performance solid polymer fuel cell in which there is little decrease in power generation performance as a result of repeated battery load fluctuation that inevitably occurs during operation of the solid polymer fuel cell; and a catalyst metal particle-supporting carbon material. The present invention relates to: a supporting carbon material for a solid polymer fuel cell, said supporting carbon material being a porous carbon material in which the specific surface area of mesopores having a pore diameter of 2-50 nm according to nitrogen adsorption measurement is 600-1,600 m2/g, the relative intensity ratio (IG?/IG) of the peak intensity (IG?) of the G-band 2,650-2,700 cm?1 range to the peak intensity (IG) of the G-band 1,550-1,650 cm?1 range in the Raman spectrum is 0.8-2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2018
    Assignees: NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION, NIPPON STEEL & SUMIKIN CHEMICAL CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Takashi Iijima, Masataka Hiyoshi, Katsumasa Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Hayashida, Kazuhiko Mizuuchi, Takumi Kouno, Masakazu Higuchi, Masakazu Katayama
  • Publication number: 20150147682
    Abstract: Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 26, 2014
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Inventors: Kurian Abraham Kuttiyiel, Kotaro Sasaki, Radoslav R. Adzic
  • Publication number: 20150140474
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for producing metal-supported carbon, which includes supporting metal microparticles on the surface of carbon black, by a liquid-phase reduction method, in a thin film fluid formed between processing surfaces arranged to be opposite to each other so as to be able to approach to and separate from each other, at least one of which rotates relative to the other, as well as a method for producing crystals comprising fullerene molecules and fullerene nanowhisker/nanofiber nanotubes, which includes uniformly stirring and mixing a solution containing a first solvent having fullerene dissolved therein, and a second solvent in which fullerene is less soluble than in the first solvent, in a thin film fluid formed between processing surfaces arranged to be opposite to each other so as to be able to approach to and separate from each other, at least one of which rotates relative to the other.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 29, 2015
    Publication date: May 21, 2015
    Applicant: M. TECHNIQUE CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Masakazu ENOMURA
  • Publication number: 20150118599
    Abstract: A method of fabricating composite filaments is provided. An initial composite filament including a core and a cladding (such as a Pt-group metal) is cut into smaller pieces (or is first mechanically reduced and then cut into smaller pieces). The smaller pieces of the filaments are inserted into a metal matrix, and the entire structure is then further reduced mechanically in a series of reduction steps. The process can be repeated until the desired cross sectional dimension of the filaments is achieved. The matrix can then be chemically removed to isolate the final composite filaments with the cladding thickness down to the nanometer range. The process allows the organization and integration of filaments of different sizes, compositions, and functionalities into arrays suitable for various applications.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 24, 2014
    Publication date: April 30, 2015
    Inventor: Joze Bevk
  • Patent number: 9012107
    Abstract: The cathode catalyst for a fuel cell includes an RuSe alloy having an average particle size of less than or equal to 6 nm. The cathode catalyst may also include a metal carbide. The RuSe alloy is a highly active amorphous catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Alexey Alexandrovichserov, Chan Kwak, Ho-Jin Kweon, Si-Hyun Lee
  • Publication number: 20150093686
    Abstract: A method of preparing catalytic materials comprising depositing platinum or non-platinum group metals, or alloys thereof on a porous oxide support.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2013
    Publication date: April 2, 2015
    Applicant: STC.UNM
    Inventors: Alexey Serov, Ulises A Martinez, Plamen B Atanassov
  • Patent number: 8993472
    Abstract: Layered catalyst structures for fuel cells, particularly for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), are produced by a reactive spray deposition technology process. The catalyst layers so produced contain particles sized between 1 and 15 nm and clusters of such particles of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of platinum, platinum alloys with transition metals, mixtures thereof and non-noble metals. The catalyst layers without an electrically conducting supporting medium exhibit dendritic microstructure, providing high electrochemically active surface area and electron conductivity at ultra-low catalyst loading. The catalyst layers deposited on an electrically conducting medium, such as carbon, exhibit three-dimensional functional grading, which provides efficient utilization as a catalyst, high PEMFC performance at the low catalyst loading, and minimized limitations caused by reactant diffusion and activation. The catalytic layers may be produced by a single-run deposition method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: National Research Council of Canada
    Inventors: Justin Roller, Radenka Maric, Khalid Fatih, Roberto Neagu
  • Publication number: 20150086902
    Abstract: A catalytic material includes (i) a support material and (ii) a thin film catalyst coating having an inner face adjacent to the support material and an outer face, the thin film catalyst coating having a mean thickness of ?8 nm, and wherein at least 40% of the support material surface area is covered by the thin film catalyst coating; and wherein the thin film catalyst coating includes a first metal and one or more second metals, and wherein the atomic percentage of first metal in the thin film catalyst coating is not uniform through the thickness of the thin film catalyst coating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2013
    Publication date: March 26, 2015
    Applicant: JOHNSON MATTHEY FUEL CELLS LIMITED
    Inventors: Graham Alan Hards, Ian Roy Harkness, Michael Ian Petch, Jonathan David Brereton Sharman, Edward Anthony Wright, Alexander Martin Willcocks
  • Patent number: 8986908
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of manufacturing an anode for a fuel cell. The method includes: synthesizing a fuel cell catalyst used to oxidize a fuel for the anode in an electrochemical manner; forming an electrode for the anode by use of the synthesized fuel cell catalyst; and synthesizing an electrolysis catalyst, which is used to electrolyze water, on the electrode as the electrolysis catalyst is loaded into the anode. By introducing the electrolysis catalyst on the fuel cell electrode that has already been formed, deformation of the structure of the electrode is minimized and performance of the electrode is improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignees: Hyundai Motor Company, Kia Motors Corporation
    Inventor: Hoonhui Lee
  • Patent number: 8980502
    Abstract: The invention includes a method for use in creating electrochemical electrodes including removing a supporting structure in situ after the assembly of the electrochemical cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
    Inventors: Michael David Gasda, Glenn Eisman, Daniel Gall
  • Patent number: 8974986
    Abstract: A method for producing metal-supported carbon includes supporting metal microparticles on the surface of carbon black, by a liquid-phase reduction method, in a thin film fluid formed between processing surfaces arranged to be opposite to each other so as to be able to approach to and separate from each other, at least one of which rotates relative to the other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 4, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: M. Technique Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Masakazu Enomura
  • Patent number: 8968960
    Abstract: Ruthenium or a Ruthenium compound is applied to an anode structure according to a predetermined pattern, with only part of the anode active area containing Ru. The parts of the MEA that do not contain Ru are not expected to suffer degradation from Ru cross-over, so that overall degradation of the cell will be diminished. Having less precious metals will also translate into less cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignees: Daimler AG, Ford Motor Company
    Inventors: Hao Zhang, Herwig Haas, Andrew Leow, Mike Davis, Richard Fellows
  • Patent number: 8968967
    Abstract: A fuel cell catalyst support includes a fluoride-doped metal oxide/phosphate support structure and a catalyst layer, supported on such fluoride-doped support structure. In one example, the support structure is a sub-stechiometric titanium oxide and/or indium-tin oxide (ITO) partially coated or mixed with a fluoride-doped metal oxide or metal phosphate. In another example, the support structure is fluoride-doped and mixed with at least one of low surface carbon, boron-doped diamond, carbides, borides, and silicides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: Ballard Power Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Belabbes Merzougui, Minhua Shao, Lesia V. Protsailo
  • Publication number: 20150050583
    Abstract: The present invention refers to highly sinter-stable metal nanoparticles supported on mesoporous graphitic spheres, the so obtained metal-loaded mesoporous graphitic particles, processes for their preparation and the use thereof as catalysts, in particular for high temperature reactions in reducing atmosphere and cathode side oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in PEM fuel cells.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 8, 2013
    Publication date: February 19, 2015
    Applicant: STUDIENGESELLSCHAFT KOHLE MBH
    Inventors: Ferdi Schüth, Diana Carolina Galeano Nunez, Hans-Josef Bongard, Karl Mayrhofer, Josef C. Meier, Claudio Baldizzone, Stefano Mezzavilla
  • Patent number: 8956771
    Abstract: An electrode catalyst for fuel cell, a method of preparing the electrode catalyst, a membrane electrode assembly including the electrode catalyst, and a fuel cell including the membrane electrode assembly. The electrode catalyst includes a crystalline catalyst particle incorporating a precious metal having oxygen reduction activity and a Group 13 element, where the Group 13 element is present in a unit lattice of the crystalline catalyst particle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kang-hee Lee, Chan-ho Pak, Dae-jong Yoo, Seon-ah Jin
  • Publication number: 20150044594
    Abstract: A catalyst-layer-supporting substrate comprising a substrate supporting a catalyst layer; wherein the catalyst layer comprises two or more porous catalyst metal particle layers that are superposed alternately with (i) two or more intersticed layers comprising at least one element selected from the group consisting of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, Al, and Cu; or (ii) two or more fibrous carbon layers having interstices among fibers of the fibrous carbon. A method for forming a catalyst-layer-supporting structure that comprises porous catalyst metal particle by removing a pore-forming metal from a mixture layer containing a pore-forming metal and a catalyst metal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 23, 2014
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Applicant: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventors: Mei WU, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Mutsuki Yamazaki, Yoshihiko Nakano
  • Patent number: 8951696
    Abstract: A fuel electrode catalyst for fuel cell excellent in CO poisoning resistance, an electrode/membrane assembly using the fuel electrode catalyst for fuel cell, and a fuel cell and a fuel cell system including the electrode/membrane assembly are provided. The fuel electrode catalyst for fuel cell comprises a platinum-ruthenium first alloy catalyst and a second alloy catalyst obtained by partially substituting ruthenium of the platinum-ruthenium first alloy catalyst by a metal lower dissolving potential than ruthenium. The electrode/membrane assembly 7 comprises three layers of a second alloy catalyst layer 3, a first alloy catalyst layer 4, and a ruthenium catalyst layer 5 arranged in this order from a polymer electrolytic membrane 1 side toward a gas diffusion layer 13 side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Assignee: JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Kenji Kadoma, Kouji Matsuoka
  • Patent number: 8940459
    Abstract: An alkaline fuel cell electrode catalyst includes a first catalyst particle that contains at least one of iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni), a second catalyst particle that contains at least one of platinum (Pt) and ruthenium (Ru), and a carrier for supporting the first catalyst particle and the second catalyst particle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Haruyuki Nakanishi, Yusuke Kuzushima
  • Publication number: 20150024289
    Abstract: The invention provides a unique catalyst system without the need for carbon. Metal nanoparticles were grown onto conductive, two-dimensional material of TiSi2 nanonet by atomic layer deposition. The growth exhibited a unique selectivity with the elemental metal deposited only on defined surfaces of the nanonets in nanoscale without mask or patterning.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 18, 2014
    Publication date: January 22, 2015
    Inventors: Dunwei Wang, Jin Xie, Xiaogang Yang, Xiahui Yao
  • Publication number: 20150017565
    Abstract: Embodiments of the disclosure relate to electrocatalysts. The electrocatalyst may include at least one gas-diffusion layer having a first side and a second side, and particle cores adhered to at least one of the first and second sides of the at least one gas-diffusion layer. The particle cores includes surfaces adhered to the at least one of the first and second sides of the at least one gas-diffusion layer and surfaces not in contact with the at least one gas-diffusion layer. Furthermore, a thin layer of catalytically atoms may be adhered to the surfaces of the particle cores not in contact with the at least one gas-diffusion layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 15, 2014
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Applicant: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Radoslav Adzic, Stoyan Bliznakov, Miomir Vukmirovic
  • Publication number: 20150017555
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the use of mesoporous graphitic particles having a loading of sintering-stable metal nanoparticles for fuel cells and further electrochemical applications, for example as constituent of layers in electrodes of fuel cells and batteries.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 8, 2013
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Applicant: STUDIENGESELLSCHAFT KOHLE MBH
    Inventors: Ferdi Schüth, Diana Carolina Galeano Nunez, Hans-Josef Bongard, Stefano Mezzavilla, Karl J. Mayrhofer, Josef C. Meier, Claudio Baldizzone, Jean-Francois Drillet, Sakthivel Mariappan, Tadios Tesfu, Volker Peinecke
  • Patent number: 8921260
    Abstract: A catalytic nanoparticle includes a porous, hollow core and an atomically thin layer of platinum atoms on the core. The core is a porous palladium, palladium-M or platinum-M core, where M is selected from the group consisting of gold, iridium, osmium, palladium, rhenium, rhodium and ruthenium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Assignee: Ballard Power Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Minhua Shao, Lesia V. Protsailo
  • Publication number: 20140370421
    Abstract: A method and article of manufacture including a catalytic substrate with a surface layer providing balanced active sites for adsorption/dissociation of H2 and adsorption of OHad for use in AFCs.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 18, 2013
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventors: Dusan Strmcnik, Vojislav Stamenkovic, Nenad Markovic
  • Patent number: 8906577
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an anode supported solid-oxide fuel cell based flame fuel cell that enable the generation of both electricity and heat from a flame (i.e. flame is used as a heat source and a fuel source for the fuel cell's operation, while supplying a useful heat for other thermochemical systems) and, more particularly, to an anode supported solid-oxide fuel cell based flame fuel cell that uses hydrocarbon/air mixture as a fuel source and includes a catalyst layer that can act as a protective layer for the anode layer, an anode layer, a cathode layer, an electrolyte layer, and an interlayer between the cathode layer and the electrolyte layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2014
    Assignee: Syracuse University
    Inventor: Jeongmin Ahn
  • Publication number: 20140349203
    Abstract: The invention relates to a carbon-free electrocatalyst for fuel cells, containing an electrically conductive substrate and a catalytically active species, wherein the conductive substrate is an inorganic, multi-component substrate material of the composition 0X1-0X2, in which 0X1 means an electrically non-conductive inorganic oxide having a specific surface area (BET) in the range of 50 to 400 mVg and 0X2 means a conductive oxide. The non-conductive inorganic oxide 0X1 is coated with the conductive oxide 0X2. The multi-component substrate preferably has a core/shell structure. The multi-component substrate material 0X1-0X2 has an electrical conductivity in the range>0.01 S/cm and is coated with catalytically active particles containing noble metal. The electrocatalysts produced therewith are used in electrochemical devices such as PEM fuel cells and exhibit high corrosion stability.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 18, 2012
    Publication date: November 27, 2014
    Inventors: Barbara Klose-Schubert, Daniel Herein, Marco Lopez, Carsten Becker
  • Publication number: 20140349215
    Abstract: Electrochemical cell electrode (100) comprising a nanostructured catalyst support layer (102) having first and second generally opposed major sides (103,104). The first side (103) comprises nanostructured elements (106) comprising support whiskers (108) projecting away from the first side (103). The support whiskers (108) have a first nanoscopic electrocatalyst layer (110) thereon, and a second nanoscopic electrocatalyst layer (112) on the second side (104) comprising a precious metal alloy. Electrochemical cell electrodes (100) described herein are useful, for example, as a fuel cell catalyst electrode for a fuel cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 19, 2012
    Publication date: November 27, 2014
    Applicant: 3M INNOVATIVE PROPERTIES COMPANY
    Inventors: Mark K. Debe, Amy E. Hester
  • Patent number: 8889319
    Abstract: Disclosed are a novel compound, a method for preparing the same, and a lithium secondary battery comprising the same. More specifically, disclosed are a compound in which five MO6 octahedrons are bonded to one another around one MO6 octahedron such that the MO6 octahedrons share a vertex, to form hollows and Li cations substituted instead of Na cations using an ion substitution method are present in the hollows, and a crystal structure thereof is not varied even upon intercalation and deintercalation of Li cations, a method for preparing the same, and a lithium secondary battery comprising the same as a cathode active material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: YoungHwa Jung, Youngsun Choi, Seung-Tae Hong
  • Patent number: 8871393
    Abstract: A regenerative fuel cell is provided by the present invention. In the methods and systems described herein, a source of fuel is partially oxidized to release protons and electrons, without total oxidation to carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide. The partially oxidized fuel can be regenerated, by reduction, when the fuel cell is reversed. Other variations of the invention provide a convenient system for hydrogen storage, including steps for both release and recapture of hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2014
    Assignee: HRL Laboratories, LLC
    Inventors: Ping Liu, John Vajo
  • Patent number: 8871672
    Abstract: In one example embodiment, a core-shell type platinum-containing catalyst is allowed to reduce the amount of used platinum and has high catalytic activity and stability. In one example embodiment, the core-shell type platinum-containing catalyst includes a core particle (with an average particle diameter R1) made of a non-platinum element and a platinum shell layer (with an average thickness ts) satisfying 1.4 nm?R1?3.5 nm and 0.25 nm?ts?0.9 nm. The core particle includes an element satisfying Eout?3.0 eV, where average binding energy relative to the Fermi level of 5d orbital electrons of platinum present on an outermost surface of the shell layer is Eout. In a fuel cell including a platinum-containing catalyst which contains a Ru particle as a core particle, the output density at a current density of 300 mA/cm2 is 70 mW/cm2 or over, and an output retention ratio is approximately 90% or over.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2014
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Shuji Goto, Shizuka Hosoi, Yuli Li, Yoshihiro Kudo, Akihiro Maesaka
  • Publication number: 20140295316
    Abstract: A catalyst includes (i) a primary metal or alloy or mixture including the primary metal, and (ii) an electrically conductive carbon support material for the primary metal or alloy or mixture including the primary metal, wherein the carbon support material: (a) has a specific surface area (BET) of 100-600 m2/g, and (b) has a micropore area of 10-90 m2/g.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 19, 2012
    Publication date: October 2, 2014
    Inventors: Sarah Caroline Ball, Graham Alan Hards, Marlene Rodlert, Jonathan David Brereton Sharman, Michael E Spahr
  • Publication number: 20140248552
    Abstract: A support for a fuel cell includes a substrate including highly crystalline carbon, and a crystalline carbon layer on the substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 1, 2013
    Publication date: September 4, 2014
    Applicant: SAMSUNG SDI CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Jun-Young KIM, Sung-Chul LEE, Myoung-Ki MIN, Yong-Bum PARK
  • Patent number: 8791043
    Abstract: An ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) composite catalyst includes an OMC; and metal particles and at least one component selected from a group consisting of nitrogen and sulfur included in the OMC. The ordered mesoporous carbon composite catalyst may be formed by impregnating an ordered mesoporous silica with a mixture of at least one selected from the group consisting of a nitrogen-containing carbon precursor, and a sulfur-containing carbon precursor, a metal precursor, and a solvent; drying and heat-treating the impregnated OMS; carbonizing the dried and heat-treated OMS to obtain a carbon-OMS composite; and removing the OMS from the carbon-OMS composite. A fuel cell may contain the OMC composite catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 31, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2014
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chan-ho Pak, Hyuk Chang, Ji-man Kim, Jeong-kuk Shon
  • Publication number: 20140199609
    Abstract: Provided is an electrocatalyst for solid polymer fuel cells capable of increasing the active surface area for reactions in a catalyst component, increasing the utilization efficiency of the catalyst, and reducing the amount of expensive precious metal catalyst used. Also provided are a membrane electrode assembly that uses this electrocatalyst and a solid polymer fuel cell. An electrocatalyst for a solid polymer fuel cell is provided with a catalyst and solid proton conducting material. A liquid conductive material retention part that retains a liquid proton conducting material that connects the catalyst and solid proton conducting material is provided between the same. The surface area of the catalyst exposed within the liquid conductive material retention part is larger than the surface area of the catalyst in contact with the solid proton conducting material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 21, 2011
    Publication date: July 17, 2014
    Applicant: NISSAN MOTOR CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Iden, Atsushi Ohma, Kei Sakai, Kazuyuki Satou, Yoshitaka Ono, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Ken Akizuki
  • Patent number: 8778561
    Abstract: An electrocatalytic polymer-based powder has particles of at least one electronically conductive polymer species in which particles are dispersed of at least one catalytic redox species, in which the particles of the polymer species and of the catalytic species are of nanometric dimension.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2014
    Assignee: STMicroelectronics S.R.L.
    Inventors: Raffaele Vecchione, Giuseppe Mensitieri, Anna Borriello
  • Publication number: 20140186747
    Abstract: A method of fabricating composite filaments is provided. An initial composite filament including a core and a cladding (such as a Pt-group metal) is cut into smaller pieces (or is first mechanically reduced and then cut into smaller pieces). The smaller pieces of the filaments are inserted into a metal matrix, and the entire structure is then further reduced mechanically in a series of reduction steps. The process can be repeated until the desired cross sectional dimension of the filaments is achieved. The matrix can then be chemically removed to isolate the final composite filaments with the cladding thickness down to the nanometer range. The process allows the organization and integration of filaments of different sizes, compositions, and functionalities into arrays suitable for various applications.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 24, 2014
    Publication date: July 3, 2014
    Applicant: The Trustees of Columbia University in the city of New York
    Inventor: Jose Bevk
  • Patent number: 8758951
    Abstract: A continuous coal electrolytic cell for the production of pure hydrogen without the need of separated purification units Electrodes comprising electrocatalysts comprising noble metals electrodeposited on carbon substrates are also provided. Also provided are methods of using the electrocatalysts provided herein for the electrolysis of coal in acidic medium, as well as electrolytic cells for the production of hydrogen from coal slurries in acidic media employing the electrodes described herein. Further provided are catalytic additives for the electro-oxidation of coal. Additionally provided is an electrochemical treatment process where iron-contaminated effluents are purified in the presence of coal slurries using the developed catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2014
    Assignee: Ohio University
    Inventor: Gerardine Botte
  • Patent number: 8741504
    Abstract: A solid catalyst having a close-packed structure has basic structural units present in the surface of the solid catalyst, the basic structural units including (i) a triangular lattice constituted of atoms of platinum, ruthenium, and at least one additional element which are disposed at the vertexes in the triangular lattice so that each atom of one of the elements adjoins atoms of the other elements or (ii) a rhombic lattice constituted of atoms of platinum, ruthenium, and at least one additional element which are disposed at the vertexes in the rhombic lattice in an atomic ratio of 1:2:1 so that each ruthenium atom directly adjoins a platinum atom and an atom of the additional element; and a fuel cell includes either of the solid catalyst as an anode-side electrode catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2014
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Takashi Yoshida, Fumihiko Aiga, Satoshi Itoh, Yoshiko Hiraoka, Reiko Yoshimura, Tsukasa Tada
  • Patent number: 8735023
    Abstract: One embodiment includes at least one of the anode and cathode of a fuel cell comprises a first layer and a second layer in intimate contact with each other. Both the first layer and the second layer comprise a catalyst capable of catalyzing an electrochemical reaction of a reactant gas. The second layer has a higher porosity than the first layer. A membrane electrode assembly (MEA) based on the layered electrode configuration and a process of making a fuel cell are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2014
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Anusorn Kongkanand, Eric L. Thompson, Frederick T. Wagner
  • Publication number: 20140141354
    Abstract: A fuel cell electrode including a catalyst layer including: a catalyst; and a conductor storage material having pores with an average diameter of about 5 nm to about 1000 nm.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 14, 2013
    Publication date: May 22, 2014
    Inventors: Jung-ock PARK, Yoon-hoi LEE, Jin-su HA, Suk-gi HONG
  • Patent number: 8728680
    Abstract: A fuel cell component includes an electrode support material made with nanofiber materials of Titania and ionomer. A bipolar plate stainless steel substrate and a carbon-containing layer doped with a metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, iridium, ruthenium, gold, palladium, and combinations thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2014
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Youssef M. Mikhail, Mahmoud H. Abd Elhamid, Gayatri Vyas Dadheech
  • Publication number: 20140120454
    Abstract: A fuel cell electrode catalyst which includes, at least, M1 that is at least one element selected from 3 to 7 group transition metal elements; M2 that is at least one element selected from iron group elements; M3 that is at least one element selected from 13 group elements; carbon; nitrogen; and oxygen, as constitutional elements, wherein when the atomic ratios of the elements (M1:M2:M3:carbon:nitrogen:oxygen) are represented by a:b:c:x:y:z, 0<a<1, 0<b?0.5, 0<c<1, 0<x?6, 0<y?2, 0<z?3 and a+b+c=1, and BET specific surface area is 100 m2/g or more.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 12, 2012
    Publication date: May 1, 2014
    Applicant: SHOWA DENKO K.K.
    Inventors: Akira Takahashi, Masaki Horikita, Takuya Imai, Yasuaki Wakizaka, Takashi Sato
  • Patent number: 8709969
    Abstract: RuCore—Ptshell nanocatalysts with 1˜3 atomic layers of Pt-shell were developed for enhancing the catalytic activities. Uniform atomic layers of Pt were successfully deposited on the core nanoparticles with high precision. Using such nanocatalysts as the cathode of the dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC), the efficiency of DSSC can be significantly increased. For direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications, much higher performance can also be achieved by using such RuCore—Ptshell nanocatalysts and the DMFC can be operated at room temperature without the need to raise the cell temperature to above room temperature (such as 80° C.).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2014
    Assignee: National Tsing Hua University
    Inventors: Tsang-Lang Lin, Tsan-Yao Chen, Chiun-Yi Wu
  • Publication number: 20140113218
    Abstract: Catalysts comprising porous metal nanoparticles, which are individually encapsulated with a reaction-enhancing material, and their use in fuel cell catalysis are provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 23, 2012
    Publication date: April 24, 2014
    Applicant: THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Jonah Daedalus Erlebacher, Joshua D. Snyder
  • Publication number: 20140106258
    Abstract: Truncated ditetragonal gold prisms (Au TDPs) are synthesized by adding a dilute solution of gold seeds to a growth solution, and allowing the growth to proceed to completion. The Au TDPs exhibit the face-centered cubic crystal structure and are bounded by 12 high-index {310} facets. The Au TDPs may be used as heterogeneous catalysts as prepared, or may be used as substrates for subsequent deposition of an atomically thin layer of a platinum group metal catalyst. When the Au TDPs are used as substrates, the atomically thin layer of metal reproduces the high-index facets of the Au TDPs.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 15, 2013
    Publication date: April 17, 2014
    Applicant: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Fang Lu, Oleg Gang, Yugang Zhang, Yu Zhang, Jia X. Wang
  • Publication number: 20140099568
    Abstract: Disclosed are a catalyst for a fuel cell, a method of preparing the same, and an electrode for a fuel cell, a membrane-electrode assembly for a fuel cell, and a fuel cell system including the same, and the catalyst includes a carrier; and an active metal supported on the carrier, wherein the carrier is crystalline carbon bonded with a functional group represented by the following Chemical Formula 1 at the surface thereof. In Chemical Formula 1, each substituent is the same as described in the detailed description.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Publication date: April 10, 2014
    Applicant: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Myoung-Ki Min, Yong-Bum Park, Sung-Chul Lee, Jun-Young Kim, Hee-Tak Kim
  • Patent number: 8691716
    Abstract: The invention describes the preparation of electrocatalysts, both anodic (aimed at the oxidation of the fuel) and cathodic (aimed at the reduction of the oxygen), based on mono- and plurimetallic carbon nitrides to be used in PEFC (Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells), DMFC (Direct methanol fuel cells) and H2 electrogenerators. The target of the invention is to obtain materials featuring a controlled metal composition based on carbon nitride clusters or on carbon nitride clusters supported on oxide-based ceramic materials. The preparation protocol consists of three steps. In the first the precursor is obtained through reactions of the type: a) sol-gel; b) gel-plastic; c) coagulation-flocculation-precipitation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2014
    Assignee: Breton S.p.A.
    Inventors: Vito Di Noto, Enrico Negro, Sandra Lavina, Giuseppe Pace
  • Patent number: 8691717
    Abstract: The invention discloses core/shell, type catalyst particles comprising a Mcore/Mshell structure with Mcore=inner particle core and Mshell=outer particle shell, wherein the medium diameter of the catalyst particle (dcore+shell) is in the range of 20 to 100 nm, preferably in the range of 20 to 50 nm. The thickness of the outer shell (tshell) is about 5 to 20% of the diameter of the inner particle core of said catalyst particle, preferably comprising at least 3 atomic layers. The core/shell type catalyst particles, particularly the particles comprising a Pt˜based shell reveal a high specific activity. The catalyst particles are preferably supported on suitable support materials such as carbon black and are used as electrocatalysts for fuel cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 8, 2014
    Assignee: Umicore AG & Co. KG
    Inventors: Marco Lopez, Michael Lennartz, Dan V. Goia, Carsten Becker, Stéphanie Chevalliot
  • Patent number: 8685594
    Abstract: A cathode catalyst for a fuel cell includes a carrier, and an active material including M selected from the group consisting of Ru, Pt, Rh, and combinations thereof, and Ch selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and combinations thereof, with the proviso that the active material is not RuSe when the carrier is C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2014
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Alexey AlexandrovichSerov, Chan Kwak, Myoung-Ki Min, Si-Hyun Lee
  • Patent number: 8679705
    Abstract: An electrode for fuel cells including a catalyst layer containing a benzoxazine monomer, a catalyst and a binder, and a fuel cell employing the electrode. The electrode for the fuel cells contains an even distribution of benzoxazine monomer, which is a hydrophilic (or phosphoric acidophilic) material and dissolves in phosphoric acid but does not poison catalysts, thereby improving the wetting capability of phosphoric acid (H3PO4) within the electrodes and thus allowing phosphoric acid to permeate first into micropores in electrodes. As a result, flooding is efficiently prevented. That is, liquid phosphoric acid existing in large amount within the electrodes inhibits gas diffusion which; this flooding occurs when phosphoric acid permeates into macropores in the electrodes. This prevention of flooding increases the three-phase interfacial area of gas (fuel gas or oxidized gas)-liquid (phosphoric acid)-solid (catalyst).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2014
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hee-young Sun, Seong-woo Choi, Tae-young Kim
  • Publication number: 20140080037
    Abstract: An electrode for a fuel cell including a gas diffusion layer, and a catalyst layer bound to at least one surface of the gas diffusion layer and including a catalyst and a binder; and a fuel cell including the electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 23, 2013
    Publication date: March 20, 2014
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Suk-gi HONG, Jung-ock Park, Ki-chun KIL, Seong-eun PARK, Un-gyu PAIK