Having More Than Two Constituents Patents (Class 430/86)
  • Patent number: 8879975
    Abstract: There is disclosed a fuser member that includes a substrate layer and a surface layer disposed on the substrate layer. The surface layer includes a fluoropolymer having dispersed therein fluorinated graphene particles. A method of manufacturing a fuser member is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Yu Qi, Nan-Xing Hu, Qi Zhang, Brynn M. Dooley
  • Publication number: 20120244464
    Abstract: The present teachings provide an intermediate transfer member which includes a substrate layer and a surface layer disposed on the substrate layer. The surface layer includes a plurality of core-shell particles wherein the core is a conductive particle and the shell is a fluoroplastic dispersed in a fluoroelastomer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 23, 2011
    Publication date: September 27, 2012
    Applicant: XEROX CORPORATION
    Inventors: Jin Wu, Lanhui Zhang, Lin Ma, Jonathan H. Herko
  • Patent number: 6612848
    Abstract: A rotatable electrical connector has a pair of wiring boards. Each wiring board supports two (or more) concentric conductors that have substantially smooth coplanar surfaces. The coplanar surfaces of the concentric conductors on each wiring board define a contact plane. To provide electrical contact between the two wiring boards, each wiring board is positioned perpendicular to an axis of rotation and is supported so that the respective contact planes of the first and second wiring boards are parallel. A resilient member, such as a spring, urges the wiring boards together to establish electrical contact between the respective surfaces of corresponding conductors on the two wiring boards. The above-described wiring boards are included in a circuit module that also includes a printed circuit board, or other electrical component, sandwiched between a pair of the wiring boards.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Assignee: Phionics, Inc.
    Inventor: Gary L. Brundage
  • Patent number: 6331117
    Abstract: A rotatable electrical connector has a pair of wiring boards. Each wiring board supports two (or more) concentric conductors that have substantially smooth coplanar surfaces. The coplanar surfaces of the concentric conductors on each wiring board define a contact plane. To provide electrical contact between the two wiring boards, each wiring board is positioned perpendicular to an axis of rotation and is supported so that the respective contact planes of the first and second wiring boards are parallel. A resilient member, such as a spring, urges the wiring boards together to establish electrical contact between the respective surfaces of corresponding conductors on the two wiring boards. The above-described wiring boards are included in a circuit module that also includes a printed circuit board, or other electrical component, sandwiched between a pair of the wiring boards.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 18, 2001
    Inventor: Gary L. Brundage
  • Patent number: 6171643
    Abstract: A method for producing a multilayer plate for X-ray imaging is disclosed. As the first step in the method, there is provided a plate of a substrate. Then, there is deposited on this substrate a thin film of amorphous arsenic triselenide by thermal evaporation under reduced pressure, followed by condensation on the substrate. A thick photoconductive film of doped amorphous selenium is then deposited by evaporation and condensation on the thin layer of amorphous arsenic triselenide. This thick photoconductive film can also be deposited directly onto the substrate. Then, a thin film of alkali doped selenium is deposited onto the thick photoconductive layer by evaporation or co-evaporation and condensation, and a conducting biasing electrode is formed on top of this alkali doped film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2001
    Assignee: FTNI Inc.
    Inventors: Bradley Trent Polischuk, Alain Jean
  • Patent number: 6110631
    Abstract: There is disclosed a photoconductor for use in an electrophotographic apparatus. The photoconductor includes a conductive substrate and a photoconductive layer formed on the conductive substrate. The photoconductive layer includes an As.sub.2 Se.sub.3 alloy containing 36% to 40% by weight of As and doped with 1,000 to 20,000 parts per million of iodine. A method of manufacturing a photoconductor is also disclosed, which includes forming a photoconductive layer by vapor deposition on a conductive substrate and thermally treating the photoconductive layer at a temperature between 100 and 200 degrees Celsius for a period between 30 and 80 minutes. Advantageously, the photoconductor of the present invention is able to provide high quality images at high printing speeds.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Akio Arai, Makoto Fujii, Kazuya Adachi
  • Patent number: 6045958
    Abstract: A first selenium-arsenic layer of a photoconductor, deposited on a conductive substrate, has a thickness and arsenic concentration effective to preserve an electrically charged surface potential in darkness and to transport carriers generated on exposure to light. The first layer is between 20 to 70 .mu.m thick. A second amorphous selenium-arsenic alloy layer, formed on the first layer, generates carriers on exposure to light. The surface roughness, Rmax., of the conductive substrate is less than or equal to 0.5 .mu.m. The first layer, or both of the photoconductive layers, are doped with iodine. When both layers contain iodine, the iodine content of the second layer is equal to or less than that of the first layer. The thickness of the second layer is between 5 to 30 .mu.m. The arsenic content of the amorphous selenium-arsenic alloy of the second layer is equal to or greater than that in the first layer. After deposition of the first and second layers, the photoconductor is heat treated at between 100.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 4, 2000
    Assignee: Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Akio Arai, Hideki Kina
  • Patent number: 5330863
    Abstract: A photosensitive material for use in electric photography, which comprises in sequence a conductive substrate; a carrier transport layer consisting of a selenium/arsenic alloy; a carrier generation layer consisting of a selenium/tellurium alloy; and an overcoat layer consisting of a selenium/arsenic alloy; wherein carrier injection preventive layers consisting of a selenium/arsenic/sulfur alloy are inserted between the conductive substrate and the carrier transport layer, and between the carrier generation layer and the overcoat layer, or between the carrier generation layer and the overcoat layer, or between both.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 19, 1994
    Assignee: Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Mitsuru Narita, Tsuneo Tamura, Seizou Kitagawa
  • Patent number: 5217750
    Abstract: Disclosed is a process which comprises providing an alloy of selenium, preparing powdered particles of the alloy with an average particle diameter of less than 300 microns, placing the powdered particles into a container and tumbling the container, and subsequently removing the powdered particles from the container and compressing the powdered particles into pellets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1993
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Kowalczyk, Barry A. Lees, Monroe J. Hordon, Paul F. Zukoski, Alan B. Mistrater
  • Patent number: 5213927
    Abstract: New inverse multiactive electrophotographic elements comprise, in order:an electrically conductive layer;a charge-transport layer;a first charge-generation layer containing a charge-generation material and a charge-transport material; anda second charge-generation layer containing a charge-generation material and a charge-transport material different from and less susceptible to positive-surface-charge injection than the charge-transport material of the first charge-generation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1993
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: Hsin C. Kan, Norman G. Rule
  • Patent number: 5140002
    Abstract: The disclosed substance has a general chemical formula of Y.sub.3-x --Ba.sub.x Cu.sub.y --O.sub.z, x being 0 to 1, y being 3 to 6, and z being 6 to 12. At a temperature below 90.degree.-95.degree. K., the disclosed substance shows superconductive photoconductivity or even both superconductivity, either real or potential, and photoconductivity in response to incident exciting light in a wavelength range of 420 to 640 nm. The substance is produced by heating a mixture of starting material therefor at 750.degree.-1,050.degree. C. for 1-10 hours so as to cause solid phase reaction, cooling gradually, shaping under pressure, sintering at 670.degree.-1,050.degree. C., and cooling either quickly at a rate of 2,000.degree.-900.degree. C./sec or slowly at a rate of 150.degree.-200.degree. C./hour.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 3, 1991
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1992
    Assignee: The University of Tokyo
    Inventor: Taizo Masumi
  • Patent number: 5035857
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of chalcogenide alloys which comprises crystallizing a chalcogenide alloy, grinding and pelletizing the crystallized product, and evaporating the alloy on, for example, a supporting substrate to form a photoreceptor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 30, 1991
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Kowalczyk, Santokh S. Badesha, Paul F. Zukoski, Monroe J. Hordon, Steven M. Sterling, Barry A. Lees, Frederick A. Elder, Roger W. LaForce
  • Patent number: 5032480
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photoreceptor is disclosed, which comprises an electrically conductive substrate having thereon a photosensitive layer comprising a resin binder in which the following two kinds of charge generating materials are dispersed: (i) selenium or an alloy of selenium and (ii) a phthalocyanine derivative represented by the formula: ##STR1## wherein M represents AlCl, Mg, VO, InCl or H.sub.2. The electrophotographic photoreceptor exhibits a broad spectral sensitivity extending from the visible to the infrared regions of the spectrum and, therefore, can be suited for printers which utilize such light sources as semiconductor lasers, light emitting diodes, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 1988
    Date of Patent: July 16, 1991
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kiyokazu Mashimo, Fumio Ojima, Masahiko Hozumi, Taketoshi Hoshizaki, Kazuyuki Nakamura
  • Patent number: 5002734
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of chalcogenide alloys which comprises crystallizing a chalcogenide alloy, grinding and pelletizing the crystallized product, and evaporating the alloy on, for example, a supporting substrate to form a photoreceptor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 26, 1991
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Kowalczyk, Santokh S. Badesha, Paul F. Zukoski, Monroe J. Hordon, Steven M. Sterling, Barry A. Lees, Frederick A. Elder, Roger W. LaForce
  • Patent number: 4992348
    Abstract: A photosensitive member for electrophotography which comprises a conductive substrate and a photoconductive layer which is composed of an amorphous silicon layer and an amorphous silicon germanium layer containing a specific amount of hydrogen and/or halogen respectively, and being prepared by electron cyclotron resonance method respectively, which is useful for xerographic systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1989
    Date of Patent: February 12, 1991
    Assignee: Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Takashi Hayakawa, Shiro Narikawa, Kunio Ohashi
  • Patent number: 4983484
    Abstract: A photosensitive material for use in electronic photography having a photosensitive layer principally comprises an amorphous selenium-arsenic alloy, the alloy having present therein crystalline arsenic trioxide in the form of arsenolite and claudetite. The charging ability of the photosensitive material is improved by controlling the ratio of relative absorbance peak intensity in the infrared spectrum of arsenolite to claudetite to be at least 0.5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1989
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1991
    Assignee: Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Kazuyuki Urabe
  • Patent number: 4913995
    Abstract: An amorphous silicon function separation type electrophotographic photoreceptor is disclosed having thin layers, wherein an intermediate layer provides the photoreceptor with high surface potential and low residual potential for positive and negative charging. The intermediate layer lies between a large band gap a-Si alloy transport layer and an a-Si:H photosensitive layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 3, 1990
    Assignee: Guo Jing Kun, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics
    Inventors: Dong-zhi Chi, Ru-guang Cheng
  • Patent number: 4910153
    Abstract: Compounds having the formula (MX.sub.3).sub.n M'X.sub.4-n wherein M and M' are different Group 4A atoms, at least one of M and M' is silicon, X is hydrogen, halogen or mixtures thereof, and n is an integer between 1 and 4, inclusive, are useful as deposition feedstock materials in the formation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys useful in the fabrication of photovoltaic and other electronically active devices.Dopants having the formula (SiX.sub.3).sub.m L X.sub.3-m wherein L is a Group 5A atom selected from the group of phosphorous, arsenic, antimony and bismuth, X is hydrogen, halogen or mixtures thereof and m is an integer between 1 and 3, inclusive, are useful in the fabrication of negatively-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon alloys useful in the fabrication of photovoltaic and other electronically active devices.Dopants having the formula YJX.sub.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 1989
    Date of Patent: March 20, 1990
    Assignee: Solarex Corporation
    Inventor: Charles R. Dickson
  • Patent number: 4906542
    Abstract: A light receiving member for electrophotography made up of an aluminum support and a multilayered light receiving layer exhibiting photoconductivity formed on the aluminum support, wherein the multilayered light receiving layer consists of a lower layer in contact with the support and an upper layer, the lower layer being made of an inorganic material containing at least aluminum atom (Al), silicon atoms (Si) and hydrogen atoms (H), and having portion in which the aluminum atoms (Al), silicon atoms (Si), and hydrogen atoms (H) are unevenly distributed across the layer thickness, the upper layer being made of a non-single-crystal material composed of silicon atoms (Si) as the matrix and at least either of hydrogen atoms (H) or halogen atoms (X) and containing at least one of carbon atoms, nitrogen atoms (N) and oxygen atoms (O) in the layer region in adjacent with the lower layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1988
    Date of Patent: March 6, 1990
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tatsuyuki Aoike, Masafumi Sano, Takehito Yoshino, Toshimitsu Kariya, Hiroaki Niino
  • Patent number: 4855203
    Abstract: A layered photoresponsive imaging member comprised of a supporting substrate; an amorphous photoconductive layer and a hole transport layer dispersed in a resinous binder, which layer is formulated from a solution mixture; and wherein the photoconductive layer is prepared by a process which comprises dissolving an inorganic photoconductive component in a solvent, removing the suspended particles therefrom, depositing the resulting solution on the supporting substrate, and subsequently heating the aforementioned member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 1987
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1989
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Santokh S. Badesha, Geoffrey M. T. Foley, Damodar M. Pai, Richard H. Zallen, Michael L. Slade, Martin A. Abkowitz
  • Patent number: 4818563
    Abstract: A process for forming a deposited film comprises introducing into a film forming space housing a substrate therein an active species (A) formed by decomposition of a compound containing germanium and a halogen and an active species (B) formed from a chemical substance for film formation which is reactive with said active species (A) separately from each other, then providing them with heat energy and thereby allowing both the species to react with each other thereby to form a deposited film on the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 1986
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1989
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Shunichi Ishihara, Shigeru Ohno, Masahiro Kanai, Shunri Oda, Isamu Shimizu
  • Patent number: 4770964
    Abstract: A planar electrophotographic imaging member comprising a magnetically attractable, electrically conductive layer, a thin aluminum layer, an aluminum oxide blocking layer and at least one x-ray photoconductive selenium alloy insulating layer. This planar electrophotographic imaging member may be fabricated by providing a planar substrate comprising a magnetically attractible, electrically conductive layer and a thin aluminum layer bearing an aluminum oxide blocking layer, mounting the substrate on a magnetic support member, the blocking layer facing away from the magnetic support member, and applying at least one x-ray photoconductive insulating layer to the blocking layer. The planar electrophotographic imaging member may be overcoated while the substrate remains mounted on the magnetic support member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1988
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: William D. Fender
  • Patent number: 4770965
    Abstract: An electrophotographic imaging member comprising providing a conductive substrate, an alloy layer comprising selenium doped with arsenic having a thickness of between about 100 micrometers and about 400 micrometers, the alloy layer comprising between about 0.3 percent and about 2 percent by weight arsenic at the surface of the alloy layer facing away from the conductive substrate and comprising crystalline selenium having a thickness of from about 0.01 micrometer to about 1 micrometer contiguous to the conductive substrate, and a thin protective overcoating layer on the alloy layer, the overcoating layer having a thickness between about 0.05 micrometer and about 0.3 micrometer and comprising from about 0.5 percent to about 3 percent by weight nigrosine. This photoreceptor is prepared by providing a conductive substrate, cleaning the substrate, heating an alloy comprising selenium and from about 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 13, 1988
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: William D. Fender, Robert C. Speiser, Gerhard K. Kramer, Hans P. Ceelen
  • Patent number: 4760005
    Abstract: An imaging member comprised of a supporting substrate, a barrier layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride with dopants, a hydrogenated amorphous silicon photoconducting layer, and in contact therewith a top overcoating layer of nonstoichiometric silicon nitride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1988
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Damodar M. Pai
  • Patent number: 4745041
    Abstract: An image-forming member for electrophotography has a photoconductive layer comprising a hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor composed of silicon and/or germanium as a matrix and at least one chemical modifier such as carbon, nitrogen and oxygen contained in the matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 17, 1988
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Toshiyuki Komatsu, Yutaka Hirai, Katsumi Nakagawa, Tadaji Fukuda
  • Patent number: 4720444
    Abstract: An imaging member comprised of a supporting substrate, a p,n multijunction photogenerating layer comprised of from about 8 to about 100 alternating layers of components selected from the group consisting of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, hydrogenated amorphous germanium, and alloys of hydrogenated amorphous silicon and hydrogenated amorphous germanium; and a charge transporting layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1988
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Inan Chen
  • Patent number: 4717635
    Abstract: An electrophotographic recording material, composed of an electrically conductive substrate; a first layer provided on the electrically conductive substrate and composed of an amorphous selenium-tellurium alloy containing form 0.05 to 15 weight % tellurium; a second layer disposed on the first layer and composed of an amorphous selenium-tellurium alloy containing from 15 to 60 weight % tellurium; and a third layer provided on the second layer and composed of an amorphous alloy of selenium and from 0.05 to 5 weight % of one arsenic or tellurium. The electrophotographic recording material is particularly useful in an electrophotographic recording system which includes an infrared radiation means, such as an infrared solid state laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 1986
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1988
    Assignee: Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-GmbH
    Inventors: Bernd Reimer, Hans-Hermann Beschoner, Manfred Lutz
  • Patent number: 4661428
    Abstract: A composite photosensitive element for use in electrophotography which comprises an electrically conductive substrate and a first photoconductive layer and second photoconductive layer laminated on said substrate in the order named, said first photoconductive layer being a Se-As vapordeposited layer or a Se-Te-As vapordeposited layer, said second photoconductive layer being a multilayer type one comprising a charge transport layer and a charge carrier generating layer consisting essentially of azo pigment in the order named from the surface and a process of forming images using same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 28, 1987
    Assignee: Ricoh Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Tsutomu Ishida
  • Patent number: 4645619
    Abstract: Disclosed is an improved process for the preparation of a stable colloidal dispersion of a selenium tellurium alloy, which comprises providing a solution with a polymer therein; adding to the solution a selenium ester and a tellurium ester; and subsequently subjecting the resulting mixture to a reduction reaction by adding thereto a reducing agent whereby there is generated selenium tellurium particles of a diameter of from about 0.01 micron to about 0.3 micron in solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1987
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Santokh S. Badesha, Thomas W. Smith
  • Patent number: 4626486
    Abstract: The electrophotographic element comprising mounting on an electrically conductive substrate a Se-Te-Cl alloy system photoconductive layer which contains Te in the range of 6 to 12 wt. % of Se, Cl in the range of 10 to 30 ppm of the total amount of Se and Te and O.sub.2 as impurity 10 ppm or less of the whole alloy, is superior especially in temperature and light fatigue characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1984
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1986
    Assignee: Ricoh Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hideyo Nishizima
  • Patent number: 4585621
    Abstract: A vapor-deposited film of selenium or selenium alloy as a photoreceptor for electrophotography comprises selenium or a selenium alloy and phosphorus contained therein in an amount of not less the 0.5 ppm and adjusted to attain a desired contrast potential. The selenium alloy is selected from Se-Te, Se-As, Se-Bi, and Se-Sb alloys. The film is produced either by adding phosphorus to stock selenium or selenium alloy and then vacuum-depositing the phosphorus-containing selenium or selenium alloy or by simultaneously vapor-depositing selenium or selenium alloy and elemental phosphorus or a phosphorus compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1984
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1986
    Assignee: Nihon Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Osamu Oda, Arata Onozuka, Akio Koyama
  • Patent number: 4572883
    Abstract: An electrophotographic imaging member is described comprising a substrate, a layer comprising an amorphous hole injecting material selected from the group consisting of halogen doped selenium, gold, silver, platinum and carbon black, the halogen doped selenium consisting essentially of selenium and between about 200 parts per million and about 2,000 parts per million by weight halogen, and at least one thermal hole generating selenium alloy photoconductive layer. This electrophotographic imaging member may contain other layers such as a hole transport layer, a layer between the hole transport layer and thermal hole generating selenium alloy photoconductive layer, and a thin protective overcoating layer suitable for Carlson type imaging processes. An electrophotographic imaging process employing this electrophotographic imaging member is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 25, 1986
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Geoffrey M. T. Foley, Harvey J. Hewitt
  • Patent number: 4554230
    Abstract: An electrophotographic imaging member is described comprising a substrate, a charge transport layer, a thin continuous interface layer consisting essentially of halogen doped selenium, and at least one selenium-tellurium alloy photoconductive charge generating layer. This electrophotographic imaging member may contain other layers such as a thin protective overcoating layer suitable for Carlson type imaging processes. An electrophotographic imaging process employing this electrophotographic imaging member is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1985
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Geoffrey M. T. Foley, Rudolph C. Enck
  • Patent number: 4522663
    Abstract: The production of improved photoresponsive amorphous alloys and devices, such as photovoltaic, photoreceptive devices and the like; having improved wavelength threshold characteristics is made possible by adding one or more band gap adjusting elements to the alloys and devices. The adjusting element or elements are added at least to the active photoresponsive regions of amorphous devices containing silicone and fluorine, and preferably hydrogen. One adjusting element is germanium which narrows the band gap from that of the materials without the adjusting element incorporated therein. Other adjusting elements can be used such as tin. The silicon and adjusting elements are concurrently combined and deposited as amorphous alloys by vapor deposition, sputtering or glow discharge decomposition. The addition of fluorine bonding and electronegativity to the alloy acts as a compensating or altering element to reduce the density of states in the energy gap thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1982
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1985
    Assignee: Sovonics Solar Systems
    Inventors: Stanford R. Ovshinsky, Masatsugu Izu
  • Patent number: 4492810
    Abstract: The production of improved photoresponsive amorphous alloys and devices, such as photovoltaic, photoreceptive devices and the like. The alloys and devices have improved wavelength threshold characteristics made possible by introducing one or more band gap adjusting elements and dopants into the alloys and devices in layers and/or clusters. The dopants and adjusting element or elements are added to the amorphous devices containing silicon and at least one reducing element, such as hydrogen. One adjusting element is germanium which narrows the band gap from that of the materials without the adjusting element incorporated therein. Other adjusting elements can be used such as tin or nitrogen along with conventional dopants. The silicon and adjusting elements are concurrently combined and deposited as amorphous alloys by vapor deposition, sputtering or glow discharge decomposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1985
    Assignee: Sovonics Solar Systems
    Inventors: Stanford R. Ovshinsky, Masatsugu Izu
  • Patent number: 4490450
    Abstract: A photoconductive member comprises a support for a photoconductive member and an amorphous layer having a layer constitution comprising a first layer region comprising an amorphous material containing silicon atoms and germanium atoms and a second layer region comprising an amorphous material containing silicon atoms and exhibiting photoconductivity, said first and second layer regions being provided successively from the side of said support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1984
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Isamu Shimizu, Kozo Arao, Eiichi Inoue
  • Patent number: 4490451
    Abstract: The recording material comprises a metallic base, for example, of aluminum, a twenty to sixty .mu.m thick layer of selenium with a content of tellurium ranging between 5 and 30 percent by wt. and a layer of selenium having a thickness ranging between 0.5 and 3 .mu.m arranged thereon containing 0.5 to 5 percent by wt. of arsenic. Instead of the layer of selenium containing arsenic, there may also be provided a layer of arsenic-triselenside. Preferably, the content of tellurium in the selenium layer containing tellurium, increases either step-by-step or continuously from the metallic base up to the layer of selenium containing arsenic. The electrophotographic recording material has a sensitivity within the region from 600 to 850 nanometers, the surface is stabilized against corona effects, and the material has a good residual potential behavior.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1984
    Assignee: International Standard Electric Corporation
    Inventors: Armin Baumgaertner, Kurt Elsaesser
  • Patent number: 4460670
    Abstract: A photoconductive member comprises a support for a photoconductive member and an amorphous layer having photoconductivity constituted of an amorphous material comprising silicon atoms as a matrix, said amorphous layer having a first layer region containing at least one kind of atoms selected from the group consisting of oxygen atoms, carbon atoms and nitrogen atoms as constituent atoms in a distribution which is ununiform and continuous in the direction of layer thickness and a second layer region containing atoms of an element belonging to the group III of the periodic table as constituent atoms in a distribution which is ununiform and continuous in the direction of layer thickness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 17, 1984
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kyosuke Ogawa, Shigeru Shirai, Junichiro Kanbe, Keishi Saitoh, Yoichi Osato
  • Patent number: 4460669
    Abstract: A photoconductive member comprises a support for a photoconductive member and an amorphous layer having photoconductivity constituted of an amorphous material comprising silicon atoms as a matrix, said amorphous layer having a first layer region containing as the constituent atom at least one kind of atoms selected from the group consisting of oxygen atoms, carbon atoms and nitrogen atoms in a distribution state which is ununiform and continuous in the direction of layer thickness and a second layer region containing atoms belonging to the group III of the periodic table as constituent atoms in a distribution state which is ununiform and continuous in the direction of layer thickness, said first layer region existing internally below the surface of said amorphous layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1982
    Date of Patent: July 17, 1984
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kyosuke Ogawa, Shigeru Shirai, Junichiro Kanbe, Keishi Saitoh, Yoichi Osato
  • Patent number: 4415642
    Abstract: The metal substrate of an electrophotographic member is provided with a selenium-tellurium alloy layer containing 5-30% tellurium, 10-5,000 ppm of a metallic element of the fifth main group, and 10-100 ppm of a halogen. A preferred embodiment contains 15% tellurium, 40 ppm arsenic, and 40 ppm chlorine. The addition of the metallic element of the fifth main group to the selenium-tellurium alloy results in a stabilization of charging potentials in multicycle operation.If the metal substrate is an aluminum drum, the electrophotographic member can be used as a copying drum in high-speed copiers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 15, 1983
    Assignee: International Standard Electric Corporation
    Inventors: Kurt Elsasser, Helmut Ebner, Armin Baumgartner
  • Patent number: 4414179
    Abstract: A process for preparing a selenium alloy highly resistant to the development of persistant bulk space charge during prolonged, electrophotographic cycling comprising heating a mixture comprising selenium, arsenic and chlorine to a temperature between about 290.degree. C. and about 330.degree. C. to form a molten mixture, agitating the molten mixture to blend the components therein, discontinuing or substantially discontinuing all agitation of the mixture to achieve a quiescent state for the mixture, raising the temperature of the mixture to at least about 420.degree. C. for at least about 30 minutes and cooling the mixture until it becomes a solid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1981
    Date of Patent: November 8, 1983
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Susan L. Robinette
  • Patent number: 4338387
    Abstract: This invention is generally directed to an inorganic overcoated photoresponsive device comprised of a substrate, a layer of electron trapping material, this layer being comprised of halogen doped selenium, halogen doped arsenic selenium alloys, and mixtures thereof; a hole transport layer in operative contact with the electron trapping layer, this layer being comprised of a halogen doped selenium arsenic alloy wherein the percentage of selenium present by weight is from about 99.5 percent to about 99.9 percent, the percentage of arsenic present by weight is from about 0.5 percent to about 0.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 1981
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1982
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Harvey J. Hewitt
  • Patent number: 4297424
    Abstract: This invention is directed generally to a layered inorganic photoresponsive device, this device being comprised of a substrate, or supporting base, containing on its surface a layer of hole injecting material comprised of gold, a hole transport layer in operative contact with the hole injecting layer, the transport layer being comprised of a halogen doped selenium arsenic alloy, wherein the percentage of selenium present is from about 99.5 percent to about 99.9 percent, the percentage of arsenic present is from about 0.5 percent to 0.1 percent, the percentage of halogen present ranges from about 10 parts per million to 200 parts per million, followed by a charge generating material overcoated on the transport layer, this material being comprised of inorganic photoconductive substances, and as an optional layer a layer of insulating organic resin overlaying the charge generating layer. The transport and generating layers can also be comprised of one composite layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 1980
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1981
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventor: Harvey J. Hewitt
  • Patent number: 4286035
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photoconductor comprising an electroconductive base and a photosensitive layer formed thereon, the photosensitive layer comprising a selenium-tellurium alloy with a concentration of tellurium in the range of 5 to 20 wt. % and halogen, with a concentration in the range of 5 to 500 ppm, selected from the group consisting of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine, in the photosensitive layer, with the concentration of tellurium substantially uniform or increasing in the direction toward the surface of the photosensitive layer and the ratio of the concentration of tellurium near the electroconductive base to the concentration of tellurium near the surface of said photosensitive layer being 65 or more:100.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 28, 1980
    Date of Patent: August 25, 1981
    Assignee: Ricoh Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hideyo Nishizima, Hideaki Ema, Hiroshi Tamura, Hideki Akiyoshi
  • Patent number: 4277551
    Abstract: An electrophotographic plate comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive-insulative layer overlaying the substrate and a transparent, electrically active, organic, electron transport layer overlaying the photoconductive-insulative layer in which the photoconductive layer comprises a Se--Te or Se--As mixture in the range of 90-97.5 atomic percent Se or 60-97.5 atomic percent, respectively, and wherein the thicknesses of the photoconductive layer and transport overlayer range between 40 to 100 micrometers and 1 to 5 micrometers, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1981
    Assignee: Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company
    Inventors: Terry J. Sonnonstine, Kenneth G. Kneipp
  • Patent number: 4263388
    Abstract: An imaging member comprising a charge generation layer comprising a layer of photoconductive material and a contiguous charge transport layer of a charge transport material dissolved in a polymer of the following structure: ##STR1## wherein R', R", R'" and R"" are independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylene groups having from 1 to 12 carbon atoms, there being no more than 1 alkylene group present, x is from 4 to 5, y is from 0 to 1, n is a whole number and said polymer has a molecular weight ranging from about 1500 to about 120,000, said transport layer being substantially nonabsorbing in the spectral region at which the photoconductive layer generates and injects photogenerated holes, but is capable of supporting the injection of photogenerated holes from said photoconductive layer and transporting said holes through said charge transport layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1979
    Date of Patent: April 21, 1981
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: Richard L. Schank, John M. Pochan
  • Patent number: 4241158
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photosensitive member having an amorphous deposition layer as a photoconductive layer, in which the amorphous deposition layer is formed by gradual increase in a substrate temperature during deposition of the photoconductive material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1980
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tadaji Fukuda, Teruo Misumi
  • Patent number: 4226929
    Abstract: A photoreceptor of electrophotography having a flexibility and a sensitivity to electromagnetic wavelengths of a wide range extending as far as the red color region of the spectrum of light rays is produced by forming a layer of a halogen-doped Se-S alloy on a substrate and further forming on said layer a halogen-doped Se-Te alloy layer. The Se-S alloy contains sulfur in a weight ratio of 0.1 to 0.35 to the Se-S alloy. The Se-Te alloy contains tellurium in a weight ratio of 0.05 to 0.35 to the Se-Te alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 7, 1980
    Assignee: Stanley Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toru Teshima, Hiroshi Nozaki, Minoru Koyama, Kazuhisa Katoh
  • Patent number: RE35246
    Abstract: A photosensitive material for electrophotography is provided, which comprises in sequence an electroconductive substrate, a carrier transport layer composed of a selenium-arsenic alloy, a carrier generation layer composed of a selenium-tellurium alloy and a surface coating layer composed of a selenium-arsenic alloy. The present invention further relates to a photosensitive material having a carrier transport layer that is doped with iodine as well.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 21, 1996
    Assignee: Fuji Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Mitsuru Narita