Inorganic Radiation Conductive Composition Patents (Class 430/84)
  • Patent number: 10256422
    Abstract: An organic electronic component and a method for making an organic electronic component with a p-dopant are disclosed. In an embodiment, the component includes a matrix containing a zinc complex as a p-dopant, the zinc complex containing at least one ligand L of the following structure: formula (I) wherein R1 and R2 can be oxygen, sulphur, selenium, NH or NR4 independently selected from one another, wherein R3 may comprise alkyl, long-chain alkyl, cycloalkyl, halogen-alkyl, aryl, arylene, halogen-aryl, heteroaryl, heteroarylene, heterocyclic-alkylene, heterocycloalkyl, halogen-heteroaryl, alkenyl, halogen-alkenyl, alkynyl, halogen-alkynyl, ketoaryl, halogen-ketoaryl, ketoheteroaryl, ketoalkyl, halogen-ketoalkyl, ketoalkenyl, halogen-ketoalkenyl, halogen-alkyl-aryl or halogen-alkyl-heteroaryl, and wherein R4 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl and aryl which can be bonded to R3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2019
    Assignee: OSRAM OLED GMBH
    Inventors: Guenter Schmid, Anna Maltenberger, Sebastien Pecqueur, Florian Kessler, Stefan Regensburger
  • Patent number: 9658547
    Abstract: A brilliant toner includes a toner particle that includes a binder resin, a flake-shaped brilliant pigment, and a layered inorganic substance, wherein a content of the layered inorganic substance is from 0.005% by weight to 2.0% by weight with respect to the toner particles, and 80% by weight or more of the layered inorganic substance is present in a portion being in a range of 5 nm to 20 nm from a surface of the toner particle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: FUJI XEROX CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Satomi Hara
  • Patent number: 9324957
    Abstract: Synthesis of four coordinated gold complexes and their applications in light emitting devices thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2016
    Assignee: Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of Arizona State University
    Inventors: Jian Li, Eric Tumer
  • Patent number: 9108862
    Abstract: Rutile TiO2 microspheres and microparticles in a botryoidal morphology which form from ordered acicular aggregates of elongated TiO2 crystallites that resemble nano-sized flower bouquets and/or triangular funnels, and process for their preparation by thermally hydrolyzing a soluble TiO2 precursor compound in aqueous solution in the presence of a morphology controlling agent selected from carboxylic acids and amino acids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 18, 2015
    Assignee: Cristal Inorganic Chemicals Switzerland Ltd.
    Inventors: Guoyi Fu, Mark B Watson
  • Patent number: 8563203
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photosensitive member is configured such that the average value Hx_ave of the content of hydrogen atoms in a central portion area of a photoconductive layer in a cylindrically axial direction thereof, the content Hx of the hydrogen atoms at an arbitrary point in the central portion area, the average value Hy_ave of the content of the hydrogen atoms in an end area of the photoconductive layer in the cylindrically axial direction thereof, and the content Hy of the hydrogen atoms at an arbitrary point in the end area satisfy 10?Hx_ave?30, Hx<Hy, |Hx_ave?Hx|?5, and 2?Hy_ave?Hx_ave?12.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2013
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yuu Nishimura, Hironori Owaki, Daisuke Tazawa
  • Patent number: 8486592
    Abstract: A radiation-sensitive material comprising a support and a radiation sensitive composition on the support is disclosed, wherein the radiation sensitive composition includes a dispersion containing nanoparticles of a sensitizer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Assignee: ISP Investments Inc.
    Inventors: Hsiao-Yi Shih, Guojin Lu, David F. Lewis, Xiang Yu
  • Publication number: 20120288788
    Abstract: Described herein is an intermediate transfer member that includes a layer of phenoxy resin having dispersed therein graphene particles.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 10, 2011
    Publication date: November 15, 2012
    Applicant: XEROX CORPORATION
    Inventors: Michael S. Roetker, Francisco J. Lopez, Kyle Bruce Tallman, Jonathan H. Herko, David W. Martin, Scott J. Griffin, Mandakini Kanungo, Yuhua Tong
  • Publication number: 20120244463
    Abstract: There is disclosed an intermediate transfer member that includes a layer of a polymer blend of polyimide and amino silicone having conductive particles dispersed therein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 21, 2011
    Publication date: September 27, 2012
    Applicant: XEROX CORPORATION
    Inventors: Jin Wu, David W. Martin, Lanhui Zhang, Lin Ma
  • Publication number: 20120244464
    Abstract: The present teachings provide an intermediate transfer member which includes a substrate layer and a surface layer disposed on the substrate layer. The surface layer includes a plurality of core-shell particles wherein the core is a conductive particle and the shell is a fluoroplastic dispersed in a fluoroelastomer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 23, 2011
    Publication date: September 27, 2012
    Applicant: XEROX CORPORATION
    Inventors: Jin Wu, Lanhui Zhang, Lin Ma, Jonathan H. Herko
  • Patent number: 8000631
    Abstract: A developing device is provided to suppress image density unevenness by adjusting conditions of toner adhesion to an amorphous silicon photoconductor to a suitable range even when using both an amorphous silicon photoconductor and a nonmagnetic monocomponent toner and practicing development in a non-contact system. The developing device satisfies the relational expression: (f×1.5/?)2>?1.576×10?2×q/m×(Vpp/Ds2)+31.9×106 where Ds (m) is a distance between the photoconductor and the toner carrier, f (Hz) is a frequency of an AC bias applied to the toner carrier, Vpp (V) is an amplitude of the AC bias, ? (?) is a ratio of a peripheral speed of the toner carrier to a peripheral speed of the amorphous silicon photoconductor, and q/m (C/kg) is a charge quantity per unit mass of the toner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2011
    Assignee: Kyocera Mita Corporation
    Inventors: Tamotsu Shimizu, Minoru Wada
  • Publication number: 20100190100
    Abstract: Exemplary embodiments provide material compositions useful for electrophotographic devices and processes. The material composition can include a plurality of graphene-containing particles dispersed or distributed in a polymer matrix. Such material composition can be used for electrophotographic members and devices including, but not limited to, a fuser member, a fixing member, a pressure roller, and/or a release donor member. In one embodiment, a material composition dispersion can be applied on a substrate in electrophotography to form a functional member layer to control, e.g., to improve, at least one of thermal, mechanical and/or electrical properties.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2009
    Publication date: July 29, 2010
    Applicant: XEROX CORPORATION
    Inventors: Matthew M. KELLY, David J. Gervasi, Santokh Badesha
  • Publication number: 20090191476
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a thermoplastic material comprising polymer, at least one charge transfer agent, wherein the charge transfer agent is substantially colourless when neutral, but which develops colour when a charge is acquired, and at least one photo acid generating agent. The present invention further relates to a method of processing thermoplastic material to form a plastic article, wherein the method comprises the step of processing the thermoplastic material at a temperature greater than the melt temperature, Tm, of the thermoplastic, wherein the thermoplastic material comprises polymer and at least one charge transfer agent, wherein the charge transfer agent is substantially colourless when neutral, but which develops colour when a charge is acquired, and at least one photo acid generating agent, and wherein the method further comprising the step of irradiating the plastic article to colour at least a region of the plastic article.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 22, 2009
    Publication date: July 30, 2009
    Inventors: Neil John Rogers, Christopher Lamb, Anthony Nicholas Jarvis
  • Publication number: 20080268359
    Abstract: A photoconductor that includes a supporting substrate, and an active layer in contact with the substrate, and which layer contains at least one photogenerating pigment, at least one charge transport component, and a mixture of a metal oxide and a chelating agent of a tetrafluorodihydroxyanthraquinone.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2007
    Publication date: October 30, 2008
    Inventors: Liang-Bih Lin, Daniel V. Levy, Jin Wu, Linda L. Ferrarese
  • Publication number: 20080268360
    Abstract: A photoconductor that includes a supporting substrate, and an active layer in contact with the substrate, and which active layer contains a photogenerating pigment of a hydroxygallium phthalocyanine, at least one charge transport component, and a mixture of a metal oxide and a chelating agent, where the phthalocyanine is, for example, prepared by hydrolyzing a gallium halide phthalocyanine.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2007
    Publication date: October 30, 2008
    Inventors: Liang-Bih Lin, Daniel V. Levy, Jin Wu, Edward C. Savage
  • Publication number: 20080268358
    Abstract: A photoconductor that includes a supporting substrate, and an active layer in contact with the substrate, and which active layer contains a photogenerating pigment of a titanyl phthalocyanine, at least one charge transport component, and a mixture of a metal oxide and a chelating agent, where the titanyl phthalocyanine is prepared by dissolving a Type I titanyl phthalocyanine in a solution comprising a trihaloacetic acid and an alkylene halide; adding the resulting mixture of the dissolved Type I titanyl phthalocyanine to a solution comprising an alcohol and an alkylene halide thereby precipitating a Type Y titanyl phthalocyanine; and treating the Type Y titanyl phthalocyanine with a monohalobenzene to form Type V titanyl phthalocyanine.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2007
    Publication date: October 30, 2008
    Inventors: Liang-Bih Lin, Daniel V. Levy, Jin Wu, Linda L. Ferrarese
  • Publication number: 20080187849
    Abstract: An electrophotographic apparatus comprising an electrophotographic photoreceptor having the foremost layer containing organic fine particles and inorganic fine particles, which uses a dry-type magnetic toner having a charge amount of 10.0 ?c/g or more and 30.0 ?c/g or less.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 6, 2008
    Publication date: August 7, 2008
    Applicant: SHARP KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Sayaka Fujita, Kotaro Fukushima
  • Patent number: 7382006
    Abstract: A photo-conductive layer for constituting a radiation imaging panel, which photo-conductive layer is capable of recording radiation image information as an electrostatic latent image, contains Bi4M3O12, in which M represents at least one kind of element selected from the group consisting of Ge, Si, and Ti. The photo-conductive layer may be formed with a coating technique or as a sintered film. The photo-conductive layer has a large effect of collecting formed electric charges and enhanced sensitivity, and is capable of yielding an image with good graininess characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2008
    Assignee: FUJIFILM Corporation
    Inventor: Kiyoteru Miyake
  • Publication number: 20080124641
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photoreceptor, comprising: an undercoat layer and a photosensitive layer formed in this order on a conductive support, wherein the undercoat layer contains a titanium oxide [P] consisting of a needle-like titanium oxide [A] and a spherical titanium oxide [B] and a binder resin [R], and the compounding ratio (by weight) [A]/[B] of the needle-like titanium oxide [A] to the spherical titanium oxide [B] is 60/40 to 90/10.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 16, 2007
    Publication date: May 29, 2008
    Applicant: SHARP KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Koichi TORIYAMA, Masaki HASHIMOTO
  • Publication number: 20080107986
    Abstract: A salt-like hydrophobic structured silicate, wherein the cation of the salt-like structured silicate is a low molecular weight organic cation or a combination thereof with NH4+, H3O+, alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, earth metal and/or a transition metal ion. The anion of the salt-like structured silicate is an island, ring, group, chain, band, layer or tectosilicate or a combination thereof. The structured silicate is produced by (a) reacting a structured silicate, whose cation is NH4+, H3O+, an alkali metal, alkaline earth metal, earth metal, and/or transition metal ion or a combination thereof, and whose anion of which is an island, ring, group, chain, band, layer or tectosilicate, or a combination thereof, in an aqueous dispersion with a low molecular weight organic cation; (b) adding to and intensively blending with the aqueous structured silicate dispersion a hydrophobic compound from the group of waxes and metal soaps in a quantity ranging from 0.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 28, 2005
    Publication date: May 8, 2008
    Inventors: Eduard Michel, Ruediger Baur
  • Patent number: 7217483
    Abstract: The present invention provides an electrophotographic photoreceptor which has high light resistance, has high durability in exposure to oxidizing gases such as ozone and NOx, is excellent in mechanical properties such as printing durability, wearing resistance, marring resistance, and slip properties in repetitions of use, and further has excellent electrical properties. Specifically, the present invention provides an electrophotographic photoreceptor having an electroconductive substrate and provided thereon at least a photosensitive layer having a charge generation material, a charge transport material, and a binder resin.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2007
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Mamoru Nozomi, Kazutaka Ida, Mitsuo Wada
  • Patent number: 6803093
    Abstract: A green ceramic body, in particular a green ceramic film having a function layer which contains platinum and is applied in at least some areas is described; this function layer is photostructurable in daylight and in the presence of oxygen. In addition, a method of producing such a green ceramic body is described, including the process steps: a) making available a green ceramic starting body, b) applying a photostructurable paste containing platinum to the starting body in at least some areas, in particular by printing, in daylight and in the presence of oxygen, and c) photostructuring the applied paste to form the function layer. The green ceramic body described here is suitable in particular for further processing to form a temperature sensor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2004
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Claudio De La Prieta, Thomas Schulte, Uwe Glanz, Petra Kuschel
  • Publication number: 20030235771
    Abstract: A single layered electrophotographic photoreceptor includes a photosensitive layer having at least a charge generating material, a hole transporting material, an electron transporting material, and a binder on a conductive support. The photosensitive layer includes a peculiar charge transfer complex (CT-complex) formed by the hole transporting material and the electron transporting material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 4, 2003
    Publication date: December 25, 2003
    Applicant: SAMSUNG Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Saburo Yokota, Hwan-Koo Lee, Kyung-Yol Yon, Beom-Jun Kim, Nam-Jeong Lee
  • Patent number: 6479207
    Abstract: An image forming material having a support and a component layer is disclosed. In the image forming material the component layer contains a particle which comprises an organic particle core covered, with a material containing a light-heat conversion material. The image forming material is advantageously used for a printing plate or a laser thermal transfer recording material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2002
    Assignee: Konica Corporation
    Inventor: Takahiro Mori
  • Patent number: 6365308
    Abstract: In order to maintain excellent electrical, optical and photoconductive characteristics and to significantly improve the durability under adverse environments, a light receiving member for electrophotography according to the present invention comprises in sequence: a supporting member and a light receiving layer; said light receiving layer comprising in sequence at least a photoconductive layer and a surface layer thereon, said photoconductive layer comprising a non-single-crystal material containing silicon atoms as a matrix, and said surface layer comprising an amorphous material containing silicon atoms and carbon atoms as a matrix, wherein the carbon atoms are at least diamond-bonded and graphite-bonded, and wherein from 2% to 30% by number of the carbon atoms are graphite-bonded.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2002
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Satoshi Kojima, Keishi Saito, Hirokazu Ohtoshi, Masafumi Sano, Junichiro Hashizume, Yasuyoshi Takai, Ryo Hayashi, Masahiko Tonogaki
  • Publication number: 20010023046
    Abstract: A polarization reversion pattern is formed in ferroelectrics in accordance with image information. An image is obtained by surface charges corresponding to the polarization reversion pattern. The ferroelectrics are composed of an inorganic ferroelectric oxide such as LiNbxTa1-xO3 (0≦x≦1).
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 16, 2001
    Publication date: September 20, 2001
    Inventor: Yasukazu Nihei
  • Patent number: 6238832
    Abstract: For achieving satisfactory electrical characteristics and high image quality without peeling, damage or abrasion in a long use term the present invention provides an electrophotographic photosensitive member which comprises, on a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer composed of a non-single-crystalline material containing silicon atoms as a matrix, and a surface layer composed of non-single-crystalline carbon containing at least hydrogen, wherein the surface layer has a surface roughness Rz within a range from 500 Å to 2000 Å for a reference length of 5 &mgr;m and contains at least oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine and boron atoms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2001
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Junichiro Hashizume, Shigenori Ueda, Makoto Aoki
  • Patent number: 6110629
    Abstract: A cylindrical, photosensitive member is disclosed which has a photosensitive layer comprising amorphous silicon provided on an electroconductive substrate, and in which the thickness of the electroconductive substrate is not less than 0.1 mm but less than 2.5 mm, thereby accomplishing cost reduction of the photosensitive member and also accomplishing prevention of variations of image density and image smearing by high-accuracy temperature control.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Toshiyuki Ehara, Yuji Nakayama, Tetsuya Karaki, Hironori Owaki
  • Patent number: 6108502
    Abstract: A photosensitive member to be used for an image-forming apparatus can effectively suppress its wettability of the surface relative to foreign objects adhering to it and reduce the load and the mechanism necessary for cleaning the surface so as to prolong the service life of the photosensitive member and make the apparatus adapted to down-sizing. For this purpose, the wettability (W: work of adhesion) of the surface of the photosensitive member relative to toner is confined to be between 60 and 110 mN/m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masaya Kawada, Takaaki Kaya, Tetsuya Karaki
  • Patent number: 6090513
    Abstract: An electrophotographic light-receiving member comprising a conductive support and a light-receiving layer having a photoconductive layer showing a photoconductivity, formed on the conductive support and formed of a non-monocrystalline material mainly composed of a silicon atom and containing at least one of a hydrogen atom and a halogen atom, wherein said photoconductive layer contains from 10 atomic % to 30 atomic % of hydrogen, the characteristic energy of exponential tail obtained from light absorption spectra at light-incident portions at least of the photoconductive layer is from 50 meV to 60 meV, and the density of states of localization in the photoconductive layer is from 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-3 to 1.times.10.sup.16 cm.sup.-3. Since the in-gap levels of the photoconductive layer has been controlled, the light-receiving member can be improved in environmental stability and exposure memory at the same time and have superior potential characteristics and image characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hiroaki Niino, Koji Hitsuishi, Satoshi Kojima
  • Patent number: 5981122
    Abstract: Electric discharge between a photosensitive member and a charge retaining medium is ON/OFF controlled by changing the gas pressure between these two members, so that it is possible to effect image recording in a state where a DC voltage is applied. An electric charge which is opposite in polarity to an image forming charge is uniformly formed on the charge retaining medium in advance of the image exposure, and thereafter image exposure is carried out, thereby reducing the background potential at the unexposed region and increasing the contrast potential of the electrostatic latent image formed on the charge retaining medium. In addition, it is possible to increase the voltage distribution to the photosensitive member. As a result, it is possible to improve the photosensitivity of image exposure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 9, 1999
    Assignee: Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Obata, Kohji Ichimura
  • Patent number: 5876886
    Abstract: A light-receiving member, and an electrophotographic apparatus comprising it, which the member comprises a conductive support, a first layer capable of exhibiting a photoconductivity which comprises at least a material of a non-single-crystal silicon type, a second layer comprising silicon atoms and one kind selected from the group consisting of carbon atoms, nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms, and a third layer comprising silicon atoms and one kind selected from the group consisting of carbon atoms, nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms, the conductivity type of which has been adjusted to be of the same polarity as charging polarity by incorporating at least one element belonging to the Group III elements of the periodic table, the first, second and third layers being superposingly provided in this order, wherein the light-receiving member is used for positive charging and requires no drum heater, thereby achieving a very good image quality in any environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1999
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Junichiro Hashizume
  • Patent number: 5853936
    Abstract: An electrophotographic light receiving member comprising a substrate in a cylindrical form and a light receiving layer formed on said substrate, wherein said substrate has (i) a portion with an enlarged bore at least on the side of an end portion of said substrate and (ii) a portion in a tapered form situated next to and outside said portion (i). An electrophotographic apparatus provided with said electrophotographic light receiving member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1998
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yoshio Segi, Hiroyuki Katagiri, Yasuyoshi Takai, Hideaki Matsuoka, Toshiyuki Ehara
  • Patent number: 5821021
    Abstract: A photosensitive material for electrophotography, wherein the charge-generating agent comprises a P-type charge-generating pigment and an N-type charge-generating pigment in combination, at least part of these pigments being present in the form of aggregates in the photosensitive layer. The photosensitive material will assume the form of either a single dispersion type or a laminated layer type, and exhibits very high carrier generation efficiency, strikingly improved sensitivity on the side of long wavelengths, excellent balance in the spectral sensitivity and property after repetitively used, and can hence be effectively used for forming image by the electrophotography.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1998
    Assignee: Mita Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Akihiko Kawahara
  • Patent number: 5766811
    Abstract: A method for stably manufacturing, with improved reproducibility, a good amorphous silicon electrophotographic photosensitive member improved in potential characteristics such as chargeability and photo-response as well as in the effect of reducing photo-memory and defects which cause spot image defects. A film is formed by plasma CVD on a base of the photosensitive member by using electromagnetic waves having a frequency of 13.56 MHz or higher as power for forming plasma under conditions that the spatial potential of plasma generated by the electromagnetic waves with respect to a base of the photosensitive member is not higher than 120 V and the current density of ions incident upon the base is not lower than 0.4 mA/cm.sup.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 16, 1998
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Hitoshi Murayama, Satoshi Kojima
  • Patent number: 5756250
    Abstract: An electrophotographic apparatus employs a charger for charging a cylindrical photosensitive member having a photoconductive layer of amorphous silicon containing 10 to 40 atomic % hydrogen; an exposing station for imagewise exposing the member to form an electrostatic latent image; a developer station for developing the latent image to form a toner image; a transfer station for transferring the toner image to an image receiving sheet and a blade for cleaning the surface of the cylindrical member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 26, 1998
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Yutaka Hirai, Toshiyuki Komatsu, Katsumi Nakagawa, Teruo Misumi, Tadaji Fukuda
  • Patent number: 5729800
    Abstract: An electrophotographic apparatus using an a-Si photosensitive drum. The a-Si photosensitive drum has a thickness between 2 and 25 .mu.m. The initial charging potential on the photosensitive drum is set to 450V or below. The center exposure wavelength of an exposure means is set to 700 nm or above. The photosensitive drum includes a photoconductive layer formed as a thin film a-Si layer having a temperature characteristic of 1.0 V/.degree.C. or below. For realizing low charging potential and low electric field development, the thickness d of the photoconductive layer in the photosensitive drum is set to 2 to 24 .mu.m, the relative dielectric constant .epsilon.r is set to 2 or above, and the ratio d/.epsilon.r is set to 9 or below.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1998
    Assignee: Kyocera Corporation
    Inventors: Tadashi Ohba, Norio Tomiie, Keiji Itsukushima, Hisashi Higuchi
  • Patent number: 5624776
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photosensitive member comprising a substrate and a light receiving layer composed of a silicon-containing non-single crystal material disposed on said substrate, characterized in that said light receiving layer contains a plurality of columnar structure regions each grown from a nucleus situated in said light receiving layer wherein said plurality of columnar structure regions are arranged substantially in parallel to the thicknesswise direction of said light receiving layer and at a density in the range of 5/cm.sup.2 to 500/cm.sup.2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1997
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tetsuya Takei, Hirokazu Ohtoshi, Takehito Yoshino, Ryuji Okamura, Yasuyoshi Takai
  • Patent number: 5516611
    Abstract: In order to improve characteristics of a light-receiving member for electrophotography having a photoconductive layer comprising an amorphous silicon material and implement a method for facilitating designing of a layer structure, the present invention provides a light-receiving member which is formed by depositing in sequence a photoconductive layer which comprises a non-monocrystalline material comprising silicon atoms as a main element and a surface layer on a conductive substrate, wherein the photoconductive layer comprises at least hydrogenated amorphous silicon which contains at least carbon atoms and boron atoms and the boron atom content in the photoconductive layer in a direction of film thickness is varied in a correlation of exponential functions with respect to the carbon atom content in the photoconductive layer in the direction of film thickness, and a method for producing the light-receiving member by forming a layer while controlling a charge of a starting gas for the boron atoms in the correl
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 14, 1996
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Satoshi Kojima, Hirokazu Ohtoshi, Hitoshi Murayama
  • Patent number: 5470682
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photoreceptor comprising a photosensitive layer containing granular trigonal selenium which has a mean particle diameter of not more than 5 .mu.m and which has absorption peaks in the X-ray diffraction spectrum using CuK.alpha. characteristic X-rays at Bragg angles (2.degree..theta..+-.0.2.degree.) of 23.5.degree., 29.7.degree., 41.4.degree., and 45.4.degree., is disclosed, which has high photosensitivity and low residual potential, maintains its potential characteristics in a stable manner on repeated use, and exhibits sufficient photosensitivity even when applied to high-speed copying.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1993
    Date of Patent: November 28, 1995
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Seiji Ashiya, Takahiro Suzuki, Masanori Murase
  • Patent number: 5459009
    Abstract: A process for producing an electrophotographic photoreceptor comprising the steps of forming a photoconductive layer on a conductive substrate in a reaction chamber, and after the photoconductive layer is formed, forming a surface protection layer on the photoconductive layer by introducing into the reaction chamber a gaseous mixture comprising (i) a first component, fluorohydrocarbon gas, and (ii) a second component silicon, hydride gas, or a hydrocarbon gas and/or hydrogen gas and decomposing the gaseous mixture by glow discharge, wherein the surface protection layer thus formed comprises amorphous silicon carbide when the second component is a silicon hydride gas or amorphous carbon when the second component is a hydrocarbon gas and/or hydrogen gas. The surface protection layer exhibits sufficient hardness to protect the photoconductive layer from frictional scratches and other related damage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1990
    Date of Patent: October 17, 1995
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yuzuru Fukuda, Masayuki Nishikawa, Masato Ono, Noriyoshi Takahashi, Shigeru Yagi, Ken-ichi Karakida
  • Patent number: 5436101
    Abstract: An x-ray photoreceptor for use in a xerographic system having a high arsenic layer 5 to 40 microns in thickness between the substrate and the selenium layer for trapping positive charge injected from the interface. Since this positive charge otherwise tends to discharge a negatively charged plate, the provision of this trapping layer will allow the plate to be used for either positive or negative charging.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1993
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1995
    Assignee: Xerox Corporation
    Inventors: William D. Fender, Eddie M. Zanrosso
  • Patent number: 5422209
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photoreceptor is disclosed, comprising an electrically conductive substrate having provided thereon at least a photoconductive layer and a surface layer, wherein the photoconductive layer comprises (a) a charge transporting layer mainly composed of amorphous silicon containing at least one of hydrogen and a halogen and at least one selected from carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and (b) a charge generating layer composed of amorphous silicon containing at least one of hydrogen and a halogen or amorphous silicon containing at least one of hydrogen and a halogen and at least one selected from germanium and tin, and the surface layer is composed of at least one of an organic polymer material and an inorganic polymer material having dispersed therein an electrically conductive fine powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 6, 1995
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masato Ono, Taketoshi Higashi, Masao Watanabe, Masaki Yokoi, Yuzuru Fukuda, Shigeru Yagi
  • Patent number: 5407768
    Abstract: An electrophotographic light-receiving member comprising a conductive substrate 101 and laminated thereto a non-monocrystalline material photoconductive layer 102 and a surface layer 103. The photoconductive layer 102 is mainly composed of silicon atoms and contains at least carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. The percentage of carbon atoms having a carbon-carbon bond in the photoconductive layer is controlled to be not more than 60% based on the whole carbon atoms contained therein, and, in an instance in which a blocking layer 104 is provided between the conductive substrate 101 and the photoconductive layer 102, the percentage of carbon atoms having a carbon-carbon bond in the blocking layer is also controlled. This makes it possible to prevent clusters of carbon atoms from being formed in the photoconductive layer or blocking layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 18, 1995
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kazuyoshi Akiyama, Masaaki Yamamura, Ryuji Okamura, Koji Hitsuishi
  • Patent number: 5403688
    Abstract: A method for determining a termination time of the step of dispersing a coating composition for a photosensitive layer, containing a binder resin, a powdery charge generating material and a solvent, is disclosed, which comprises (i) providing coating (I) on a substrate by coating the coating composition, following by drying, (ii) providing coating (II) on a substrate by dispersing the coating composition using a dispersion medium to fine the powdery charge generating material, followed by drying, (iii) measuring absorbances of coating (I) at two wavelengths within a short wavelength region and a long wavelength region, respectively, of the spectral absorption wavelength of the charge generating material, (iv) measuring absorbances of coating (II) at the two wavelengthes within the short wavelength region and the long wavelength region, respectively, and (v) calculating spectral absorbance ratios of coatings (I) and (II), respectively, from the following equation: ##EQU1## wherein the dispersing of the coating
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1995
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Seiji Ashiya, Taketoshi Hoshizaki, Ryosaku Igarashi, Koji Bando, Masanori Murase, Takahiro Suzuki, Masahiko Hodumi, Sadao Okano
  • Patent number: 5395716
    Abstract: An improved electrophotographic recording material of the type comprising an electrically conductive substrate having a blocking layer composed of an amorphous material including silicon atoms, hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms disposed on the substrate, and a photoconductive layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon disposed on the blocking layer. The photoconductive layer includes carbon atoms, the blocking layer and the photoconductive layer are doped with an element of Group III of the Periodic Table of Elements, and the ratio of the carbon percentage to the percentage of the element of Group III of the Periodic Table of Elements is the same in the blocking layer and in the photoconductive layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1995
    Assignee: Licentia Patent-Verwaltungs-GmbH
    Inventors: Klaus Schade, Alfred Kottwitz, Gunnar Suchaneck, Jens-Peter Monch, Sabine Dreihofer, Manfred Lutz
  • Patent number: 5382487
    Abstract: An image forming member for electrophotography constructed with a substrate and a photoconductive layer formed thereon, wherein the photoconductive layer comprising an amorphous material containing therein silicon atom as the matrix and halogen atom as the constituent atom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: January 17, 1995
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tadaji Fukuda, Toshiyuki Komatsu
  • Patent number: 5278015
    Abstract: An amorphous silicon film contains not less than 30 at. % hydrogen and includes silicon atoms joined with one hydrogen atom and silicon atoms joined with two hydrogen atoms, the ratio of the silicon atoms joined with two hydrogen atoms to the silicon atoms joined with one hydrogen atom being not more than 0.4. This amorphous silicon films is produced by performing plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition at a substrate temperature of not more than 100.degree. C., while supplying hydrogen and silane in the predetermined ratio, the ratio of the flow of hydrogen to that of silane being not less than 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 11, 1994
    Assignee: Sango Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masayuki Iwamoto, Koji Minami, Toshihiko Yamaoki
  • Patent number: 5273851
    Abstract: An electrophotographic light-receiving member comprises a substrate, a photoconductive layer formed on the substrate and composed of a non-single crystal material containing a base component silicon atoms and a surface layer (surface-side region) made of a non-single crystal material containing silicon, carbon and hydrogen atoms, in which the ratio of silicon atoms having at least one bond to a carbon atom in the surface layer is at least 50% of the total number of silicon atoms. The electrophotographic light-receiving member has good initial electrophotographic properties and particularly good durability under a high-humidity environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1993
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tetsuya Takei, Shigeru Shirai, Hirokazu Ootoshi, Ryuji Okamura, Yasuyoshi Takai
  • Patent number: 5239397
    Abstract: A photoconductor coupled liquid crystal light valve comprising a photoconductor layer, a liquid crystal layer and electrodes for applying voltage to the layers. The photoconductive layer is made of amorphous silicon containing hydrogen and/or halogen at more than 40 at%. The photoconductive layer preferably has a resistivity of between 10.sup.11 and 10.sup.12 ohm-cm and a photonconductivity of 10.sup.-8 and 10.sup.-6 cm.sup.2 /V. The photoconductive layer is preferably formed by electron cyclotron resonance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1993
    Assignee: Sharp Kabushiki
    Inventors: Takashi Hayakawa, Shiro Narikawa, Kunio Ohashi
  • Patent number: 5213927
    Abstract: New inverse multiactive electrophotographic elements comprise, in order:an electrically conductive layer;a charge-transport layer;a first charge-generation layer containing a charge-generation material and a charge-transport material; anda second charge-generation layer containing a charge-generation material and a charge-transport material different from and less susceptible to positive-surface-charge injection than the charge-transport material of the first charge-generation layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 1992
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1993
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: Hsin C. Kan, Norman G. Rule