Coal Patents (Class 48/101)
  • Patent number: 10344232
    Abstract: Processes for producing high biogenic concentration Fischer-Tropsch liquids derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW) feedstock that contains a relatively high concentration of biogenic carbon (derived from plants) and a relatively low concentration of non-biogenic carbon (derived from fossil sources) wherein the biogenic content of the Fischer-Tropsch liquids is the same as the biogenic content of the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2019
    Assignee: Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc.
    Inventors: Stephen H. Lucas, Peter G. Tiverios, Lewis L. Rich
  • Patent number: 10344233
    Abstract: Processes for producing high biogenic concentration Fischer-Tropsch liquids derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW) feedstock that contains a relatively high concentration of biogenic carbon (derived from plants) and a relatively low concentration of non-biogenic carbon (derived from fossil sources) wherein the biogenic content of the Fischer-Tropsch liquids is the same as the biogenic content of the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2019
    Assignee: Fulcrum BioEnergy, Inc.
    Inventors: Stephen H. Lucas, Peter G. Tiverios, Lewis L. Rich
  • Patent number: 9738579
    Abstract: Processes for producing high biogenic concentration Fischer-Tropsch liquids derived from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (MSW) feedstock that contains a relatively high concentration of biogenic carbon (derived from plants) and a relatively low concentration of non-biogenic carbon (derived from fossil sources) wherein the biogenic content of the Fischer-Tropsch liquids is the same as the biogenic content of the feedstock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 2016
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2017
    Assignee: FULCRUM BIOENERGY, INC.
    Inventors: Stephen H. Lucas, Peter G. Tiverios, Lewis L. Rich
  • Patent number: 9550680
    Abstract: A chemical looping system that contains an oxidizer and a reducer is in fluid communication with a gas purification unit. The gas purification unit has at least one compressor, at least one dryer; and at least one distillation purification system; where the gas purification unit is operative to separate carbon dioxide from other contaminants present in the flue gas stream; and where the gas purification unit is operative to recycle the contaminants to the chemical looping system in the form of a vent gas that provides lift for reactants in the reducer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2017
    Assignee: GENERAL ELECTRIC TECHNOLOGY GMBH
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus, Jr., Glen D. Jukkola, Paul R. Thibeault, Gregory N. Liljedahl
  • Patent number: 9375694
    Abstract: A downdraft gasifier that utilizes a plurality of vertically positioned tubes to create a pyrolysis zone, an oxidation zone beneath the pyrolysis zone and a reduction zone beneath the oxidation zone. The shape of the tubes eliminates the need for a restriction (hearth), which limits the maximum achievable throughput. A rotating and vertically adjustable grate is located beneath, but not attached to, the reduction zone of the gasifier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2016
    Assignee: PHG ENERGY, LLC
    Inventors: Deon John Potgieter, Billy Freeman Hopper, Jeffrey Scott Brown, Mark Oliver Loftin
  • Patent number: 9150798
    Abstract: Provided is a method of reforming a produced gas to reform tar contained in the produced gas from a gasification furnace. Quick lime comes in contact with a produced gas (3) from a gasification furnace (2) in a reformer (1) such that the quick lime absorbs carbon dioxide in the produced gas to generate calcium carbonate, and reforming reaction of the tar is performed with calcium as a catalyst using heat of reaction emitted during that time. In addition, as the calcium carbonate of the reformer (1) is supplied and burnt in a reforming agent regenerator (8), the quick lime is regenerated and supplied into the reformer (1) again. According to the above configuration, it is possible to provide a method and device for reforming a produced gas that are capable of simplifying equipment and operation thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2015
    Assignee: IHI CORPORATION
    Inventor: Toru Ishii
  • Patent number: 9051585
    Abstract: Process for producing C2+ alcohols from a methane-containing feedstock, by passing the methane-containing feedstock and CO2 to a non-oxidative reforming process to produce a product stream containing CO, H2 and CO2, optionally in the presence of steam, provided that where steam is present in the feed to the reforming process, the steam and CO2 are present in a molar ratio of less than 5:1. The CO, H2 and CO2 stream is passed to a bacterial fermentation step where it is converted to a liquid product stream containing one or more C2+ alcohols and a gaseous product stream containing CO, H2 and CO2. The fermentation step is operated to provide a conversion of CO of at least 60%. CO, H2 and CO2 are recycled from the gaseous product stream to the reforming process such that the H2 reacts with carbon dioxide in the reforming process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2015
    Assignee: INEOS SALES (UK) LIMITED
    Inventor: Peter Bell
  • Publication number: 20150143749
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides methods and devices for preparing the fuel gas used. A device may include a furnace body, a tower type synchronous roller extruding machine with a circular ladder groove mold that is mounted at the upper end of the furnace body. The tower type synchronous roller extruding machine is provided with a bucket, the bucket is in airtight connection with the furnace body, and a first transmission shaft is mounted in the bucket. At least two tower type synchronous rollers are mounted on the first transmission shaft, and the tower type synchronous rollers are symmetrically distributed on both sides of the first transmission shaft.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 25, 2014
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Inventor: Lingzeng Kong
  • Patent number: 9017435
    Abstract: A system, including a gasifier comprising a wall defining a chamber, an inlet, an outlet, and a port, a combination feed injector coupled to the inlet, wherein the combination feed injector is configured to inject a first fuel and air or oxygen into the chamber to preheat the gasifier, and the combination feed injector is configured to inject a second fuel and oxygen into the gasifier after preheating to gasify the second fuel, an optical device coupled to the port, a sensor coupled to the optical device, and a monitoring system coupled to the sensor, wherein the monitoring system is configured to acquire data from the sensor, process the data, and provide an output representative of a condition of the gasifier based on the data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Thomas Frederick Leininger
  • Patent number: 8999019
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process and system for gasifying biomass or other carbonaceous feedstocks in an indirectly heated gasifier and provides a method for the elimination of condensable organic materials (tars) from the resulting product gas with an integrated tar removal step. More specifically, this tar removal step utilizes the circulating heat carrier to crack the organics and produce additional product gas. As a benefit of the above process, and because the heat carrier circulates through alternating steam and oxidizing zones in the process, deactivation of the cracking reactions is eliminated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Taylor Biomass Energy, LLC
    Inventor: Mark A. Paisley
  • Patent number: 8992640
    Abstract: The disclosed embodiments include systems for using an expander. In a first embodiment, a system includes a flow path and a gasification section disposed along the flow path. The gasification section is configured to convert a feedstock into a syngas. The system also includes a scrubber disposed directly downstream of the gasification section and configured to filter the syngas. The system also includes a first expander disposed along the flow path directly downstream from the scrubber and configured to expand the syngas. The syngas comprises an untreated syngas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Khodaram Rustom Khosravian, Ronald Frederick Tyree, Patrick Joseph McKenna
  • Publication number: 20140366504
    Abstract: An object is to prevent blockage of a slag hole with char and slag, enabling stable operation of a gasification furnace. In a configuration in which a heat exchanger (20) is provided above a coal gasification portion (10), the diameters (D1, D3) of the slag hole (16) and the throat portion (17) are set to three times or more the pitch (ST) of rows of heat exchange tubes (21). By doing so, blockage of the slag hole (16) or the throat portion (17) with char and a sintered material (50) falling from the heat exchanger (20) is prevented, enabling stable operation of a coal gasification furnace (101).
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 22, 2013
    Publication date: December 18, 2014
    Inventors: Kenta Haari, Osamu Shinada, Yasunari Shibata, Yuichiro Kitagawa
  • Publication number: 20140345198
    Abstract: A pressure equalizing structure that includes: a gasification furnace (3) for gasifying a carbon-containing fuel; a pressure vessel (5) housing the gasification furnace (3); an annulus section (7) filled with an inert gas and provided between the gasification furnace (3) and the pressure vessel (5). A pressure equalizing part (13), which is connected to the gasification furnace (3) to communicate between the inside of the gasification furnace (3) and the inside of the annulus section (7), is provided in a region where the in-furnace gas temperature inside the gasification furnace (3) is higher than the annulus temperature inside the annulus section (7).
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 30, 2013
    Publication date: November 27, 2014
    Inventors: Kenta Haari, Osamu Shinada, Yasunari Shibata
  • Publication number: 20140311031
    Abstract: Systems and methods for step-wise cooling high pressure and high temperature ash discharged from the gasifier used for gasification of carboneous materials, wherein a high pressure cooler cools the ash under the operating pressure of the gasifier, which may be followed by a depressurizer which brings the cooled ash to safe-handling temperature. A low temperature ash cooler may also be optionally used. Also provided is a system where a wet scrubber is used to clean the syngas from the gasifier, the waste water blow down from the scrubber is used to cool the hot ash either in the high temperature ash cooler, or the low temperature ash cooler. Steam generated in the ash coolers is supplied back to the gasifier to reduce steam consumption.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2014
    Publication date: October 23, 2014
    Inventor: John D. Winter
  • Publication number: 20140237986
    Abstract: A slag discharge system that includes: a gasification furnace which thermally decomposes and gasifies a pulverized raw material composed of a carbonaceous solid; a slag hopper which is provided at a bottom portion of the gasification furnace and receives slag produced from the pulverized raw material and in which cooling water is stored; a lock hopper which temporarily stores the slag outside of the gasification furnace; and a slag discharge line which makes the slag hopper communicate with the lock hopper. The lock hopper is disposed to the side of the gasification furnace, and the slag discharge system is provided with a water flow forming apparatus for forming a flow of the cooling water which allows the slag to be led to the lock hopper in the slag discharge line.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 6, 2012
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Inventors: Naoyuki Tazawa, Naoshige Yoshida
  • Publication number: 20140196369
    Abstract: Embodiments are directed to a gasifier that electrodynamically agitates charged chemical species in a reaction region of a reaction vessel of a gasifier and related methods. In an embodiment, a gasifier includes a reaction vessel configured to gasify at least one hydrocarbon-containing feed material to synthesis gas. The reaction vessel includes an inlet(s) for receiving a gasification medium that reacts with the at least one hydrocarbon-containing feed material and an outlet for allowing the synthesis gas to exit from the reaction vessel, and a reaction region. The gasifier includes at least one electrode positioned to be in electrical communication with the reaction region, and a voltage source operatively coupled to the at least one electrode. The voltage source and the at least one electrode are cooperatively configured to generate a time varying electric field in the reaction region to effect electrodynamic mixing of charged chemical species therein during gasification.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 13, 2014
    Publication date: July 17, 2014
    Applicant: ClearSign Combustion Corporation
    Inventor: Christopher A. Wiklof
  • Publication number: 20140190146
    Abstract: The carbon dioxide membrane separation system in a coal gasification process contains introduction of a mixed gas of hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in a high temperature and high pressure condition generated through water gas shift reaction from a water gas shift reaction furnace, while maintaining the temperature and pressure condition, to a zeolite membrane module containing a zeolite membrane for removing carbon dioxide, thereby removing carbon dioxide and generating a fuel gas rich in hydrogen. The fuel gas rich in hydrogen in a high temperature and high pressure condition discharged from the zeolite membrane module is fed to a gas turbine of the power generation facility while maintaining the temperature and pressure condition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 19, 2012
    Publication date: July 10, 2014
    Applicant: HITACHI ZOSEN CORPORATION
    Inventors: Suguru Fujita, Ken-ichi Sawamura, Masanobu Aizawa
  • Publication number: 20140182835
    Abstract: A plant for generation of steam for oil sand recovery from carbonaceous fuel with capture of CO2 from the exhaust gas, comprising heat coils (105, 105?, 105?) arranged in a combustion chamber (101) to cool the combustion gases in the combustion chamber to produce steam and superheated steam in the heat coils, steam withdrawal lines (133, 136, 145) for withdrawing steam from the heat coils, an exhaust gas line (106) for withdrawal of exhaust gas from the combustion chamber (101), where the combustion chamber operates at a pressure of 5 to 15 bara, and one or more heat exchanger(s) (107, 108) are provided for cooling of the combustion gas in line (106), a contact device (113) where the cooled combustion gas is brought in countercurrent flow with a lean CO2 absorbent to give a rich absorbent and a CO2 depleted flue gas, withdrawal lines (114, 115) for withdrawal of rich absorbent and CO2 depleted flue gas, respectively, from the contact device, the line (115) for withdrawal of CO2 depleted flue gas being connect
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2014
    Publication date: July 3, 2014
    Applicant: SARGAS AS
    Inventors: Knut Børseth, Tor CHRISTENSEN, Henrik FLEISCHER
  • Publication number: 20140090298
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for co-gasification of two or more carbonaceous feedstock, said process comprising combusting a first carbonaceous feedstock having high calorific value with low ash and high hydrogen content, to produce a heated effluent; carrying the heated effluent to second reactor where the heated effluent reacts with a second carbonaceous feedstock, having low calorific value with high ash and low hydrogen content, to produce synthesis gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 29, 2011
    Publication date: April 3, 2014
    Applicant: BHARAT PETROLEUM CORPORATION LIMITED
    Inventors: Pranab Kumar Rakshit, Ravi Kumar Voolapalli, Pintu Maity
  • Patent number: 8641991
    Abstract: The present invention is generally directed to methods and systems for processing biomass into usable products, wherein such methods and systems involve an integration into conventional refineries and/or conventional refinery processes. Such methods and systems provide for an enhanced ability to utilize biofuels efficiently, and they can, at least in some embodiments, be used in hybrid refineries alongside conventional refinery processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
    Inventor: William L. Schinski
  • Publication number: 20130298465
    Abstract: To provide a pulverized-coal supply system for a coal gasification furnace in which the consumption of inert gas (the amount used) can be reduced. The pulverized-coal supply system is equipped with a pulverized-coal supply hopper (3) that receives pulverized coal pulverized by a coal pulverizer (1); a first pressure tank (31) that, when the pulverized-coal supply hopper (3) receives the pulverized coal, temporarily recovers part of inert gas filled in the pulverized-coal supply hopper (3) and supplies the recovered inert gas into the pulverized-coal supply hopper (3), whose interior is in an atmospheric pressure state; and a second pressure tank (32) filled with inert gas having a pressure necessary for increasing the inner pressure of the pulverized-coal supply hopper (3) to a predetermined pressure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2012
    Publication date: November 14, 2013
    Inventors: Tetsuya Kizu, Naoshige Yoshida
  • Publication number: 20130255153
    Abstract: Disclosed is a method of gas purification, a coal gasification plant, and a shift catalyst, each of which enables an inexpensive treatment of condensed water derived from steam used in a CO shift reaction. A CO shift reaction is performed using a shift catalyst less causing side reactions (e.g., a P—Mo—Ni-supported shift catalyst), and condensed water derived from steam used in the CO shift reaction is reused or treated. The method includes a cleaning step of removing water-soluble substances from a gasified gas containing CO and H2S; a CO shift step of allowing CO in a gas after the cleaning step to react with steam by the catalysis of the shift catalyst to convert CO into CO2 and H2; and a recovery step of removing CO2 and H2S from a gas after the CO shift step, in which post-shift condensed water formed after the CO shift step is recycled.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2013
    Publication date: October 3, 2013
    Applicant: HITACHI, LTD.
    Inventors: Takashi SASAKI, Tomoko AKIYAMA
  • Patent number: 8545579
    Abstract: A gasification furnace 2 is divided into a plurality of gasification furnace units 2a and 2b each of which has an inlet 15a, 15b on a lower portion at a longitudinally upstream end in a direction of travel of raw and bed materials and has an outlet 16a, 16b on an upper portion at a longitudinally downstream end in the direction of travel. The outlet 16a is connected to the inlet 15b. The inlet 15a is fed with a raw material and a hot bed material from a materials separator 8. The inlet 15b is also fed with the hot bed material from the material separator 8. The outlet 16b is connected to a combustion furnace 5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: IHI Corporation
    Inventors: Hisanori Nukumi, Toshiyuki Suda, Tomoya Muramoto
  • Publication number: 20130247465
    Abstract: A hydrocarbon feedstock gasifier (gasifier) is provided with: a heat transmission surface disposed within a gasification region of a gasifier configured from a pressure vessel for generating produced gas by partially oxidizing coal which is a hydrocarbon feedstock; a heat exchanger disposed on the path of a circulation line for a circulation medium circulating within the heat transmission surface and for exchanging the heat of the circulation medium; and a circulation pump for circulating the circulation medium.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2012
    Publication date: September 26, 2013
    Inventors: Yoshinori Koyama, Takao Hashimoto, Katsuhiro Ota, Hiromi Ishii, Shozo Kaneko
  • Publication number: 20130247846
    Abstract: A plant and a method for the production of energy from coal CM. In the plant, a macroapparatus comprises: an updraft gasifier, a dedusting unit; an evaporative cooler; a scrubber; and a humidifier. The cooler and the scrubber each comprise means for spraying an aqueous mixture into the gas, a basin for storing a quantity of condensed aqueous mixture, a recirculation circuit for removing the aqueous mixture from the basin and supplying it to the spraying means, and a bleed for removing the condensed pollutants and conveying them to the gasifier. The scrubber also comprises a heat exchanger along the recirculation circuit. The humidifier comprises: means for spraying into an oxygenated gas the aqueous mixture drawn from the cooler basin; a line for supplying the wet oxygenated gas to the gasifier.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 14, 2011
    Publication date: September 26, 2013
    Applicant: KOAR ENERGY RESOURCES LLC
    Inventor: Giovanni Cappello
  • Publication number: 20130199093
    Abstract: In various embodiments, the present invention provides a reaction chamber, including a catalyst, and a heating chamber configured to receive light. The heating chamber is positioned underneath at least a portion of the reaction chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2013
    Publication date: August 8, 2013
    Applicant: Regents of the University of Minnesota
    Inventor: Regents of the University of Minnesota
  • Publication number: 20130133305
    Abstract: A system includes a gasifier having a first enclosure having a first inlet, a first outlet, and a first interior volume. The first inlet is configured to receive a first fuel feedstock into the first interior volume, and the first outlet is configured to output a first syngas away from the first interior volume. The system also includes a plasma gasifier disposed downstream from the first outlet and coupled to a waste stream produced by the gasifier from the first fuel feedstock.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2013
    Publication date: May 30, 2013
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventor: General Electric Company
  • Patent number: 8435315
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is described for the efficient conversion of carbonaceous feedstock including municipal solid waste into a product gas through gasification. More specifically, a horizontally-oriented gasifier having one or more lateral transfer system for moving material through the gasifier is provided thereby allowing for the horizontal expansion of the gasification process such that there is sequential promotion of feedstock drying, volatization and char-to-ash conversions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2013
    Assignee: Plasco Energy Group Inc.
    Inventors: Andreas Tsangaris, Kenneth Craig Campbell, Mao Pei Cui, Geoffrey Dobbs, Douglas Michael Feasby, Zhiyuan Shen
  • Patent number: 8433526
    Abstract: A method of determining a steam quality of a wet steam located in an interior of a steam turbine includes emitting from an optical probe a plurality of wavelengths through the wet steam, measuring with the optical probe a wet steam intensity corresponding to each of the plurality of wavelengths emitted through the wet steam, determining an intensity ratio vector by dividing the wet steam intensity by a corresponding dry steam intensity for each of the plurality of wavelengths, successively applying scaling factors to the intensity ratio vector to obtain a scaled intensity ratio vector, calculating a suitable value for each of the scaling factors to obtain a plurality of residuals, determining a minimum residual of the plurality of residuals, determining a droplet size distribution by calculating the droplet number density corresponding to the minimum residual, and determining the steam quality based on the droplet size distribution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 30, 2013
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Binayak Roy, Tao Guo
  • Patent number: 8398730
    Abstract: A method of producing substitute natural gas (SNG) includes providing a gasification reactor having a cavity defined at least partially by a first wall. The reactor also includes a first passage defined at least partially by at least a portion of the first wall and a second wall, wherein the first passage is in heat transfer communication with the first wall. The reactor further includes a second passage defined at least partially by at least a portion of the second wall and a third wall. The method also includes coupling the cavity in flow communication with the first and second passages. The method further includes producing a first synthetic gas (syngas) stream within the cavity. The method also includes channeling at least a portion of the first syngas stream to the first and second passages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2013
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Paul Steven Wallace, Arnaldo Frydman
  • Patent number: 8372166
    Abstract: A controlled zone gasification reactor for a plasma assisted gasification reaction system is disclosed for converting fuel, such as, but not limited to, biomass, to syngas to replace petroleum based fuels used in power generation. The system may be a modular system housed within a frame facilitating relatively easy transportation. The system may include a reactor vessel with distinct reaction zones that facilitate greater control and a more efficient system. The system may include a syngas heater channeling syngas collected downstream of the carbon layer support and to the pyrolysis reaction zone. The system may also include a syngas separation chamber configured to produce clean syngas, thereby requiring less filtering. The system may further include an agitator drive assembly that prevents formation of burn channels with in the fuel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: AdaptiveARC, Inc.
    Inventor: Christian H. A. Juvan
  • Patent number: 8372167
    Abstract: A controlled zone gasification reactor with an agitator drive assembly for a plasma assisted gasification reaction system is disclosed for converting fuel, such as, but not limited to, biomass, to syngas to replace petroleum based fuels used in power generation. The agitator drive assembly that prevents formation of burn channels with in the fuel. The agitator drive assembly may include a syngas separation chamber configured to produce clean syngas, thereby requiring less filtering. The syngas separation chamber may feed syngas downstream to a syngas heater in a pyrolysis reaction zone in the reactor vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: AdaptiveARC, Inc.
    Inventor: Christian H. A. Juvan
  • Patent number: 8317886
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for starved air gasification of solid organic materials, including biomass and other wastes, to convert the chemical energy stored in such materials to thermal energy or gaseous products that may be used in biochemical and/or chemical synthesis. Specifically, the system utilizes a gasifier having a “moving bed of ash” hearth wherein the feedstock is partially oxidized at a low temperature (less than 1500 degrees F.) in a square or rectangular chamber having a vaulted, tapered or flat roof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: Nexterra Systems Corp.
    Inventors: Robert G. Graham, Jan Barynin, Kenneth M. Davison, Dave Berner
  • Patent number: 8187350
    Abstract: Apparatus and a process are described for compressing superheated steam into porous coal chunks in a chamber, and, after a time interval, expanding this steam out of the chamber, and repeating this steam cycle of compression followed by expansion. Thusly heated by the steam, volatile matter separates from the solid coke portion of the coal and separate volatile matter and coke products can be produced from coal or biomass fuels. These volatile matter liquids and tars can be used as fuel components in slurry fuels, for internal combustion engines used in our surface transportation industries. These solid coke products can be used as boiler fuel in steam electric plants. In this way our large domestic reserves of coal can be used as a fuel source, not only for electric power generation, but also for our surface transportation needs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2012
    Inventor: Joseph Carl Firey
  • Patent number: 8075645
    Abstract: A system for producing hydrogen features a reactor including a reaction channel adapted to receive a reaction stream including a mixture of supercritical water and a hydrocarbon fuel. A catalyst is positioned in the reaction channel so that a product stream containing hydrogen is produced by a reaction in the reaction channel when the mixture is exposed to the catalyst; wherein the catalyst contains a catalytically active metal and a promoter in a metal format, selected from the group consisting of potassium, sodium, rubidium, lithium, cesium, beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2011
    Assignee: Chart Inc.
    Inventors: Zhijun Jia, Mark Wood, Clay Thiele
  • Patent number: 7892303
    Abstract: A first process step comprises creating a hot gas, containing some molecular oxygen, by burning gas fuel with air and subsequently adding air to the burned gases. A second process step passes these hot oxygen containing gases through a bed of coal chunks, to remove volatile matter from the coal, and partially oxidize some of the volatile matter, as well as to transform the coal chunks into coke chunks. These hot coke chunks are transferred into a coke reaction chamber, where air is passed upward through the coke bed and oxidizes the coke largely to carbon monoxide, a fuel gas. This carbon monoxide fuel gas is combined with the volatile matter gases, and this fuel gas combination can be cleanly burned with addition thereto of overfire air. These process steps create a clean hot gas suitable for use in various apparatus, such as, steam boilers, gas turbines, and cement kilns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 22, 2011
    Inventor: Joseph Carl Firey
  • Patent number: 7730616
    Abstract: A method of cooling syngas in a gasifier is provided. The method includes channeling cooling fluid through at least one tube-bundle that includes at least three tubes coupled together within a radiant syngas cooler and extends through a reaction zone of the gasifier, and circulating reactant fluid around the at least one tube-bundle to facilitate transferring heat from the reactant fluid to the cooling fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2010
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: George Albert Goller, Daniel Anthony Nowak
  • Publication number: 20100126068
    Abstract: A powder injection system for use in pulverized coal gasification under pressure is provided. The powder injection system includes a reservoir for stocking the pulverized coal, a plurality of power injection tubes and a metering unit. A mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide is fed to the components that are at operating pressure, namely the powder injection tube and the metering unit, as the inerting and flow medium or fluidizing medium. The nitrogen and carbon dioxide mixture-carrying components are heated in such a manner that the temperature is above the threshold of the diphase range. A method is also provided. The method allows reduction of the nitrogen content in the product gas, which nitrogen is caused by the powder injection system, especially when used in pulverized coal gasification under pressure to produce a synthesis gas for the production of different hydrocarbons.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 18, 2008
    Publication date: May 27, 2010
    Inventors: Manfred Schingnitz, Günter Tietze
  • Patent number: 7670574
    Abstract: A method of cooling syngas in a gasifier is provided. The method includes channeling cooling fluid through at least one tube-bundle that includes at least three tubes coupled together within a radiant syngas cooler and extends through a reaction zone of the gasifier, and circulating reactant fluid around the at least one tube-bundle to facilitate transferring heat from the reactant fluid to the cooling fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2010
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: George Albert Goller, Daniel Anthony Nowak
  • Patent number: 7638070
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus may permit the generation of consistent output synthesis gas from highly variable input feedstock solids carbonaceous materials. A stoichiometric objectivistic chemic environment may be established to stoichiometrically control carbon content in a solid carbonaceous materials gasifier system. Processing of carbonaceous materials may include dominative pyrolytic decomposition and multiple coil carbonaceous reformation. Dynamically adjustable process determinative parameters may be utilized to refine processing, including process utilization of negatively electrostatically enhanced water species, process utilization of flue gas (9), and adjustment of process flow rate characteristics. Recycling may be employed for internal reuse of process materials, including recycled negatively electrostatically enhanced water species, recycled flue gas (9), and recycled contaminants.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2009
    Assignee: Thermo Technologies, LLC
    Inventors: Dennis E. J. Johnson, Grigori A. Abramov, Richard A. Kleinke, Marcus A. Wiley
  • Publication number: 20090249691
    Abstract: Apparatus for gasifying a solid fuel that supplies a solid fuel such as coal by dry condition to a gasification furnace of an entrained-bed type is constructed so as to be able to collect the char discharged from the gasification furnace and re-supply the char to the furnace without using a lock hopper and without changing the char into slurry form. The char discharged from the gasification furnace along with produced gases 53 produced in the gasification furnace is brought into contact with water by a gas cooler 9 and collected. After being dehydrated by a dehydrator 10, the collected char is loaded into a mill 2 or a raw-coal bunker 1. For loading into the raw-coal bunker 1, the char is dried by a drying machine 14, preferably, after the dehydration. According to the present invention, a mixture of the collected char and water can be re-supplied to the gasification furnace without using a lock hopper or a dry feeder.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 1, 2006
    Publication date: October 8, 2009
    Applicants: HITACHI, LTD., ELECTRIC POWER DEVELOPMENT CO., LTD., BARCOCK-HITACHI K.K.
    Inventors: Toru Akiyama, Fumihiko Kiso, Shinji Tanaka, Hirofumi Okazaki, Fumihiko Hanayama, Kazunori Sato, Takahiro Nishida, Hiroshi Takezaki, Akio Ueda, Makoto Takeda
  • Patent number: 7556659
    Abstract: A method of gasifying organic materials (carbonaceous compounds) such as coal and fossil fuel and their mixtures including gasifying wastes into syngas, and an apparatus thereof. The apparatus is suitable to gasify carbonaceous wastes without secondary pollutants formed from oxidation. Further, the apparatus can be used in a system to drive a fuel cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2009
    Inventor: Hyun Yong Kim
  • Publication number: 20090031787
    Abstract: A system and method for gathering diagnostic information relating to an operating condition of a gas stream or processing path of a coal gasification system is disclosed. The information is gathered by deploying one or more specially constructed modules or seeds that proceed through the gas stream of the coal gasification system as part of the mass flow of the gas stream. The seed may be physically recoverable in which an outer material of the seed ablates when exposed to a predetermined temperature of the gas stream. The seed may be physically non-recoverable in which electronic circuitry transmits a signal to a receiver relating to the temperature of the gas stream.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 2, 2007
    Publication date: February 5, 2009
    Applicant: GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY
    Inventors: Anthony Mark Thompson, James Scott Vartuli, Kenneth Brakeley Welles, Emad Andarawis Andarawis, Wayne Charles Hasz, John Erik Hershey, Ertugrul Berkcan, Jeffrey Michael Ashe
  • Publication number: 20080115478
    Abstract: An integrated gasification combined cycle system. In one embodiment (FIG. 2) a system (200) includes an ion transport membrane air separation unit (210) for producing oxygen-enriched gas (209) and oxygen-depleted air (227), a gasification system (5) for generating syngas with the oxygen-enriched gas (209), a gas combustor (234) for reacting the syngas (224), and a subsystem configured to provide a first stream of air to the combustor (234) at a first pressure and to provide a second stream of air to the air separation unit (210) at a second pressure greater than the first pressure. The subsystem includes a compressor (230) having multi-pressure outlets (203, 204).
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 16, 2006
    Publication date: May 22, 2008
    Inventor: Terrence B. Sullivan
  • Publication number: 20080115415
    Abstract: Production of synthetic liquid hydrocarbon fuel from carbon containing moieties such as biomass, coal, methane, naphtha as a carbon source and hydrogen from a carbon-free energy source is disclosed. The biomass can be fed to a gasifier along with hydrogen, oxygen, steam and recycled carbon dioxide. The synthesis gas from the gasifier exhaust is sent to a liquid hydrocarbon conversion reactor to form liquid hydrocarbon molecules. Unreacted CO & H2 can be recycled to the gasifier along with CO2 from the liquid hydrocarbon conversion reactor system. Hydrogen can be obtained from electrolysis of water, thermo-chemical cycles or directly by using energy from carbon-free energy sources.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 11, 2007
    Publication date: May 22, 2008
    Inventors: Rakesh Agrawal, Navneet R. Singh
  • Publication number: 20080098654
    Abstract: Carbon-containing tail gases and pollutants in a coal-to-liquid hydrocarbon production process, or other liquid fuel production process, may be reacted to produce additional synthesis gas which may be used to produce liquid fuels and hydrocarbons or which may be recycled within the liquid fuel production process to improve conversion of carbon to liquid fuels or hydrocarbons.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 27, 2006
    Publication date: May 1, 2008
    Applicant: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventors: Robert S. Cherry, Richard A. Wood
  • Patent number: 7267698
    Abstract: The invention is a method for producing hydrogen using a generator, heating the vessel that is part of the generator, loading waste comprising steel into the heated vessel, melting the loaded waste to a molten state using a non-transferred torch to cut and melt the waste and then using a transferred torch to maintain a molten metal pool, adding additional steel to raise the molten metal pool to a minimum depth, raising the temperature to 2000 degrees Centigrade, acquiring EPA approval, loading waste into the vessel at a defined rate, maintaining the molten metal pool further melting any non-melted waste into a molten status with the transferred torch, determining BTU content and gas flow, injecting steam into the vessel, flowing gas from the vessel through scrubbers into storage containers and collecting the hydrogen in a collection vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2007
    Inventor: Joseph Frank Pierce, Jr.
  • Patent number: 7169197
    Abstract: Solid waste resource recovery in space is effected by pyrolysis processing, to produce light gases as the main products (CH4, H2, CO2, CO, H2O, NH3) and a reactive carbon-rich char as the main byproduct. Significant amounts of liquid products are formed under less severe pyrolysis conditions, and are cracked almost completely to gases as the temperature is raised. A primary pyrolysis model for the composite mixture is based on an existing model for whole biomass materials, and an artificial neural network models the changes in gas composition with the severity of pyrolysis conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2007
    Assignee: Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael A. Serio, Erik Kroo, Marek A. Wojtowicz, Eric M. Suuberg
  • Patent number: 7097676
    Abstract: A process and a device are provided for producing hydrogen gas from water and carbon. The process includes introducing steam and powdered carbon in stoichiometric ratio of carbon to water into a preheated oxidization chamber in such a way that a gas plasma is produced in which the steam is decomposed into its hydrogen and oxygen gas components and oxygen is combined with carbon to form carbon dioxide gas in an exothermic reaction at temperatures above 2000° C., and separating the carbon dioxide gas from the hydrogen gas. The device for conducting this process has an oxidization chamber defined in a hollow body and being provided with a preheater and having at least one inlet port for introducing steam into the oxidization chamber, at least one inlet port for introducing powdered carbon into the oxidization chamber, and at least one exit port for carrying off generated hydrogen gas and/or generated carbon dioxide gas from the oxidization chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Inventors: Norman Wootan, Kenneth Hawkins
  • Patent number: 7083658
    Abstract: A gasifier 10 includes a first chemical process loop 12 having an exothermic oxidizer reactor 14 and an endothermic reducer reactor 16. CaS is oxidized in air in the oxidizer reactor 14 to form hot CaSO4 which is discharged to the reducer reactor 16. Hot CaSO4 and carbonaceous fuel received in the reducer reactor 16 undergo an endothermic reaction utilizing the heat content of the CaSO4, the carbonaceous fuel stripping the oxygen from the CaSO4 to form CaS and a CO rich syngas. The CaS is discharged to the oxidizer reactor 14 and the syngas is discharged to a second chemical process loop 52. The second chemical process loop 52 has a water-gas shift reactor 54 and a calciner 42. The CO of the syngas reacts with gaseous H2O in the shift reactor 54 to produce H2 and CO2. The CO2 is captured by CaO to form hot CaCO3 in an exothermic reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2006
    Assignee: ALSTOM Technology Ltd
    Inventors: Herbert E. Andrus Jr., Michael S. McCartney