With Sorber-generator Cooling Means Patents (Class 62/481)
  • Patent number: 8978397
    Abstract: An apparatus for providing heating and/or refrigeration effect and a method thereof is disclosed which provides simultaneous heating and refrigeration, only heating or only refrigeration, using a double-effect vapor absorption cycle or a single-effect vapor absorption cycle. The present invention comprises providing a heat input to an absorbent in a generator to obtain a concentrated absorbent which is fed to a set of absorbers which are located in co-operation with a set of evaporators provided with a condensed refrigerant, to obtain heating and/or refrigeration effect. The heat/energy used during the process is recovered by a plurality of heat exchangers such that the wastage of energy and utilities is minimized. The present invention substantially reduces the CO2 emissions, thus is eco-friendly.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Thermax Limited
    Inventors: Balu Radhakrishnan, Babu Panneerselvam, Swapna Kulkarni
  • Patent number: 8875540
    Abstract: A humidity control apparatus has a refrigerant circuit 20 that has a compressor 21 and a first adsorption heat exchanger 23 and a second adsorption heat exchanger 25, each of which has an adsorbent for adsorbing the moisture of air supported thereon, and that reversibly circulates refrigerant to perform a vapor compression refrigeration cycle. The refrigerant circuit 20 is provided with a sensible heat exchanger 26 in which the refrigerant after having passed through the adsorption heat exchanger 23, 25 functioning as an evaporator exchanges heat with the air having passed through the adsorption heat exchanger 23, 25 functioning as a condenser, thereby cooling the air.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: Daikin Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Tomohiro Yabu, Yasunobu Okumura
  • Patent number: 8839635
    Abstract: The absorption chiller-heater apparatus of present invention utilizes a portion of direct heat, used to heat water, for providing the refrigeration effect. The external heat input required for providing refrigeration is minimal; hence, the efficiency of the apparatus is increased by 30-40% over the conventional systems. Further, as the quantum of the external heat source required for a new cycle is reduced, the size of the high temperature generator required, is smaller, which results in lower capital costs. The apparatus provides chilled water which can be used for various industrial purposes. The absorption chiller-heater reduces CO2 emissions and utilizes a single arrangement to produce both heating and refrigeration effect. Thus, additional electrical and heat input or separate components are not required.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2014
    Assignee: Thermax Limited
    Inventors: Blau Radhakrishnan, Babu Panneerselvam, Swapna Kulkarni
  • Patent number: 8720216
    Abstract: The hybrid aqua-ammonia and lithium bromide-water absorption chiller is an aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system integrated with a lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration system. By integrating a solar-powered lithium bromide-water absorption refrigeration system into the aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration system, evaporator temperatures below the freezing point of water may be generated at lower operating pressures and lower generator temperatures than in conventional aqua-ammonia absorption refrigeration systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 13, 2014
    Assignee: King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
    Inventors: Syed A. M. Said, Maged A. I. El-Shaarawi, Muhammad Umar Siddiqui
  • Patent number: 8544294
    Abstract: A subassembly for an adsorption chiller includes an adsorption component that includes a plurality of plates arranged in a stack. Refrigerant passages are defined between refrigerant sides of adjacent pairs of the plates in the stack. An adsorbent material is disposed within the refrigerant passages.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated
    Inventor: Sean Garner
  • Patent number: 8353170
    Abstract: An absorption heat pump system and a method for increasing the energy grade using the excess heat at a low temperature are provided. The absorption heat pump system comprises a heat pump generator (11), a heat pump condenser (12), a heat pump evaporator (13), a heat pump absorber (14), and an absorbent crystallizer (141). The absorbent crystallizer (141) has an inlet for the absorption solution, an outlet for the absorption solution and an outlet for the absorption solution containing absorbent crystals; The inlet for the absorption solution connects to the heat pump absorber (14), The outlet for the absorption solution connects to the heat pump generator (11), The outlet for the absorption solution containing absorbent crystals connects to the heat pump absorber (14). The absorption heat pump system can further comprise absorption refrigeration circulation subsystem, and the cooling medium produced by the refrigeration evaporator circulates between the refrigeration evaporator and the heat pump condenser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2009
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2013
    Assignee: Beijing Lianliyuan Technology Co., Ltd
    Inventor: Qingquan Su
  • Patent number: 8141379
    Abstract: The hybrid solar air-conditioning system includes an air intake having an air drying system that uses a liquid desiccant to dry ambient air, a desiccant regeneration system that uses a heat exchanger having oil heated by solar energy to remove water from the desiccant, an indirect evaporative air conditioner that uses an air-air heat exchanger to cool the dried air indirectly with evaporatively cooled air, a distilled water recovery system to recover water from the desiccant and from the evaporatively cooled air in the form of distilled water, and a microprocessor-based controller to control room temperature and relative humidity, and to regulate air intake and the flow of desiccant and oil in the system. The hybrid system enables the use of evaporative cooling in regions having high humidity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2012
    Assignee: King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals
    Inventors: Luai M. Al-Hadhrami, Aftab Ahmad, Shafiqur Rehman
  • Publication number: 20100293973
    Abstract: An ammonia absorption refrigeration apparatus is disclosed that has advantageous features to enable it to be integrated with a power plant comprised of a combustion turbine plus a heat recovery steam generator (e.g. a combined cycle plant), in a manner so as to enhance the performance of the power plant. Exhaust heat from the power plant powers the AAR, and refrigeration from the AAR chills the inlet air to the combustion turbine. Thus the power plant output is markedly increased on hot days at high efficiency, with little or no parasitic penalty.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 20, 2010
    Publication date: November 25, 2010
    Inventor: Donald Charles Erickson
  • Patent number: 7818977
    Abstract: Rotary absorption heat pump that comprises a rotary unit (1) that comprises a vapour generator (2), a condenser (3), an evaporator (4) and an absorber (5) interconnected to constitute fluid flow trajectories for a volatile fluid component and a liquid absorbing it. The heat pump also comprises heat transmission means for transmitting heat to the vapour generator (2), said heat transmission means comprising a heat exchanger (6) disposed in the rotary unit (1) through which a hot fluid flows, said heat transmission means also comprising adaptor means in order to transfer said hot fluid from a static environment to said heat exchanger (6).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2010
    Assignee: Fagor, S. Coop
    Inventors: Xabier Gorritxategi Retolaza, Unai Oñederra Egaña, José Manuel Cano Rodríguez
  • Publication number: 20100024448
    Abstract: This invention relates to the field of heat-driven cooling devices, heat pumps or thermal transformers, in particular to those devices, known as sorption devices, which employ an ad- or absorbent material as a chemical compressor to raise the pressure of a refrigerant gas. This invention is particularly concerned with a heat exchanger suitable for use as a generator in a sorption device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 7, 2007
    Publication date: February 4, 2010
    Applicant: University of Warwick
    Inventor: Robert Critoph
  • Patent number: 7490482
    Abstract: A two-liquid absorption refrigerator or space cooler of the cyclic type uses a spiral shaped Bourdon Tube as the refrigerant gas generator, with the lower end of the spiral disposed at a heat source. The generator may also function as the absorber vessel, thus greatly simplifying the operation of the device. In use, when ammonia depletion during the cooling cycle allows the generator to heat, it moves its lower end to a position removed from the heat source and begins to cool, thus allowing a charging cycle to replenish ammonia into the absorption liquid (usually water) in the generator. The device may thus function with only one moving part and without electricity, and further without control over the heating source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2009
    Inventor: Roland C. Lawes
  • Patent number: 7305849
    Abstract: A sorptive heat exchanger (E), which presents a plurality of heat exchange channels (10) in thermal contact with respective sorption channels (11), where sorption material (12) is fixed on the internal surfaces of channels (11).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2007
    Assignee: Mario Gualtiero Francesco Motta
    Inventors: Michael Karl Löffler, Hans-Martin Henning
  • Patent number: 7055333
    Abstract: A batch process and apparatus for producing a pressurized liquid carbon dioxide stream includes distilling a feed stream of carbon dioxide vapor off of a liquid carbon dioxide supply; introducing the carbon dioxide vapor feed stream into at least one purifying filter; condensing the purified feed stream within a condenser to form an intermediate liquid carbon dioxide stream; introducing the intermediate liquid carbon dioxide stream into at least one high-pressure accumulation chamber; heating the high pressure accumulation chamber to pressurize the liquid carbon dioxide contained therein to a delivery pressure; delivering a pressurized liquid carbon dioxide stream from the high-pressure accumulation chamber; and, discontinuing delivery of the pressurized liquid carbon dioxide stream for replenishing the high pressure accumulation chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 2005
    Date of Patent: June 6, 2006
    Assignee: The BOC Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Kelly Leitch, Danny Silveira
  • Patent number: 7000426
    Abstract: An adsorption refrigeration device comprising an evaporator chamber containing a refrigerant liquid that evaporates under the effect of a depression, a connecting device and an adsorption chamber containing an adsorbent capable of fixing the vapors of the refrigerant liquid, wherein the adsorbent is constituted by one or more rigid blocks comprising a plurality of cavities, at least one part of said cavities being feeder cavities capable of diffusing vapors of refrigerant liquid on the adsorbent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2006
    Assignee: Thermagen (S.A.)
    Inventor: Pierre Jeuch
  • Patent number: 6820440
    Abstract: An absorption-type air conditioner core structure is provided, which uses lithium bromide solution as absorbent and has a small volume and compact structure. The air conditioner core structure includes an upper vessel (24) and a lower vessel (21). The upper vessel and lower vessel are connected by a refrigerant water pipe (22), a cooling water pipe (7), a heating steam pipe (5), two concentrate solution pipes (27, 58) and two dilute solution pipes (46, 52). The concentrate solution and dilute solution pipes are disposed within a solution pipe protecting cover (23) which connects to both vessels. Because of its compact structure, small volume, fewer welding seams, high level of vacuum, and having the heat exchange pipes (30, 39, 61, 73) of the condenser 1, low temperature generator 2, evaporator 10 and absorber 11 all made of helical copper pipes, the air conditioner core structure has high heat exchange efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2004
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Inventor: Yue Zhang
  • Publication number: 20040035145
    Abstract: The invention relates to an adsorption refrigeration device comprising an evaporator (2) containing a refrigerant liquid (L) that evaporates under the effect of a depression and an adsorbent (205) capable of fixing the vapors (V) of the refrigerant liquid (L), characterized in that the adsorbent (205) is in contact with a heat exchanger (220) containing a cooling liquid (L′) that evaporates when the adsorbent (205) is heated, said heat exchanger (220) comprising at least one aperture (275) to the outside atmosphere constituted by at least one hole that limits the flow rate (V′) of the vapor of the cooling liquid (L′).
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 9, 2003
    Publication date: February 26, 2004
    Inventor: Pierre Jeuch
  • Publication number: 20030159461
    Abstract: An adsorption refrigeration device comprising an evaporator chamber containing a refrigerant liquid that evaporates under the effect of a depression, a connecting device and an adsorption chamber containing an adsorbent capable of fixing the vapors of the refrigerant liquid, wherein the adsorbent is constituted by one or more rigid blocks comprising a plurality of cavities, at least one part of said cavities being feeder cavities capable of diffusing vapors of refrigerant liquid on the adsorbent.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2003
    Publication date: August 28, 2003
    Inventor: Pierre Jeuch
  • Patent number: 6536229
    Abstract: A steam type absorption refrigerator which circulates absorption fluid from an absorber (1), through a low-temperature heat exchanger (3), a low-temperature regenerator (4), a high-temperature heat exchanger (6), a steam heating type high-temperature regenerator (7), the high-temperature heat exchanger (6) and the low-temperature heat exchanger (3) in order, back to the absorber (1) comprising, a fluid concentrating boiler (10) which is disposed between the high-temperature regenerator (7) and the high-temperature heat exchanger (6) concentrating the absorption fluid under heat, and a pump (13) which extracts a part or all of the concentrated absorption fluid from the high-temperature regenerator (7) and feeds it to the fluid concentrating boiler (10), wherein the fluid concentrating boiler is connected to the high-temperature heat exchanger (6) so that the absorption fluid concentrated under heat is returned to the heating side of the high-temperature heat exchanger (6) and is also connected to the high-temp
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2001
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2003
    Assignee: Kawasaki Thermal Engineering Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Syuzo Takabatake, Kunihiko Nakajima, Osamu Ohishi, Kenichi Saitou, Masuomi Ohta
  • Publication number: 20030033829
    Abstract: A sorption cooling device adapted to cool a gas or liquid flowing through a conduit. The cooling device has a high cooling density and a user can independently control the cooling rate. The cooling device can be incorporated in a number of apparatus and in one embodiment is incorporated in a personnel cooling apparatus, such as a closed-loop breathing apparatus or a body cooler.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 17, 2001
    Publication date: February 20, 2003
    Inventors: Douglas M. Smith, Kevin H. Roderick, Ezra L. Merrill, Charles J. Call
  • Patent number: 6415627
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a sorber cooling device suitable for use in an electromagnetic wave activated sorption system. One embodiment of the sorber cooling device has a metallic tubular enclosure extending coaxially into the sorber, a plurality of fins connected to a portion of the tubular enclosure extending outside of the sorber, a reservoir in fluid communication with the tubular enclosure, and a wick located within the portion of the tubular enclosure extending into the sorber. A refrigerant which is placed in the cooling device is drawn by the wick into the portion of the tubular enclosure extending into the sorber. The refrigerant absorbs heat from the sorber and evaporates. The evaporated refrigerant is condensed in the portion of the tubular enclosure extending outside of the sorber and the heat of condensation is dissipated by the fins. The condensed refrigerant is collected in the reservoir. This cycle repeats automatically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2002
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Dennis M. Pfister, Charles M. Byrd
  • Publication number: 20020053217
    Abstract: A regenerative adsorption process and a multi-reactor regenerative adsorption chiller assembly including a condenser adapted to receive a coolant from a source; an evaporator connected to the condenser to provide a refrigerant circuit; a plurality of reactors, each being able to operate in adsorption and desorption modes and having a coolant inlet to directly or indirectly receive coolant when operating in adsorption mode before, after or simultaneous with the condenser, and a waste heat inlet for directly or indirectly receiving waste heat from a waste heat source when operating in desorption mode; and control means for controlling said plurality of reactors such that each reactor alternately operates in adsorption and desorption modes for substantially identical time intervals, and such that each reactor has an equal chance of being the first reactor to receive the coolant when operating in adsorption mode, and the waste heat from the waste heat source when operating in desorption mode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 8, 2001
    Publication date: May 9, 2002
    Inventors: Hui Tong Chua, Kim Choon Ng, Abdul Malek, Takao Kashiwagi, Atsushi Akisawa, Bidyut Baran Saha
  • Publication number: 20020035849
    Abstract: The present invention provides an adsorption-type cooling apparatus comprising first, second, third, and fourth adsorption devices filled with a coolant and contain adsorbents which adsorb evaporated coolant and desorb the adsorbed coolant during heating. Adsorption cores provide heat exchange between the adsorbents and a heat medium, and evaporation and condensation cores provide heat exchange between heating medium and the coolant. A cooling device in which heating medium cooled in the evaporation and condensation cores circulates and cools the object of cooling. A heating means supplies a high-temperature heat medium to the first-fourth adsorption devices. A cooling means supplies a low-temperature heat medium which has a temperature lower than that of the high-temperature heat medium to the first-fourth adsorption devices. Also, a switching control means is provided which switches between multiple states.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2001
    Publication date: March 28, 2002
    Inventors: Masaaki Tanaka, Satoshi Inoue, Kideaki Sato, Katsuya Ishii, Hisao Nagashima, Shin Honda, Takahisa Suzuki
  • Patent number: 6282917
    Abstract: A heat exchanging method and apparatus for improving heat transfer in a cooling system. Specifically, the heat exchanging method and apparatus is an absorption chiller that comprises a heat transfer device having one heat pipe partially disposed within a second heat pipe, where the juncture of the coupled heat pipes promotes absorption of a vapor into a working solution. The juncture of the coupled heat pipes is disposed within a condenser section such that two processes, condensation and absorption of the absorption chiller are efficiently implemented within a single section or chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 4, 2001
    Inventor: Stephen Mongan
  • Patent number: 6155073
    Abstract: In a heat pump, e.g. comprising two adsorbers (1, 2), the adsorbers are monoliths having a multiplicity of open cells capable of flow-through of gas or vapor, and having a coating of an adsorbent, e.g. zeolite, for a fluid such as water vapor. Waste heat, e.g. from a vehicle engine, is supplied to heater (3), which heats up a heat transfer fluid pumped around the system by a reversible pump (11). Heat is lost to the ambient air by a cooler (4), and air from ambient, or recirculated air, is cooled by passing over an evaporator (6) for adsorbate fluid such as water, before entering a vehicle passenger compartment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2000
    Assignee: Johnson Matthey Public Limited Company
    Inventor: Peter Geoffrey Gray
  • Patent number: 6125650
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a sorber cooling device suitable for use in an electromagnetic wave activated sorption system. One embodiment of the sorber cooling device has a metallic tubular enclosure extending coaxially into the sorber, a plurality of fins connected to a portion of the tubular enclosure extending outside of the sorber, a reservoir in fluid communication with the tubular enclosure, and a wick located within the portion of the tubular enclosure extending into the sorber. A refrigerant which is placed in the cooling device is drawn by the wick into the portion of the tubular enclosure extending into the sorber. The refrigerant absorbs heat from the sorber and evaporates. The evaporated refrigerant is condensed in the portion of the tubular enclosure extending outside of the sorber and the heat of condensation is dissipated by the fins. The condensed refrigerant is collected in the reservoir. This cycle repeats automatically.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Sun Microsystems, Inc.
    Inventors: Dennis M. Pfister, Charles M. Byrd
  • Patent number: 6112528
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for unloading a plurality of containers having pressurized liquefied gas contained therein. A pressurized displacement gas is fed to a first container or group of containers to discharge the liquefied gas therefrom. The displacement gas is then withdrawn from the first container or group and it is separated into a first vapor stream and a second vapor stream. The first vapor stream is heated and passed to the first container or group. The second vapor stream is fed to a second container or group to discharge liquefied gas therefrom. Communication between the first container or group and the second container or group is severed and the foregoing steps are repeated for all of the containers in succession, with only the last container or group emptied of liquid remaining at the pressure of the displacement gas, and all of the containers at the end of the process except the last container or group being filled with a lower pressure vapor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 1999
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Assignee: ExxonMobil Upstream Research Company
    Inventor: James R. Rigby
  • Patent number: 6101816
    Abstract: A fluid storage and dispensing system comprising a vessel for holding a fluid at a desired pressure. The vessel has a pressure regulator associated with a port of the vessel, and set at a predetermined pressure. A dispensing assembly, e.g, including a flow control means such as a valve, is arranged in gas/vapor flow communication with the regulator, whereby the opening of the valve effects dispensing of gas/vapor from the vessel. The fluid in the vessel may be constituted by a liquid which is confined in the vessel at a pressure in excess of its liquefaction pressure at prevailing temperature conditions, e.g., ambient (room) temperature. A phase separator such as a gas/vapor-permeable liquid-impermeable membrane, may be associated with the regulator, as a barrier to flow of liquid into the regulator, when the contained fluid in the vessel is in a liquid state.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2000
    Assignee: Advanced Technology Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Luping Wang, Glenn M. Tom
  • Patent number: 6092372
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for gasification of liquid nitrogen and other cryogenic liquids are provided. The apparatus includes a gasification unit capable of refrigerating at least one cryoelectronics energy converter and utilizing the heat generated thereby to gasify a cryogenic fluid. Refrigeration is provided by the cryogenic fluid in the gasification unit. The gasification unit is preferably capable of gasifying at least 1 liter/hour of cryogenic fluid. The gasification unit can be coupled to a chemical processing unit such that gasified cryogenic fluid produced in the gasification unit can be introduced into the chemical processing unit for use therein. A secondary heat recovery unit can be provided upstream of the chemical processing unit to separate entrained liquid particles from the gasified cryogenic fluid produced by the gasification unit. Cryogenic fluid can be supplied to the gasification unit from an air liquefaction plant, a storage tank, a truck or the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Inventor: Carl J. Russo
  • Patent number: 6089027
    Abstract: A fluid storage and dispensing system comprising a vessel for holding a fluid at a desired pressure. The vessel has a pressure regulator, e.g., a single-stage or multi-stage regulator, associated with a port of the vessel, and set at a predetermined pressure. A dispensing assembly, e.g., including a flow control means such as a valve, is arranged in gas/vapor flow communication with the regulator, whereby the opening of the valve effects dispensing of gas/vapor from the vessel. The fluid in the vessel may be constituted by a liquid that is confined in the vessel at a pressure in excess of its liquefaction pressure at prevailing temperature conditions, e.g., ambient (room) temperature. In another aspect, the vessel contains a solid-phase sorbent material having sorbable gas adsorbed thereon, at a pressure in excess of 50 psig. The vessel may have a >1 inch NGT threaded neck opening, to accommodate the installation of an interior regulator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 18, 2000
    Assignee: Advanced Technology Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Luping Wang, Glenn M. Tom
  • Patent number: 6000463
    Abstract: The apparatus is a hydride heat pump which uses double communicating section containers holding high and low temperature metal hydrides, with the containers moving back and forth within channels between three heat exchangers. The preferred device has a cylindrical body with the several cylindrical channels in a circular pattern around the axis of the cylindrical body. High, medium, and low temperature heat exchangers are located in the body in sequence along the channels. Transition regions formed by thermal bridges alternating with thermal insulation are located along the channel walls between the heat exchangers to transfer heat among all the hydride containers located in each transition region. The lengths of the heat exchangers and the transition regions, the geometry of the containers, the timing of the reciprocation, and the number of channels are selected so that at least two containers moving in opposite directions are in contact with the transition zones at any time.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Assignee: Thermal Corp.
    Inventor: Boris A. Astakhov
  • Patent number: 6000226
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for storing and dispensing a liquid consisting of an oxygen containing mixture so that the liquid will not contain any more than a predetermined concentration of the oxygen at a predetermined pressure. In accordance with the invention, the mixture is introduced into the container at a specified initial concentration. A hypothetical volume of the saturated state of the liquid having the initial concentration is computed that when expanded into the total volume of the container, the resulting liquid would have the maximum enrichment. The liquid is dispensed from a bottom region of the container and dispensing is prevented when the liquid remaining within the container could possibly have the maximum enrichment computed at a particular dispensing pressure. Pressure relief methods are employed that avoid head space vapor being vented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Assignee: The BOC Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Ron C. Lee, Mark Thomas Grace
  • Patent number: 5960635
    Abstract: Air conditioning apparatus using liquid nitrogen. A source of liquid nitrogen fills a pressure vessel as necessary. A release valve releases the liquid nitrogen from the pressure vessel into a housing to absorb latent heat and become nitrogen gas. A thermostat controls the release valve. A dehumidifying arrangement blows warmer air from outside the housing to mix with the nitrogen gas inside the housing to become a cooler air mixture. The dehumidifying arrangement further dehumidifies the cooler air mixture before directing the cooler air mixture to the atmosphere outside the housing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Inventor: Farouk Dakhil
  • Patent number: 5943880
    Abstract: A refrigerant is directly contacted to a substrate to be processed that was heated so as to quickly cool the substrate. Thus, the temperature of the substrate is dropped to a predetermined temperature level. The substrate is cooled by a cooling device and cooling water. Thus, the cooling temperature can be accurately controlled. In addition, the substrate can be effectively cooled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 31, 1999
    Assignee: Tokyo Electron Limited
    Inventor: Kiyohisa Tateyama
  • Patent number: 5924291
    Abstract: A system delivers cryogenic gas at a high pressure from a supply of cryogenic liquid maintained at a low pressure in a bulk tank. The bulk tank supplies liquid to at least one transfer tank. The transfer tank is pressurized by connecting it to a pressure building tank contaning gas at a high pressure. A heat exchanger is connected in circuit between the transfer tank and the pressure building tank. The transfer tank provides liquid at a high pressure to the heat exchanger so that a vapor is produced. This vapor is fed to the pressure building tank so that the high pressure therein is maintained. The transfer tank provides a high pressure flow of liquid to a vaporizer and a high pressure gas storage tank so that high pressure cryogenic gas may be produced and stored.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 20, 1999
    Assignee: MVE, Inc.
    Inventors: James Michael Weiler, Thomas Karl Drube, Audrey Duane Preston
  • Patent number: 5906100
    Abstract: There are disclosed several embodiments of dewars each of which include an insulated apparatus for storing and delivering a liquid cryogen and a capacitance gauge for measuring the liquid level of cryogen. A process for rapidly filling the vessel with cryogen is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1999
    Assignee: Oceaneering International Inc.
    Inventors: Bruce D. Caldwell, Paul D. Duncan, John H. Fricker, Charles L. Hethcoat, III, Rick C. Hunter, Paul E. Robinson
  • Patent number: 5862670
    Abstract: Leakage of propellants such as oxygen and hydrogen in an enclosed environment in the atmosphere can lead to fires or explosions. For storage tanks on reusable launch vehicles such as the space shuttle where propellant is to be stored in the cargo bay of the vehicle, the storage tank should be filled while the vehicle is at a safe altitude to avoid the dangers associated with propellant leakage. The invention a process for filling propellant tanks at safe altitudes where if there is propellant leakage ignition will not occur. The process involves launching the vehicle with an inert gas in the storage tanks, dumping the inert gas and filling the tanks in the cargo bay from the main propellant tanks during the launch once the vehicle is at a safe altitude. The propellant can be dumped overboard and the storage tanks filled with an inert gas in case of a mission abort if the vehicle needs to make an emergency landing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1997
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1999
    Assignee: Boeing North American, Inc.
    Inventor: Tibor I. Lak
  • Patent number: 5845499
    Abstract: A beverage chilling and insulating device comprising an insulated sleeve for accepting a beverage container such as a beer or soda can. The insulated sleeve is secured at a bottom end to an insulated hollow base which defines a chilling chamber, the chilling chamber in communication with the sleeveway. A cartridge receptacle hole is located upon the insulated hollow base and extends inward into the insulated hollow base to form a cylindrical cartridge chamber. A needle valve protrudes from the cartridge chamber into the chilling chamber. A pressurized refrigerant cartridge which contains a volume of pressurized refrigerant such as freon or liquid nitrogen is inserted into the cartridge chamber until the needle valve punctures the cartridge, allowing the pressurized refrigerant contents to escape from the cartridge, through the needle valve into the chilling chamber and sleeveway.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: December 8, 1998
    Inventor: Michael Montesanto
  • Patent number: 5839285
    Abstract: Current self-contained gas delivery systems that provide gas vapor from a liquefied gas source such as odorized liquid propane consist of a single tank, or container. Both liquid and gas are contained in this tank. Fuel gas is supplied to the user from the vapor phase above the liquid. Boil off from the liquid phase to replace the withdrawn vapor phase results in low initial odorant levels, which increase to very high levels as the liquid is used up. This invention corrects this problem by the addition of a second tank or a second compartment within the first tank. The second tank or compartment, which contains gas phase only, is connected to the first compartment containing the liquefied gas by a small-diameter tube immersed in the liquid phase. The second compartment is positioned or valved in such a way that no liquid will accumulate in the compartment. The gas delivery valve to the gas user is located on the second, or vapor-phase-only container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 24, 1998
    Inventor: Duane V. Kniebes
  • Patent number: 5802870
    Abstract: A process and a system are disclosed for sorption heating and cooling which comprise at least 2 sorption zones. Each sorption zone comprises a heat transfer zone and an adsorption zone containing a sorbent such that the heat transfer zone is in intimate thermal contact with the adsorption zone to permit an essentially uniform temperature lengthwise through the sorption zone and thereby employ essentially all of the sorbent in the process at all times. The process comprises passing heat transfer streams such as a hot stream, a cold stream, and a recirculation stream through the heat transfer zone and routing a refrigerant through the adsorption zone of each sorption zone to affect a desorption stroke, an intermediate stroke and an adsorption stroke in the adsorption zone. Rotary and multi-port valves are employed to circulate the refrigerant and the heat transfer streams. The resulting sorption cooling process achieves a significantly higher coefficient of performance than the prior art.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 1997
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: UOP LLC
    Inventors: Edward Charles Arnold, Stephen R. Dunne, Syed M. Taqvi
  • Patent number: 5787713
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for gasification of liquid nitrogen and other cryogenic liquids are provided. The apparatus includes a gasification unit capable of refrigerating at least one cryoelectronics energy converter and utilizing the heat generated thereby to gasify a cryogenic fluid. Refrigeration is provided by the cryogenic fluid in the gasification unit. The gasification unit is preferably capable of gasifying at least 1 liter/hour of cryogenic fluid. The gasification unit can be coupled to a chemical processing unit such that gasified cryogenic fluid produced in the gasification unit can be introduced into the chemical processing unit for use therein. A secondary heat recovery unit can be provided upstream of the chemical processing unit to separate entrained liquid particles from the gasified cryogenic fluid produced by the gasification unit. Cryogenic fluid can be supplied to the gasification unit from an air liquefaction plant, a storage tank, a truck or the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 4, 1998
    Assignee: American Superconductor Corporation
    Inventor: Carl J. Russo
  • Patent number: 5778972
    Abstract: A modular metal hydride hydrogen storage system which can provide a robust and reliable source of hydrogen that can quickly and easily be modified for a variety of applications and environments. The hydrogen storage system comprises at least one storage module. Each storage module comprises a container having at least one open end, a metal hydride hydrogen storage means, means for introducing gaseous hydrogen into and withdrawing gaseous hydrogen from the container, and means for connecting storage modules together end-to-end to form a plurality of storage modules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 14, 1998
    Assignee: Energy Coversion Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Krishna Sapru, Srinivasan Venkatesan, Ned T. Stetson, Krishnaswamy Rangaswamy
  • Patent number: 5775126
    Abstract: A differential in refrigerant adsorption rates of adsorbent during an adsorption process and during a desorption process is enlarged, realizing improvement in refrigeration capacity, and together therewith, the number of circulation systems for coolant fluid is reduced and the number of pumps is made smaller. A heat exchanger of a first stage evaporator and a cooler for air conditioning use are connected in series, and coolant fluid cooled by this heat exchanger is supplied to the cooler for air conditioning use. Additionally, a heat exchanger of a second stage evaporator and a radiator are connected in series, coolant fluid cooled by the radiator is further cooled by the heat exchanger, and this coolant fluid is alternately supplied to heat exchanging passages of first first stage and second stage adsorption devices and to heat exchanging passages of second first stage and second stage adsorption devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 1997
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1998
    Assignee: Denso Corporation
    Inventors: Hiedaki Sato, Masaaki Tanaka, Shin Honda, Kenichi Fujiwara, Satoshi Inoue
  • Patent number: 5761911
    Abstract: Provided is a novel system and method for delivery of a gas from a liquified state. The system includes: (a) a compressed liquified gas cylinder having a gas line connected thereto through which the gas is withdrawn; (b) a gas cylinder cabinet in which the gas cylinder is housed; and (c) means for increasing the heat transfer rate between ambient and the gas cylinder without increasing the gas cylinder temperature above ambient temperature. The apparatus and method allow for the controlled delivery of liquified gases from gas cabinets at high flowrates. Particular applicability is found in the delivery of gases to semiconductor process tools.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 9, 1998
    Assignee: American Air Liquide Inc.
    Inventors: Benjamin Jurcik, Richard Udischas, Hwa-Chi Wang
  • Patent number: 5732569
    Abstract: This invention seeks to provide an adsorption type air cooler, which has high COP and is capable of stable operation for long time. In the prior art, when vapor coolant produced through heat exchange with load water in a coolant tank functioning as an evaporator is adsorbed in an adsorbent heat exchanger, cooling water for removing the heat of adsorption is circulated at a constant temperature and a constant flow rate determined by normal environment.According to the invention as claimed in claim 1, the temperature and flow rate of cooling water for removing the heat of adsorption are controlled artificially according to the cold output of load water by utilizing heated cooling water after the removal of the heat of adsorption or heat source water, etc.According to the invention as claimed in claim 1, a coolant tank and a load heat exchanger unit are provided as separate units.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1998
    Assignee: Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaru Sanada, Makota Yamamoto, Fujio Komatu, Makoto Fujii
  • Patent number: 5731260
    Abstract: Activated carbon is bonded to a thermally conductive solid support as a porous sorbent body by forming a carbon slip containing activated carbon particles and a low-temperature-curing binder in an oil-in-water emulsion, and curing the carbon slip in place against the solid support. Furthermore, a microporous monolithic carbonaceous body of fused or otherwise bonded activated carbon particles, which can consists strictly of activated carbon or of a mass of activated carbon particles bonded to a shaped open lattice-type or finned substrate structure, is bonded to a surface of a substrate which is generally complementary in contour to the carbonaceous body by applying a liquid-form heat-curable binder formulation to the contact surfaces. The binder formulation contains an inert liquid carrier or solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1998
    Assignee: Aerojet-General Corporation
    Inventor: George Abell
  • Patent number: 5685159
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and system for storing cold fluid. The system includes a main tank and an auxiliary tank that are in fluid communication, and the auxiliary tank receives vapor and expanding fluid as the cold fluid in the main tank warms thereby avoiding overpressurization of the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1994
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1997
    Assignee: Chicago Bridge & Iron Technical Services Company
    Inventors: Richard J. Kooy, Don Henry Coers
  • Patent number: 5676202
    Abstract: In a heat exchanger according to the present invention, there are provided a filling container having a first containing section containing a hydrogen-absorbing metal material for middle or high temperature, a second containing section containing a hydrogen-absorbing metal material for low temperature which is higher in equilibrium hydrogen pressure at the same temperature than the hydrogen-absorbing metal material for middle or high temperature, and a hydrogen passage for moving hydrogen between the first containing section and the second containing section; a guiding section having a heating section provided with heating means for heating the filling container, a heat radiating section provided with a heat exchanging section for radiating heat generated in the filling container outward, and a heat absorbing section provided with a heat exchanging section for cooling the outside by absorption of heat in the filling container; and moving means for moving the filling container back and forth in the guiding sec
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1997
    Assignee: Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Koji Akashi, Naoki Hiro, Kenji Nasako, Teruhiko Imoto, Koichi Nishimura, Ikuo Yonezu
  • Patent number: 5673562
    Abstract: In accordance with the present invention, methods and systems are provided which afford solutions to the problems of gas distribution of ultra-high purity ESGs at high gas flow rates. A first aspect of the invention is a system comprising a compressed liquefied gas container; an internal heat exchanger within the compressed liquefied gas container; a gas supply conduit which takes feed from the container and delivers the ESG to a process; and an external heat exchanger positioned effectively near the conduit downstream of the container but upstream of the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1996
    Date of Patent: October 7, 1997
    Assignee: L'Air Liquide, S.A.
    Inventor: Jean-Marie Friedt
  • Patent number: 5649427
    Abstract: The present invention provides a white smoke generating apparatus for generating white smoke of a stable density unaffected by air temperature or humidity conditions. The apparatus comprises an apparatus main body 11 being provided with a white smoke discharge opening 11a; a cryogenic liquefied gas supply mechanism 12 for supplying a cryogenic liquefied gas into the apparatus main body 11; and a humidifying mechanism 13 for humidifying the atmosphere inside the apparatus main body. The cryogenic liquefied gas supply mechanism 12 is provided with a first pipeline 18 which communicates a cryogenic liquefied gas reservoir 16 and a cryogenic liquefied gas emission nozzle 17 placed inside the apparatus main body 11, preferably at the white smoke discharge opening 11a side.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1997
    Assignee: Nippon Sanso Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Sawada, Hisayuki Usui, Ryutaro Takahashi, Masahiro Hirano, Masahiro Yonekura
  • Patent number: 5644921
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for storing ultra high purity non-cryogenic liquefied compressed gases, such as ammonia (NH.sub.3), and delivering a vaporized gaseous product from those liquefied gases for semiconductor processing applications. The delivery method includes withdrawing and heating gaseous product from a storage vessel containing the liquefied compressed gas, and then piping the heated gas through the liquid contained in the storage vessel in a heat exchange fashion. The heat exchange with the liquid inside the vessel induces boiling to maintain a vaporized gaseous product under a minimum positive pressure in said vessel. After liberating its heat, the gaseous product is delivered to a semiconductor manufacturing point of use.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1996
    Date of Patent: July 8, 1997
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventor: Naser Mahmud Chowdhury