Temperature Vs. Time Factor Patents (Class 502/420)
  • Patent number: 8722571
    Abstract: The invention is directed to an adsorbent comprising: a) 20-30% porous carbon with incorporated organic nitrogen species; and b) 70-80% inorganic matter. The invention is directed to a method of making an adsorbent which comprises: a) thermally drying dewatered sewage sludge to form granulated organic fertilizer; and b) pyrolyzing said the organic fertilizer at temperatures between 600 and 1000° C. The invention is additionally directed to the process of removing acidic gases from wet air streams comprising putting an adsorbent in contact with the wet air stream and allowing the adsorbent to adsorb the acidic gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Assignee: Research Foundation of the City University of New York
    Inventors: Teresa J. Bandosz, Andriy Bahryeyev, David C. Locke
  • Publication number: 20130312472
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for utilizing biomass, in which the biomass is pyrolyzed during a heat treatment process to obtain driven-out gas and remaining carbon-rich solids. It is an object of the invention to specify a method for utilizing biomass, which is based on comparatively expensive feedstocks, but in return gives products of value with unusually good properties, the proceeds of which make the process economically viable. This object is achieved firstly by using a biomass having a lignin content of 10 to 30% by weight and a water content of 5 to 25% by weight, and by virtue of a heat treatment process comprising three residence times each on a respective level of temperature, wherein the first residence time lasts between 10 and 40 minutes, particularly of 30 minutes at a temperature level between 130 and 280° C., particularly of 250° C.; the second residence time lasts between 5 and 30 minutes, particularly of 10 minutes at a temperature level between 300 and 500° C., particularly of 400° C.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 22, 2011
    Publication date: November 28, 2013
    Applicant: Evonik Degussa GmbH
    Inventors: Benjamin Brehmer, Jens Busse
  • Patent number: 8546298
    Abstract: An odor filtration media having a chemical reagent which removes odor causing fluid contaminants from a fluid stream through the use of granular or shaped media have a chemical composition including permanganate is provided. A method of producing the odor absorbing media having a chemical reagent is also provided and comprises the steps of mixing H2O, KMnO4, and at least one salt adding ions or ionic compounds selected from the group consisting of Na+, Li+, K+, NH4+, Cl?, SO42?, BO32?, CO32?, PO43?, NO3? and combinations thereof, or from the group consisting of Na+, Li+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl?, BO32?, NO3? and combinations thereof, forming an impregnating solution. The impregnating solution is heated and combined with a support material to form a coherent mass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: AAF-McQuay Inc.
    Inventors: Michael W Osborne, Zhong C. He, Ng Cheah Wei
  • Patent number: 8475687
    Abstract: Provided is a hydrogen-storing carbon material with improved hydrogen storage capacity. The hydrogen-storing carbon material has a total pore volume of 0.5 cm3/g or more, and a ratio of a total mesoporous volume to a total microporous volume per unit weight of 5 or more. In addition, the hydrogen-storing carbon material may have a nitrogen content of 0.5 wt % or more and less than 20 wt %. In addition, the hydrogen-storing carbon material may have a stable potential of ?1.28 V or more when a cathode current with respect to the hydrogen-storing carbon material is held at 1,000 mA/g in electrochemical measurement by chronopotentiometry involving using the hydrogen-storing carbon material in a working electrode in a three-electrode method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignees: National University Corporation Gunma University, National University Corporation Hokkaido University, Nisshinbo Holdings Inc.
    Inventors: Chihiro Fujii, Yasuhiro Oshima, Takeaki Kishimoto, Rieko Kobayashi, Akiko Taira, Jun-ichi Ozaki, Haruo Kumagai
  • Publication number: 20130023409
    Abstract: The invention provides a method for preparing activated charcoal from a precursor material comprising high mineral content plant or algal material by heating the precursor material under suitable conditions sufficient to produce activated charcoal therefrom. The invention also provides various applications of the activated charcoal per se.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 11, 2010
    Publication date: January 24, 2013
    Inventors: Franciscus Antonius, Anna Maria De Leij, James Peter Stratford
  • Patent number: 8231712
    Abstract: The method enables control over carbon pore structure to provide sorbents that are particularly advantageous for the adsorption of specific gases. It involves preparation of a sorbent precursor material, carbonization of the precursor material, and, usually, activation of the carbonized material. The resultant material is subjected to heat treatment and/or to surface conditioning by a reducing gas at elevated temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 31, 2012
    Assignee: Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Marek A. Wójtowicz, Eric Rubenstein, Michael A. Serio
  • Patent number: 8197790
    Abstract: A method of making a filter material for producing potable water comprises providing activated carbon particles, depositing one or more nanofilament precursors at least partially onto the surface of the activated carbon particles, agitating the activated carbon particles and deposited nanofilament precursors in the presence of carbonaceous vapor, and heating the activated carbon particles and the deposited nanofilament precursors in the presence of carbonaceous vapor at a temperature and time sufficient to produce the filter material comprising activated carbon particles having carbon nanofilaments on the surface of the particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: PUR Water Purification Products, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael Donovan Mitchell, Dimitris Ioannis Collias
  • Publication number: 20120114542
    Abstract: A photocatalyst is provided that comprises activated carbon produced from date pits, impregnated with TiO2. The activated carbon can have a porous surface that can attract and trap pollutants flowing in air or water. The photocatalyst can be made by a method that includes preparing activated carbon by calcining date pits to form a precursor material, and then impregnating the precursor material with titanium dioxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 16, 2012
    Publication date: May 10, 2012
    Inventors: Yousef Saleh Al-Zeghayer, Sami M. Bashir, Ahmed V. Yaser, Hassan M. El Dekki, Waheed A. Al-Masry, Fadi M. Trabzuni
  • Publication number: 20120094828
    Abstract: The present invention provides a high surface area porous carbon material and a process for making this material. In particular, the carbon material is derived from biomass and has large mesopore and micropore surfaces that promote improved adsorption of materials and gas storage capabilities.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 21, 2011
    Publication date: April 19, 2012
    Inventors: Peter Pfeifer, Galen J. Suppes, Parag Shah, Jacob W. Burress
  • Publication number: 20110177940
    Abstract: A substantially homogeneous composite for making a carbon material includes a carbon precursor and an activation agent that is soluble in a solution including the carbon precursor. An amount of the activation agent used is sufficient to form the carbon material having at least 90% of a total pore volume of the carbon material composed of micropores, and 10% or less of the total pore volume composed of mesopores and macropores.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2011
    Publication date: July 21, 2011
    Inventors: Gregory P. Meisner, Qingyuan Hu
  • Publication number: 20100110611
    Abstract: Nanoporous activated carbon material having a high specific capacitance in EDLCs and controlled oxygen content, and methods for making such activated carbon material. Reduction of oxygen content is achieved by (a) curing a carbon precursor/additive mixture in an inert or reducing environment, and/or (b) refining (heating) activated carbon material after synthesis in an inert or reducing environment. The inert or reducing environment used for curing or refining is preferably substantially free of oxygen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 4, 2008
    Publication date: May 6, 2010
    Inventors: Kishor Purushottam Gadkaree, Jia Liu
  • Patent number: 6626981
    Abstract: A method for producing high capacity gas-storage microporous sorbents involves precursor carbonization under relatively severe heat-treatment conditions, normally followed by activation using a cyclic chemisorption-desorption process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2003
    Assignee: Advanced Fuel Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Marek A. Wojtowicz, Michael A. Serio, Eric M. Suuberg
  • Patent number: 6503655
    Abstract: A thin, flat, and porous carbon gas diffusion electrode having a side in contact with a supply of gas and a side in contact with an electrolyte, comprises a pyrolysis product of a composite of an organic aerogel or xerogel and a reinforcing skeleton consisting at least in part of organic material. The porosity of the carbon gas diffusion electrode according to the invention can be regulated at will while the surface of the electrode is smooth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2003
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Raino Petricevic, Jochen Fricke, Rainer Leuschner, Matthias Lipinski
  • Publication number: 20030004061
    Abstract: An enhanced material formed from a carrier material having a high porosity. The carrier material is treated with a mixture of hydrocarbons to increase the adherence of the carrier material particles to one another to minimize atmospheric contamination of the carrier materials in use. The material has particular applicable to environments where such contamination would create problems, such as food processing and preparation environments, computer operations, electronic component manufacturing and other environments. The material meets the requirements of FDA regulations for Indirect Food Contact.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 29, 2002
    Publication date: January 2, 2003
    Inventor: Richard J. Kraemer
  • Patent number: 6500401
    Abstract: A method of making carbon foam is described which involves pyrolizing a mixture containing at least one pyrolizable substance and at least one unpyrolizable material and then removing the unpyrolizable material to obtain the carbon foam. Carbon foam made by this process is also described. Incorporating the carbon foam in a variety of end use applications including electrodes, thermal insulation material, polymers, and the like is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2002
    Assignee: Cabot Corporation
    Inventors: Steven R. Reznek, Robert K. Massey
  • Patent number: 5990041
    Abstract: This invention relates to a mesoporous carbon material in the form of filaments having a high surface area. A process is also provided to produce mesoporous carbon material of high surface area. The process comprises drying a carbon material, surface oxidizing the dried material, stabilizing the surface oxidized material, and activating the stabilized material to produce a highly activated, mesoporous material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 23, 1999
    Assignee: Research Foundation of State University of New York at Buffalo
    Inventors: Deborah D. L. Chung, Weiming Lu
  • Patent number: 5789338
    Abstract: A high energy density capacitor incorporating a variety of carbon foam electrodes is described. The foams, derived from the pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde and related polymers, are high density (0.1 g/cc-1.0 g/cc) electrically conductive and have high surface areas (400 m.sup.2 /g-1000 m.sup.2 /g). Capacitances on the order of several tens of farad per gram of electrode are achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignee: Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: James L. Kaschmitter, Steven T. Mayer, Richard W. Pekala
  • Patent number: 5614460
    Abstract: A method of making a microporous carbon material which includes providing a precursor selected from the group consisting of crystalline salts of aromatic sulfonates and nonporous polymeric salts. Heat treatment of such precursors in the temperature range of 350.degree. to 850.degree. C. in an inert oxygen free atmosphere for a sufficient time promotes thermally induced hydrogen abstraction and rearrangement of BSUs which result in the formation of a carbonaceous microporous material having a pore size distribution in the range of about 4-15 .ANG.. The structural and storage characteristics of the microporous carbon materials are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 25, 1997
    Assignee: Syracuse University
    Inventors: James A. Schwarz, Karol Putyera, Teresa J. Bandosz, Jacek Jagiello
  • Patent number: 5599764
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an adsorbent formed by the pyrolysis of a hydrophobic silica with a pore size greater than 5 .ANG., such as SILICALITE.TM., with a molecular sieving polymer precursor such as polyfurfuryl alcohol, polyacrylonitrile, polyvinylidene chloride, phenol-formaldehyde resin, polyvinylidene difluoride and mixtures thereof. Polyfurfuryl alcohol is the most preferred. The adsorbent produced by the pyrolysis has a silicon to carbon mole ratio of between about 10:1 and 1:3, and preferably about 2:1 to 1:2, most preferably 1:1. The pyrolysis is performed as a ramped temperature program between about 100.degree. and 800.degree. C., and preferably between about 100.degree. and 600.degree. C.The present invention also relates to a method for selectively adsorbing organic molecules having a molecular size (mean molecular diameter) of between about 3 and 6 .ANG.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1997
    Assignee: California Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Pramod K. Sharma, Gregory S. Hickey
  • Patent number: 5374608
    Abstract: Compositions containing one or more surfactants in combination with sulfuric acid and one or more of certain chalcogen-containing compounds in which the chalcogen compound/H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 molar ratio is below 2. These compositions contain the mono-adduct of sulfuric acid which is herbicidally active for controlling vegetation. Suitable chalcogen-containing compounds have the empirical formula ##STR1## wherein X is a chalcogen, each of R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 is independently selected from hydrogen, NR.sub.3 R.sub.4, and NR.sub.5, at least one of R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 is other than hydrogen, each of R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 is hydrogen or a monovalent organic radical, and R.sub.5 is a divalent organic radical. The surfactant-containing compositions are particularly useful for the treatment of materials containing lipophilic substances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1994
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventor: Donald C. Young
  • Patent number: 5261948
    Abstract: A method for the preparation of a carbon molecular sieve capable of separating acid gases and fluorocarbons of the formula C.sub.a H.sub.b X.sub.c F.sub.d, wherein a is from 1 to about 6, b is from 0 to about 13, c is from 0 to about 13, d is from 1 to about 14, and X is a halogen; on the basis of shape selectivity and size exclusion. A precursor resin is heated at about 0.2.degree. C. per minute to about 500.degree. C. Then the resin is soaked at about 500.degree. C. for about 6 hours in flowing inert gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1993
    Assignees: University of Delaware, E. I. Du Pont de Nemours Co.
    Inventors: Henry C. Foley, Ravindra K. Mariwala, Leo Manzer
  • Patent number: 5190901
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for producing an active carbon using a carbon-containing material inclusive of an used active carbon as a raw material wherein the carbon-containing raw material is carbonized in a carbonizing unit to produce a carbonized material having electric conductivity and the carbonized material is then activated in an activating treatment unit installed downstream of the carbonizing unit in an atmosphere of steam with a power of electricity induced by electric discharge as well as a function of self-heating of the carbonized material with its own electric resistance are disclosed. The carbonizing unit is constructed in the form of a thermal radiation type batch furnace including an outer wall and a vessel mounted on a firing lattice in the outer wall while a heating chamber is formed therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 2, 1993
    Assignee: Heiyo Shoji Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yoji Hirai
  • Patent number: 5164355
    Abstract: A coconut shell char having a high oxygen volumetric capacity is provided by crushing and sizing coconut shells to form granules which are then heated in flowing inert gas at a temperature ramp rate of about 2.degree. to 12.degree. C. per minute to a peak temperature of 775.degree. to 900.degree. C. which is then held so that the total heating time is up to 8 hours and thereafter the granular char is cooled in an inert gas atmosphere. The granular char thus produced is oxygen selective in air separation without further modification to narrow the openings of its micropores and has an oxygen volumetric capacity in excess of 8.0 cc/cc. Further modification of this char is provided by contacting it with an oxidizing atmosphere of carbon dioxide or a mixture of inert gas and carbon dioxide, H.sub.2 O or O.sub.2 at temperatures ranging from 650.degree. to 900.degree. C. until the gasified char has been altered so that its volumetric oxygen capacity is greater than 9.0 cc/cc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1991
    Date of Patent: November 17, 1992
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas S. Farris, Charles G. Coe, John N. Armor, Joan M. Schork
  • Patent number: 5071820
    Abstract: A method which minimizes macropore formation while producing microporous carbon comprises a two stage process. Firstly, the carbon is heated to a temperature in the range of about 150.degree. to about 200.degree. C. in the presence of oxygen for a time in the range of about forty-five to about seventy-five minutes, then purging the reaction environment of oxygen at this temperature with nitrogen. In the second stage, the carbon is heated to a temperature in the range of about 750.degree. to about 900.degree. C. under a stream of nitrogen for a time in the range of about fifteen to forty-five minutes. The process is repeated a number of times, the number being dependent on the extent of microporosity desired.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 1990
    Date of Patent: December 10, 1991
    Assignee: Atlanta Gas Light Company
    Inventors: David F. Quinn, Jayne A. Holland
  • Patent number: 4880765
    Abstract: Process for producing carbon molecular sieves for separating oxygen and nitrogen by treating a carbonaceous product with inert gas and steam in a vibrating oven and further treating said product with benzene at a high temperature in a vibrating oven to thereby narrow the existing pores.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 14, 1989
    Assignee: Bergwerksverband GmbH
    Inventors: Karl Knoblauch, Ferdinand Tarnow, Heinrich Heimbach
  • Patent number: 4656153
    Abstract: A high surface area, porous active carbon containing a substantially uniform dispersion of a metal or metal-containing material and a method for making the same are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 7, 1987
    Assignee: Standard Oil Company (Indiana)
    Inventor: Arnold N. Wennerberg
  • Patent number: 4552863
    Abstract: A process for producing granular activated carbon using wood as a carbon source is described. The process comprises pulverizing wood to produce a wood powder in a fine granular form, drying the wood powder to produce a dry wood powder having a water content of not more than 10% by weight, adding at least one of coal tar and ground pitch to the dry wood powder in an amount of from 5 to 20% by weight based on the total amount of the wood powder and the binder to prepare a raw material, placing the raw material in a pellet mill, extruding the raw material under such temperature and pressure conditions that it is plasticized, and simultaneously cutting it to produce pellets, carbonizing the pellets by heating, and activating the carbonized pellets in a high temperature steam atmosphere. This process makes it possible to efficiently produce activated carbon of high mechanical and adsorption performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 12, 1985
    Assignee: The Japan Steel Works, Ltd.
    Inventor: Eiichi Fujimori
  • Patent number: 4540678
    Abstract: The instant invention is directed to a process for the continuous manufacturing of carbon molecular sieves having average effective pore diameters of from 2 to 15 Angstroms which comprises continuously feeding a charred naturally occurring substrate to a means for heating said substrate and heating said substrate under non-activation conditions, without the use of an externally added pore blocking substance, at a temperature range of about 900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) to 2000.degree. F. (1093.degree. C.) for a time period of about 5 to 90 minutes.The instant invention is also directed to a carbon molecular sieve, useful for separating gas or liquid mixtures containing components of at least two different molecular diameters, molecular weights or molecular shapes which has the following physical characteristics:(a) an apparent density of from 0.60 to 0.70 g/cc,(b) an oxygen diffusivity (.times.10.sup.-8) of from 500 to 900 cm.sup.2 /sec,(c) an oxygen/nitrogen selectivity ratio of from 5.0 to 8.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1983
    Date of Patent: September 10, 1985
    Assignee: Calgon Carbon Corporation
    Inventor: Robert F. Sutt, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4526887
    Abstract: The instant invention is directed to carbon molecular sieves which are capable of separating gas or liquid mixtures containing components of at least two different molecular diameters, molecular weights or molecular shapes, said molecular sieve having an average effective pore diameter of from about 3 to about 20 Angstroms and having specified oxygen diffusivities and selectivity ratios.The instant invention is also directed to a process for preparing carbon molecular sieves having average effective pore diameters of from about 3 to about 20 Angstroms which comprises continuously feeding an agglomerated naturally occurring substrate to a continuous transport type heating means and calcining said agglomerated substrate in a substantially oxygen-free environment under a cocurrent purge of an inert gas at a temperature range of about 250.degree. to 1100.degree. C. for at least 1 minute.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 1983
    Date of Patent: July 2, 1985
    Assignee: Calgon Carbon Corporation
    Inventor: Robert F. Sutt, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4492771
    Abstract: Carbon material for de-sulfurization excellent in adsorptibility and mechanical strength can be produced from coal by controlling the physical properties of the raw material coal before its shaping to particular ranges, and subjecting the shaped coal to carbonization treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1982
    Date of Patent: January 8, 1985
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Chemical Industries Limited
    Inventors: Takashi Hasegawa, Koji Tsuchihashi, Hiroshi Yamashita
  • Patent number: 4490160
    Abstract: The invention provides an improvement in the method for the enrichment of nitrogen in air by the method of selective adsorption of oxygen in air on a carbonaceous adsorbent material. The improvement comprises the use of an adsorbent material prepared in a specific manner in which a pulverized coal char is blended with a limited amount of a sulfite pulp waste liquor and the blend is shaped into granules or pellets followed by carbonization at 300.degree. to 450.degree. C. for 1 to 2 hours. An enriched nitrogen gas containing 1% by volume or less of oxygen can readily be obtained by passing air through a column filled with the adsorbent material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 25, 1984
    Assignee: Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Nakaji Yuki, Hiroshi Kitagawa
  • Patent number: 4416798
    Abstract: An activated carbon adsorption column for the treatment of waste water is continuously sterilized and/or regenerated in pulsed batches of carbon amounting to 5 to 25 percent of the working column quantity transferred, alternately, from the influent face of the column to one of two, off-stream blow case vessels for steam processing and returned to the effluent face of the working column upon the next programmed pulsing interim.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1982
    Date of Patent: November 22, 1983
    Assignee: Westvaco Corporation
    Inventors: Donald G. Hager, Michael L. Massey, Frederick Rubel, Jr.