Electrode Structure Or Composition Patents (Class 429/523)
  • Patent number: 10516172
    Abstract: Provided are a catalyst ink for a fuel cell, which secures both the viscosity of the catalyst ink and the electricity generation performance of a fuel cell produced by using the catalyst ink, a catalyst layer for a fuel cell, and a membrane electrode assembly. The catalyst ink for a fuel cell may contain a catalyst-supporting support, an ionomer that is proton conductive, and cellulose-based nanofibers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 24, 2019
    Assignee: TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventor: Yuichi Takehira
  • Patent number: 10490827
    Abstract: To spread the use of catalysts for fuel cells, there is a demand to develop a catalyst that uses less Pt and has a high power generation efficiency. An electrode catalyst includes a support particle containing a metal oxide and a precious-metal alloy supported on the support particle. The support particle includes multiple branches, a hole between the branches, and a pore. The pore is surrounded by the branches and the hole. The precious-metal alloy includes a precious metal element and at least one or more transition elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2019
    Assignee: UNIVERSITY OF YAMANASHI
    Inventors: Katsuyoshi Kakinuma, Makoto Uchida, Akihiro Iiyama
  • Patent number: 10381654
    Abstract: A method of preparing an electrode having targeted oxygen transport comprises applying a catalyst layer having active catalyst particles on a substrate, scanning the applied catalyst layer to detect the active catalyst particles in the catalyst layer, mapping the detected active catalyst particles, and forming a gas diffusion layer configured to concentrate gas distribution to the detected active catalyst particles based on the map.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2019
    Assignee: Nissan North America, Inc.
    Inventor: Tapesh Joshi
  • Patent number: 10347919
    Abstract: A fuel cell, including: first and second electrochemical cells; a two-pole plate arranged between the first and second electrochemical cells, including a conductor support delimiting a first flow channel facing the first electrochemical cell and extending between an air inlet and a water outlet, and including a first conductive coating attached to the conductor support at the air inlet of the first flow channel and including a second conductive coating fastened to the conductor support at the middle part of the first flow channel, the second conductor coating having an electrical surface resistance greater than that of the first conductive coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2015
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2019
    Assignee: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES
    Inventors: Mathias Gerard, Patrick Le Gallo, Pascal Schott, Remi Vincent
  • Patent number: 10305119
    Abstract: In a titanium material or a titanium alloy material, in an oxide film formed on a surface of a titanium or a titanium alloy, the composition ratio of TiO (ITiO/(ITi+ITiO)×100 found from the maximum intensity of the X-ray diffraction peaks of TiO (ITiO) and the maximum intensity of the X-ray diffraction peaks of metal titanium (ITi) in X-ray diffraction measured at an incident angle to the surface of 0.3° is 0.5% or more. A titanium material or a titanium alloy material, and a fuel cell separator and a polymer electrolyte fuel cell having good contact-to-carbon electrical conductivity and good durability can be provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2019
    Assignee: NIPPON STEEL & SUMITOMO METAL CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kazuhiro Takahashi, Taku Kagawa, Masanari Kimoto, Junko Imamura, Kiyonori Tokuno, Atsuhiko Kuroda
  • Patent number: 9865894
    Abstract: A direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell for generating electrical energy includes a cathode provided with an electrochemical-reduction catalyst that promotes formation of oxygen ions from an oxygen-containing source at the cathode, a solid-state reduced metal, a solid-state anode provided with an electrochemical-oxidation catalyst that promotes direct electrochemical oxidation of the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of the oxygen ions to produce electrical energy, and an electrolyte disposed to transmit the oxygen ions from the cathode to the solid-state anode. A method of operating a solid oxide fuel cell includes providing a direct-electrochemical-oxidation fuel cell comprising a solid-state reduced metal, oxidizing the solid-state reduced metal in the presence of oxygen ions through direct-electrochemical-oxidation to obtain a solid-state reducible metal oxide, and reducing the solid-state reducible metal oxide to obtain the solid-state reduced metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 2, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2018
    Assignees: The University of Akron, The Ohio State University
    Inventors: Steven S. Chuang, Liang Shih Fan
  • Patent number: 9865818
    Abstract: Provided are methods for synthesizing a halogen-functionalized carbon material and for fabricating an electronic device employing the same. The synthesizing method of the halogen-functionalized carbon material may include thermally treating a transition metal material at a first temperature in a hydrogen atmosphere and thermally treating the transition metal material at a second temperature, which is lower than or equal to the first temperature, while further supplying halocarbon on the transition metal material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2018
    Assignee: INDUSTRY-ACADEMIC COOPERATION FOUNDATION, YONSEI UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Hyungjun Kim, Tae Jin Choi
  • Patent number: 9692060
    Abstract: A particulate carbon catalyst in which particles having a particle diameter of 20 nm-1 ?m account for a volume fraction of at least 45%, and the content of nitrogen atoms is 0.1-10 atomic % relative to the amount of carbon atoms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2017
    Assignees: TEIJIN LIMITED, TOKYO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Masayuki Chokai, Nobuaki Kido, Yuta Nabae, Masa-aki Kakimoto, Seizo Miyata
  • Patent number: 9515340
    Abstract: An apparatus of an aspect includes a fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell catalyst layer is operable to catalyze a reaction involving a fuel reactant. A fuel cell gas diffusion layer is coupled with the fuel cell catalyst layer. The fuel cell gas diffusion layer includes a porous electrically conductive material. The porous electrically conductive material is operable to allow the fuel reactant to transfer through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer to reach the fuel cell catalyst layer. The porous electrically conductive material is also operable to conduct electrons associated with the reaction through the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. An electrically conductive polymer material is coupled with the fuel cell gas diffusion layer. The electrically conductive polymer material is operable to limit transfer of the fuel reactant to the fuel cell catalyst layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2016
    Assignee: Sandia Corporation
    Inventors: Ronald J. Stanis, Timothy N. Lambert
  • Patent number: 9419287
    Abstract: A bifunctional catalyst for catalyzing both an oxygen reduction reaction and an oxygen evolution reaction is provided, wherein the catalyst comprises a doped graphene backbone having thiol functional groups. A method for producing a bifunctional catalyst is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2016
    Inventors: Zhongwei Chen, Aiping Yu, Fathy Mohamed Hassan
  • Patent number: 9180440
    Abstract: A catalyst for exhaust gas purification having superior exhaust gas purification performance is provided. Disclosed is a catalyst containing, as a catalyst support, a composite phosphate containing yttrium and phosphorus and having a composition ratio of yttrium to phosphorus (Y/P) of greater than 1 as a molar ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 10, 2015
    Assignee: Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Michitaka Yamaguchi, Akiko Sugioka, Takahito Asanuma, Yunosuke Nakahara, Takahiro Sato
  • Patent number: 9065142
    Abstract: A process includes patterning a surface of a platinum group metal-based electrode by contacting the electrode with an adsorbate to form a patterned platinum group metal-based electrode including platinum group metal sites blocked with adsorbate molecules and platinum group metal sites which are not blocked.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2015
    Assignee: UCHICAGO ARGONNE, LLC
    Inventors: Dusan Strmcnik, Angel Cuesta, Vojislav Stamenkovic, Nenad Markovic
  • Publication number: 20150147681
    Abstract: A self-supporting porous alloyed metal material and methods for forming the same. The method utilizes a sacrificial support based technique that enables the formation of uniquely shaped voids in the material. The material is suitable for use as an electrocatalyst in a variety of fuel cell and other applications.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 2, 2014
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Applicant: STC.UNM
    Inventors: Alexey Serov, Plamen B. Atanassov
  • Publication number: 20150147682
    Abstract: Nitride stabilized metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. In one embodiment the metal nanoparticles have a continuous and nonporous noble metal shell with a nitride-stabilized non-noble metal core. The nitride-stabilized core provides a stabilizing effect under high oxidizing conditions suppressing the noble metal dissolution during potential cycling. The nitride stabilized nanoparticles may be fabricated by a process in which a core is coated with a shell layer that encapsulates the entire core. Introduction of nitrogen into the core by annealing produces metal nitride(s) that are less susceptible to dissolution during potential cycling under high oxidizing conditions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 26, 2014
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Inventors: Kurian Abraham Kuttiyiel, Kotaro Sasaki, Radoslav R. Adzic
  • Publication number: 20150132683
    Abstract: In one embodiment, a catalyst assembly includes a substrate including a base and a number of rods extending from the base; a catalyst layer including a catalyst material; and a first intermediate layer including a first coating material disposed between the substrate and the catalyst layer, the first coating material having a higher surface energy than the catalyst material. In certain instances, the number of rods may have an average aspect ratio in length to width of greater than 1. The catalyst assembly may further include a second intermediate layer disposed between the catalyst layer and the first intermediate layer, the second intermediate layer including a second coating material having a higher surface energy than the catalyst material. In certain instances, the first coating material has a higher surface energy than the second coating material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 14, 2012
    Publication date: May 14, 2015
    Applicant: FORD GLOBAL TECHNOLOGIES, LLC
    Inventor: Alireza Pezhman Shirvanian
  • Patent number: 9029025
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus is provided for increasing biofilm formation and power output in microbial fuel cells. An anode material in a microbial fuel cell has a three-dimensional and ordered structure. The anode material fills an entire anode compartment, and it is arranged to allow fluid flow within the anode compartment. The power output of microbial fuel cells is enhanced, primarily by increasing the formation and viability of electrogenic biofilms on the anodes of the microbial fuel cells. The anode material in a microbial fuel cell allows for the growth of a microbial biofilm to its natural thickness. In the instance of members of the Geobacteraceae family, the biofilm is able grow to a depth of about 40 microns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2015
    Assignee: HRL Laboratories, LLC
    Inventors: Tina T. Salguero, Jocelyn Hicks-Garner, Souren Soukiazian
  • Patent number: 9023555
    Abstract: A monolithic fuel cell device is provided by forming anode and cathode layers by dispensing paste of anode or cathode material around pluralities of spaced-apart removable physical structures to at least partially surround the structures with the anode or cathode material and then drying the paste. An electrolyte layer is provided in a multi-layer stack between the cathode layer and the anode layer thereby forming an active cell portion. The multi-layer stack is laminated, and then the physical structures are pulled out to reveal spaced-apart active passages formed through each of the anode layer and cathode layer. Finally, the laminated stack is sintered to form an active cell comprising the spaced apart active passages embedded in and supported by the sintered anode material and sintered cathode material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Inventors: Alan Devoe, Lambert Devoe
  • Patent number: 9023549
    Abstract: A method of preparing a gas diffusion electrode comprising a diffusion layer, and a reaction layer arranged to each other, wherein the diffusion layer is prepared by i) admixing a) sacrificial material, b) polymer and c) a metal-based material and d) optional further components, wherein the sacrificial material has a release temperature below about 275° C. and is added in an amount from about 1 to about 25 wt % based on the total weight of components a)-d) admixed; ii) forming a diffusion layer from the admixture of step i); iii) heating the forming diffusion layer to a temperature lower than about 275° C. so as to release at least a part of said sacrificial material from the diffusion layer. A gas diffusion electrode comprising a diffusion layer and a reaction layer arranged to one another, wherein the diffusion layer has a porosity ranging from about 60 to about 95%, and an electrolytic cell comprising the electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: Permascand AB
    Inventors: Takayuki Shimamune, Yohannes Kiros
  • Patent number: 9023253
    Abstract: The present invention provides a conductive paste characterized by a crystal-based corrosion binder being combined with a glass frit and mixed with a metallic powder and an organic carrier. Methods for preparing each components of the conductive paste are disclosed including several embodiments of prepare Pb—Te—O-based crystal corrosion binder characterized by melting temperatures in a range of 440° C. to 760° C. and substantially free of any glass softening transition upon increasing temperature. Method for preparing the conductive paste includes mixture of the components and a grinding process to ensure all particle sizes in a range of 0.1 to 5.0 microns. Method of applying the conductive paste for the formation of a front electrode of a semiconductor device is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the crystal-based corrosion binder in transforming the conductive paste to a metallic electrode with good ohmic contact with semiconductor surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: Soltrium Technology, Ltd
    Inventors: Xiaoli Liu, Ran Guo, Delin Li
  • Patent number: 9012107
    Abstract: The cathode catalyst for a fuel cell includes an RuSe alloy having an average particle size of less than or equal to 6 nm. The cathode catalyst may also include a metal carbide. The RuSe alloy is a highly active amorphous catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Alexey Alexandrovichserov, Chan Kwak, Ho-Jin Kweon, Si-Hyun Lee
  • Patent number: 9007742
    Abstract: Capacitors containing novel electrodes and electrolytes are described. One electrode composition comprises an oxide of Mn and Fe in a Mn:Fe molar ratio of 3:1 to 5:1. Another electrode composition comprises an oxide comprising Ni, Co, and Fe; wherein the Ni and Co are present in a Ni/Co molar ratio in the range of 0.5 to 2 and a Fe and Ni are present in a Ni/Fe molar ratio in the range of 1.0 to 10. The resulting capacitors can be characterized by superior properties. Methods of forming the electrodes from gels are also described. An electrolyte comprising a Li salt in a carbonate solution, wherein the carbonate solution comprises 10-30% ethylene carbonate and 70-90% propylene carbonate is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 31, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: Steven M. Risser, Vincent D. McGinniss, Bing Tan, Kevin B. Spahr, Homero Castenada-Lopez
  • Publication number: 20150099214
    Abstract: Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a graphene hybrid composite (GHC). The GHC can be formed between specific nano carbon materials and graphene generated via pyrolysis of solid carbon sources. A Raman spectrum of the GHC can show a major 2D band at approximately 2650 cm?1, a minor D and G band at approximately 1350 cm?1 and approximately 1575 cm?1, and an intensity ratio of 2D band over D band and G band greater than 1.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 7, 2013
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Applicant: DHKGRAPHENOLOGIES LLC
    Inventors: Nguyen C. Khe, Hieu Dinh, Dien Dinh
  • Patent number: 8999606
    Abstract: The present invention has as its object the provision of a solid polymer fuel cell catalyst exhibiting high durability and high power generation performance regardless of the humidification conditions or load conditions. The present invention relates to a solid polymer type fuel cell catalyst which is comprised of a carbon material which carries a catalyst ingredient, wherein the amount of adsorption of water vapor (V10) at 25° C. and a relative humidity of 10% of the carbon material is 2 ml/g or less and the amount of adsorption of water vapor (V90) at 25° C. and a relative humidity of 90% of the carbon material is 400 ml/g or more.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation
    Inventors: Takashi Iijima, Kenichiro Tadokoro, Hideaki Sawada
  • Patent number: 8993472
    Abstract: Layered catalyst structures for fuel cells, particularly for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), are produced by a reactive spray deposition technology process. The catalyst layers so produced contain particles sized between 1 and 15 nm and clusters of such particles of a catalyst selected from the group consisting of platinum, platinum alloys with transition metals, mixtures thereof and non-noble metals. The catalyst layers without an electrically conducting supporting medium exhibit dendritic microstructure, providing high electrochemically active surface area and electron conductivity at ultra-low catalyst loading. The catalyst layers deposited on an electrically conducting medium, such as carbon, exhibit three-dimensional functional grading, which provides efficient utilization as a catalyst, high PEMFC performance at the low catalyst loading, and minimized limitations caused by reactant diffusion and activation. The catalytic layers may be produced by a single-run deposition method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: National Research Council of Canada
    Inventors: Justin Roller, Radenka Maric, Khalid Fatih, Roberto Neagu
  • Patent number: 8993187
    Abstract: A method of and fuel cell system for limiting an amount of a fuel crossing over a membrane in a fuel cell, the method including determining an appropriate molecular ratio of the fuel and water for a fuel-water mixture 503; and controlling an amount of the fuel-water mixture that is available to an anode side of the membrane 507 in the fuel cell according to an amount of the fuel that will be electro-oxidized by the fuel cell. The fuel cell system includes a fuel cell membrane 103 having an anode layer 107, a cathode layer 109, and an electrolyte layer 111 where the cathode layer is exposed to an oxygen source, and a fuel delivery system 105 including a fuel chamber 119 disposed around and proximate to the anode layer at a side opposite to the electrolyte layer, the fuel delivery system implementing the method above.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: Google Technology Holdings LLC
    Inventors: Ronald James Kelley, Steven Duane Pratt, Sivakumar Muthuswamy, Robert Pennisi
  • Publication number: 20150086902
    Abstract: A catalytic material includes (i) a support material and (ii) a thin film catalyst coating having an inner face adjacent to the support material and an outer face, the thin film catalyst coating having a mean thickness of ?8 nm, and wherein at least 40% of the support material surface area is covered by the thin film catalyst coating; and wherein the thin film catalyst coating includes a first metal and one or more second metals, and wherein the atomic percentage of first metal in the thin film catalyst coating is not uniform through the thickness of the thin film catalyst coating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 28, 2013
    Publication date: March 26, 2015
    Applicant: JOHNSON MATTHEY FUEL CELLS LIMITED
    Inventors: Graham Alan Hards, Ian Roy Harkness, Michael Ian Petch, Jonathan David Brereton Sharman, Edward Anthony Wright, Alexander Martin Willcocks
  • Patent number: 8986907
    Abstract: Provided is a porous electrode substrate having high mechanical strength, good handling properties, high thickness precision, little undulation, and adequate gas permeability and conductivity. Also provided is a method for producing a porous electrode substrate at low costs. A porous electrode substrate is produced by joining short carbon fibers (A) via mesh-like of carbon fibers (B) having an average diameter of 4 ?m or smaller. Further provided are a membrane-electrode assembly and a polymer electrolyte fuel cell that use this porous electrode membrane. A porous electrode substrate is obtained by subjecting a precursor sheet, in which short carbon fibers (A) and short carbon fiber precursors (b) having an average diameter of 5 ?m or smaller have been dispersed, to carbonization treatment after optional hot press forming and optional oxidization treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Rayon Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuhiro Sumioka, Yoshihiro Sako
  • Patent number: 8986908
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of manufacturing an anode for a fuel cell. The method includes: synthesizing a fuel cell catalyst used to oxidize a fuel for the anode in an electrochemical manner; forming an electrode for the anode by use of the synthesized fuel cell catalyst; and synthesizing an electrolysis catalyst, which is used to electrolyze water, on the electrode as the electrolysis catalyst is loaded into the anode. By introducing the electrolysis catalyst on the fuel cell electrode that has already been formed, deformation of the structure of the electrode is minimized and performance of the electrode is improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 24, 2015
    Assignees: Hyundai Motor Company, Kia Motors Corporation
    Inventor: Hoonhui Lee
  • Patent number: 8980502
    Abstract: The invention includes a method for use in creating electrochemical electrodes including removing a supporting structure in situ after the assembly of the electrochemical cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
    Inventors: Michael David Gasda, Glenn Eisman, Daniel Gall
  • Patent number: 8974986
    Abstract: A method for producing metal-supported carbon includes supporting metal microparticles on the surface of carbon black, by a liquid-phase reduction method, in a thin film fluid formed between processing surfaces arranged to be opposite to each other so as to be able to approach to and separate from each other, at least one of which rotates relative to the other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 4, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2015
    Assignee: M. Technique Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Masakazu Enomura
  • Patent number: 8968967
    Abstract: A fuel cell catalyst support includes a fluoride-doped metal oxide/phosphate support structure and a catalyst layer, supported on such fluoride-doped support structure. In one example, the support structure is a sub-stechiometric titanium oxide and/or indium-tin oxide (ITO) partially coated or mixed with a fluoride-doped metal oxide or metal phosphate. In another example, the support structure is fluoride-doped and mixed with at least one of low surface carbon, boron-doped diamond, carbides, borides, and silicides.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: Ballard Power Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Belabbes Merzougui, Minhua Shao, Lesia V. Protsailo
  • Patent number: 8968960
    Abstract: Ruthenium or a Ruthenium compound is applied to an anode structure according to a predetermined pattern, with only part of the anode active area containing Ru. The parts of the MEA that do not contain Ru are not expected to suffer degradation from Ru cross-over, so that overall degradation of the cell will be diminished. Having less precious metals will also translate into less cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignees: Daimler AG, Ford Motor Company
    Inventors: Hao Zhang, Herwig Haas, Andrew Leow, Mike Davis, Richard Fellows
  • Publication number: 20150044595
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to suppress flooding phenomenon in an electrode catalyst for fuel cells containing a metal atom, a carbon atom, a nitrogen atom and an oxygen atom. A production process of an electrode catalyst for fuel cells is provided which includes a fluorination step of bringing a catalyst body into contact with fluorine, the catalyst body having an atom of at least one metal element selected from the group consisting of zinc, titanium, niobium, zirconium, aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, strontium, yttrium, tin, tungsten, cerium, samarium and lanthanum, a carbon atom, a nitrogen atom and an oxygen atom.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 19, 2013
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Applicant: SHOWA DENKO K.K.
    Inventors: Ryuji Monden, Takuya Imai, Yuji Ito, Kunchan Lee, Takashi Sato
  • Publication number: 20150044594
    Abstract: A catalyst-layer-supporting substrate comprising a substrate supporting a catalyst layer; wherein the catalyst layer comprises two or more porous catalyst metal particle layers that are superposed alternately with (i) two or more intersticed layers comprising at least one element selected from the group consisting of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Sn, Al, and Cu; or (ii) two or more fibrous carbon layers having interstices among fibers of the fibrous carbon. A method for forming a catalyst-layer-supporting structure that comprises porous catalyst metal particle by removing a pore-forming metal from a mixture layer containing a pore-forming metal and a catalyst metal.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 23, 2014
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Applicant: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA
    Inventors: Mei WU, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, Mutsuki Yamazaki, Yoshihiko Nakano
  • Patent number: 8951697
    Abstract: A membrane electrode assembly includes a proton exchange membrane, a first electrode and a second electrode. The proton exchange membrane has two opposite surfaces, a first surface and a second surface. The first electrode is located adjacent to the first surface of the proton exchange membrane, and the first electrode includes a first diffusion layer and a first catalyst layer. The second electrode is located adjacent to the second surface of the proton exchange membrane, and the second electrode includes a second diffusion layer and a second catalyst layer. At least one of the first diffusion layer and the second diffusion layer includes a carbon nanotube structure. A fuel cell using the membrane electrode assembly is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Assignees: Tsinghua University, Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Li-Na Zhang, Kai-Li Jiang, Shou-Shan Fan
  • Patent number: 8951696
    Abstract: A fuel electrode catalyst for fuel cell excellent in CO poisoning resistance, an electrode/membrane assembly using the fuel electrode catalyst for fuel cell, and a fuel cell and a fuel cell system including the electrode/membrane assembly are provided. The fuel electrode catalyst for fuel cell comprises a platinum-ruthenium first alloy catalyst and a second alloy catalyst obtained by partially substituting ruthenium of the platinum-ruthenium first alloy catalyst by a metal lower dissolving potential than ruthenium. The electrode/membrane assembly 7 comprises three layers of a second alloy catalyst layer 3, a first alloy catalyst layer 4, and a ruthenium catalyst layer 5 arranged in this order from a polymer electrolytic membrane 1 side toward a gas diffusion layer 13 side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Assignee: JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Kenji Kadoma, Kouji Matsuoka
  • Publication number: 20150037711
    Abstract: The present application provides a method for fabricating core-shell particles, including: forming a first solution by adding a first metal salt and a first surfactant to a first solvent; forming core particles including a first metal included in the first metal salt by adding a first reducing agent to the first solution; forming a second solution by adding the core particles, a second metal salt, and a second surfactant to a second solvent; and forming core-shell particles by adding a second reducing agent to the second solution and forming shells on the surface of the core particle, in which the first surfactant and the second surfactant are polyoxyethylene, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate or polyoxyethylene oleyl ether, and core-shell particles fabricated by the method.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 22, 2013
    Publication date: February 5, 2015
    Inventors: Jun Yeon Cho, Sang Hoon Kim, Gyo Hyun Hwang
  • Patent number: 8945793
    Abstract: A ceramic anode structure obtainable by a process comprising the steps of: (a) providing a slurry by dispersing a powder of an electronically conductive phase and by adding a binder to the dispersion, in which said powder is selected from the group consisting of niobium-doped strontium titanate, vanadium-doped strontium titanate, tantalum-doped strontium titanate, and mixtures thereof, (b) sintering the slurry of step (a), (c) providing a precursor solution of ceria, said solution containing a solvent and a surfactant, (d) impregnating the resulting sintered structure of step (b) with the precursor solution of step (c), (e) subjecting the resulting structure of step (d) to calcination, and (f) conducting steps (d)-(e) at least once.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignee: Technical University of Denmark
    Inventors: Peter Blennow, Mogens Mogensen, Kent Kammer Hansen
  • Publication number: 20150030967
    Abstract: There is provided a metal fine particle association suitably applied to an electrode catalyst to achieve even higher output leading to reduction in amount of the catalyst used, and a process for producing the same, that is, a metal fine particle association including a plurality of metal fine particles that have a mean particle diameter of 1 nm to 10 nm and are associated to form a single assembly, an association mixture including the metal fine particle association and a conductive support; a premix for forming an association, including metal fine particles, a metal fine particle dispersant made of a hyperbranched polymer, and a conductive support; and a method for producing the association mixture.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 14, 2013
    Publication date: January 29, 2015
    Inventors: Keisuke Kojima, Takuya Tsujiguchi, Nobuyoshi Nakagawa, Misaki Kojima, Takanori Iwakami
  • Publication number: 20150030954
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a redox flow secondary battery. The redox flow secondary battery of the present invention comprises a unit cell including a pair of electrodes made of a porous metal, wherein the surface of the porous metal is coated with carbon. According to the present invention, a redox flow secondary battery using porous metal electrodes uniformly coated with carbon is provided, thus improving conductivity of the electrodes, and the electrodes have surfaces uniformly coated with a carbon layer having a wide specific surface area, thus improving reactivity. As a result, capacity of the redox flow secondary battery and energy efficiency can be improved and resistance of a cell can be effectively reduced. Further, the electrodes are uniformly coated with a carbon layer, thus also improving corrosion resistance.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 31, 2013
    Publication date: January 29, 2015
    Inventors: Youngjun Kim, Kijae Kim, Minsik Park, Jeahun Kim
  • Patent number: 8940459
    Abstract: An alkaline fuel cell electrode catalyst includes a first catalyst particle that contains at least one of iron (Fe), cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni), a second catalyst particle that contains at least one of platinum (Pt) and ruthenium (Ru), and a carrier for supporting the first catalyst particle and the second catalyst particle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 27, 2015
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Haruyuki Nakanishi, Yusuke Kuzushima
  • Publication number: 20150024289
    Abstract: The invention provides a unique catalyst system without the need for carbon. Metal nanoparticles were grown onto conductive, two-dimensional material of TiSi2 nanonet by atomic layer deposition. The growth exhibited a unique selectivity with the elemental metal deposited only on defined surfaces of the nanonets in nanoscale without mask or patterning.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 18, 2014
    Publication date: January 22, 2015
    Inventors: Dunwei Wang, Jin Xie, Xiaogang Yang, Xiahui Yao
  • Publication number: 20150017554
    Abstract: A process for producing oxygen-consuming electrodes, in particular for use in chloralkali electrolysis, which display good transport capability and storage capability. In the process, a silver oxide-containing sheet-like structure as intermediate is electrochemically reduced. Also disclosed are methods of using these electrodes in chloralkali electrolysis or fuel cell technology or in metal-air batteries, and the fuel cells and metal-air batteries produced.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 10, 2014
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Applicant: BAYER MATERIALSCIENCE AG
    Inventors: Andreas BULAN, Rainer WEBER, Michael STELTER, Hartmund BOMBACH, Katja PALM
  • Publication number: 20150017570
    Abstract: A noble metal-based electrocatalyst comprises a bimetallic particle comprising a noble metal and a non-noble metal and having a polyhedral shape. The bimetallic particle comprises a surface-segregated composition where an atomic ratio of the noble metal to the non-noble metal is higher in a surface region and in a core region than in a sub-surface region between the surface and core regions. A method of treating a noble metal-based electrocatalyst comprises annealing a bimetallic particle comprising a noble metal and a non-noble metal and having a polyhedral shape at a temperature in the range of from about 100° C. to about 1100° C.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 15, 2014
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Inventors: Hong Yang, Jianbo Wu
  • Publication number: 20150017565
    Abstract: Embodiments of the disclosure relate to electrocatalysts. The electrocatalyst may include at least one gas-diffusion layer having a first side and a second side, and particle cores adhered to at least one of the first and second sides of the at least one gas-diffusion layer. The particle cores includes surfaces adhered to the at least one of the first and second sides of the at least one gas-diffusion layer and surfaces not in contact with the at least one gas-diffusion layer. Furthermore, a thin layer of catalytically atoms may be adhered to the surfaces of the particle cores not in contact with the at least one gas-diffusion layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 15, 2014
    Publication date: January 15, 2015
    Applicant: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Radoslav Adzic, Stoyan Bliznakov, Miomir Vukmirovic
  • Patent number: 8932784
    Abstract: A fuel cell includes a plate-like cell, a separator on one side of the plate-like cell, and a separator on the other side of the plate-like cell. The plate-like cell includes a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, an anode, and a cathode. The anode has a stacked body composed of a catalyst layer and a gas diffusion layer. The cathode has a stacked body composed of a catalyst layer and a gas diffusion layer. The catalyst layer contains a porous carbon material formed with micro pores, which functions as an electric double layer, and an ion-exchange resin. At least part of the porous carbon material supports a catalytic metal such as platinum. The porous carbon material to be used is preferably a carbide-derived carbon. The carbide-derived carbon preferably has micro pores of 1 nm or less.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: JX Nippon Oil & Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Kouji Matsuoka, Shigeru Sakamoto
  • Patent number: 8932760
    Abstract: An electrode active material, containing ?-MnO2 which is stabilized with a stabilizing cation or molecule with a radius of from 1.35 to 1.55 ?, and wherein a molar ratio of the stabilizing ion or molecule to Mn is from 0.1 to 0.125, is provided. Also provided are a magnesium electrochemical cell having a cathode containing the stabilized ?-MnO2 and a rechargeable magnesium battery having a cathode containing the stabilized ?-MnO2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.
    Inventors: Ruigang Zhang, Fuminori Mizuno
  • Publication number: 20150010850
    Abstract: Embodiments of electrochemical devices are provided herein. In some embodiments, an electrochemical device may include a housing having an inner volume; a first outer electrode disposed within the inner volume and on a first side of the housing; a second outer electrode disposed within the inner volume on a second side of the inner volume opposite the first side; a first inner electrode disposed between the first outer electrode and the second outer electrode; and a second inner electrode disposed between the first inner electrode and the second outer electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 2, 2013
    Publication date: January 8, 2015
    Applicant: U.S. Army Research Laboratory ATTN:RDRL-LOC-I
    Inventors: Rongzhong Jiang, Deryn Chu
  • Patent number: 8921007
    Abstract: A bonding layer, disposed between an interconnect layer and an electrode layer of a solid oxide fuel cell article, may be formed from a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder having a monomodal particle size distribution (PSD) with a d50 that is greater than about 1 ?m and a d90 that is greater than about 2 ?m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Assignee: Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc.
    Inventors: Guangyong Lin, Yeshwanth Narendar, John D. Pietras, Qiang Zhao, Robert J. Sliwoski, Caroline Levy, Samuel S. Marlin, Aravind Mohanram
  • Publication number: 20140377689
    Abstract: An electrode (31c) for fuel cell comprises: a catalyst carrier (110) that is an electrically-conductive carrier (130) with a catalyst (120) supported thereon; a first electrolyte resin (141); and a second electrolyte resin (142). the first electrolyte resin has oxygen permeability of less than 2.2×10?14 mol/(m s Pa) in an environment having temperature of 80 degrees Celsius and relative humidity of 50%. the second electrolyte resin has oxygen permeability of not less than 2.2×10?14 mol/(m s Pa) in the environment having temperature of 80 degrees Celsius and relative humidity of 50%.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 7, 2012
    Publication date: December 25, 2014
    Applicants: E. I. DU PONT DE NEMOURS AND COMPANY, TOYOTA JIDOSHA KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventor: Andri E. Elia