Abstract: An absorption plate for a vehicle is crossed by a stream of liquid absorbent fluid flowing between two exchange surfaces arranged relatively opposite one another. The exothermal absorption of a coolant fluid in vapor phase takes place through the exchange surfaces by increasing a concentration of the coolant fluid in the absorbent fluid. The relative arrangement of the two exchange surfaces forces at least one portion of the stream of absorbent fluid to pass at least once through one of the exchange surfaces and causes mixing of the stream of the absorbed fluid.
July 23, 2012
Date of Patent:
September 13, 2016
Peugeot Citroën Automobiles SA
Emmanuel Boudard, Marc Gohlke, Remi Goulet, Xavier Dumont, Manuel Martinez
Abstract: This invention employs an arrangement of flat plate heat exchangers and a pump that function as a thermal powered hydronic ammonia absorption chiller. Chilling is achieved by bubbling ammonia gas through a liquid refrigerant causing a reduction of the partial pressure of the refrigerant and evaporation with the absorption of heat. The refrigerant and working fluids can be selected to have a broad range of operating pressures. If the refrigerant and working fluid are selected so that the atmospheric boiling point is the about the same as the highest operating ambient temperature, the chiller can operate with low, or even no internal pressure. The low operating pressures allow the use of light weight materials, easy fabrication, low cost and safety. This chiller is especially suited for using solar heated water, cooling water from internal combustion engines or any source of hot water. The chiller is easily scalable to any size and will find wide application for comfort air conditioning or food storage.
Abstract: An absorption cooling device includes
an expeller (7) for expelling a working agent from an enriched solvent,
a first connecting line (11) for transferring said expelled working agent from said expeller (7) to a condenser (9),
a second connecting line (15) for transferring said condensated working agent from said condenser (9) to an evaporator (13),
a third connecting line (16) for transferring said evaporated working agent from said evaporator (13) to an absorber unit (17),
a fourth connecting line (21) for transferring said solvent depleted of working agent from said expeller (7) to said absorber unit (17),
a fifth connecting line (19) for transferring said solvent enriched with working agent from said absorber (17) to said expeller (7),
wherein in one end of said fifth connecting line a first liquid level (25) of said solvent is formed and on the other end a second liquid level (29) is formed, and
the total surface of said second liquid level (29) is smaller than ten times a medium cross-section of
Abstract: A dry ice dispenser apparatus for dispensing a metered volume of dry ice into a receiving well. The apparatus includes a dry ice source, such as a hopper, or a dry ice producing apparatus for supplying dry ice to a metering carriage. The metering carriage delivers a metered volume of dry ice to a receiving well. The metering carriage is contained in a carriage slide assembly which includes a pair of guide walls, a closed floor portion connection to a bottom portion of the guide walls and a discharge opening located above the receiving well. The apparatus may contain a pellet press for forming dry ice pellets when the dry ice is delivered to the receiving well.
Abstract: Provided is a novel system and method for delivery of a gas from a liquified state. The system includes: (a) a compressed liquified gas cylinder having a gas line connected thereto through which the gas is withdrawn; (b) a gas cylinder cabinet in which the gas cylinder is housed; and (c) means for increasing the heat transfer rate between ambient and the gas cylinder without increasing the temperature of the liquid in the gas cylinder above ambient temperature. The apparatus and method allow for the controlled delivery of liquified gases from gas cabinets at high flowrates. Particular applicability is found in the delivery of gases to semiconductor process tools.
July 11, 1997
Date of Patent:
June 20, 2000
American Air Liquide Inc.
Benjamin Jurcik, Richard Udischas, Hwa-Chi Wang
Abstract: An sensor for sensing buoyancy force within a liquid mixture stored within a storage tank and an interlock employing the sensor to prevent a respirable cryogenic mixture from being dispensed from the storage tank with an unsafe oxygen content. The sensor has a float adapted to be submerged in the liquid mixture, thereby to exert a buoyancy force referable to the density. The buoyancy force is sensed by a load cell connected to an elongated base element cantilevered from the outlet by a bracket. The mounting of such sensor ensures that the buoyancy force and therefore, the density of the liquid as dispensed will be measured as opposed to liquid density at some other location of the tank. Such sensor can serve in an interlock in which a controller responsive to the load cell and a temperature sensor, also located within the outlet, controls a valve to close the outlet when the mixture has an unsafe oxygen level.
Abstract: A method of and apparatus for mixing two cryogenic liquids in which a first amount of first cryogenic liquid is introduced into a vented vessel having one or more vents. The vent or vents are then closed and a second amount of a second cryogenic level is introduced into the closed vessel at a level above the surface of the first cryogenic liquid in the vessel. The second cryogenic liquid has a greater density or both a greater density and a higher boiling point temperature than that of the first cryogenic liquid, thereby to produce a substantially homogeneous cryogenic liquid mixture of predetermined composition.
August 4, 1998
Date of Patent:
October 12, 1999
The BOC Group plc
Niccola Butler, Catharine Sarah Paige, Michael Ernest Garrett
Abstract: Both an system and method are provided for transferring liquid carbon dioxide from a storage tank pressurized at 300 psi to a truck-transportable tank pressurized at about 110 psi. The system includes an inlet conduit having a hose portion connected between the storage and transportable tanks for conducting a flow of liquid carbon dioxide therebetween, and a vent hose connected to the transportable tank for venting gaseous carbon dioxide. Pressure regulators are connected to the inlet and vent hoses, respectively. In operation, the pressure regulator connected to the inlet conduit reduces the pressure of the flow of liquid carbon dioxide entering the transportable tank from 300 psi to 175 psi, while the pressure regulator connected to the vent conduit maintains a back pressure of 110 psi in the transportable tank while the allowing the venting of gaseous carbon dioxide.
October 23, 1997
Date of Patent:
June 29, 1999
Thermo King Corporation
Herman H. Viegas, Gary W. Wojciechowski, Mark J. Buenz, Girma G. Desta
Abstract: A system for delivering fluid, e.g. liquefied petroleum gas or "LPG", through a delivery path (10) under pressure. A delivery control valve (16) is selectably operable to close and open the delivery path (10) and monitors a parameter of the fluid, e.g. dielectric constant, and to sense the presence of vapor or gas phase in the fluid. A control means (30) responsive to the indicating signal from the sensing means (20) causes the delivery control valve (16) to close the delivery path upon sensing the presence of a significant proportion of vapor or gas phase in the fluid. A gas introduction point (35) upstream of the sensing means (20) enables gas to be introduced so as to knowingly expose the sensing means (20) to fluid containing gas phase and thereby enable controlled testing of the correct functioning of the sensing means (20).
Abstract: An automated fueling facility allows untrained persons to safely dispense homogeneous phase liquid methane from a cryogenic storage tank into a motor vehicle. The fueling facility automatically maintains pressure on the liquid methane within a predetermined safe operating range using methane gas trapped in the cryogenic storage tank. The pressure on the liquid methane is at least set equal to a set pressure equal to the sum of the saturation pressure of the liquid methane plus an additional amount to help to ensure that it remains in a fully saturated condition after exposure to any pressure losses as the fluid enters the pump. A pump is cooled by placing it in the storage tank and circulating liquid methane through the pump and back into the storage tank. A dispenser, including nozzle for connecting to a motor vehicle, is cooled by circulating liquid through the nozzle and back to the storage tank through a receptacle on the dispenser to which the nozzle is connected.
Abstract: A method and system provide automated, preferably electronic, monitoring and control of equipment used to pump and vaporize liquid nitrogen at an oil or gas well. The method comprises: pumping liquid nitrogen at the well; vaporizing pumped liquid nitrogen at the well; flowing vaporized nitrogen at the well; sensing temperature of the flowing vaporized nitrogen; sensing pressure of the flowing vaporized nitrogen; and automatically stopping the pumping of liquid nitrogen at the well when the sensed temperature is outside a predetermined temperature range or when the sensed pressure is outside a predetermined pressure range. A pre-stoppage warning can also be provided, and data about the vaporized nitrogen can be generated, displayed locally and transmitted remotely. A related system is also disclosed.
June 25, 1993
Date of Patent:
January 17, 1995
Thomas J. Worley, Charles E. Neal, Vincent P. Rivera
Abstract: Two LNG storage tanks receive LNG from a fill station. The two storage tanks are connected to an overflow tank into which the LNG flows during pressurization of the system. The overflow tank is connected to the use device, i.e. the vehicle's engine, through a heat exchanger to provide high pressure natural gas thereto. The fill station initially delivers LNG to the two storage tanks until the tanks are substantially filled with LNG whereupon the fill station automatically stops delivery of LNG and begins to deliver natural gas vapor to the storage tanks until the pressure in the system reaches a predetermined maximum that is equal to or greater than the pressure required by the use device. During the pressurization of the system some of the LNG in the two storage tanks is forced into the overflow tank by the incoming natural gas vapor.
Abstract: A cyclic noise removing method first generates a template of a cyclic noise caused by a cryogenic refrigerator, which template is generated by arithmetically averaging the output signal from a magnetic sensor by every vibration cycle of the cryogenic refrigerator, the magnetic sensor being cooled by the cryogenic refrigerator, then removes noise included in the output signal of the magnetic sensor by subtracting the template from the output signal of the magnetic sensor.
Abstract: In an apparatus for producing liquid nitrogen by supplying to a nitrogen gas separated from the atmosphere and then purified by an air separating device (4) into an insulated container (1) equipped with an extremely low temperature refrigerator, there are provided a pressure sensor (21) for detecting a pressure within a product vessel (20) of the air separating device (4) and a negative pressure sensor (16) for detecting a negative pressure within the insulated vessel (1) respectively. When at least one of both sensors (21) (16) detects a freezing of an impurity gas contained in the supplied nitrogen gas by reaching a predetermined pressure, an operation of the extremely low temperature refrigerator is stopped depending on the detection by one of both the sensors.
Abstract: The temperature differential in the vapor-phase storage area of a liquid nitrogen refrigerator is reduced by producing turbulence in the nitrogen gas in the vapor-phase storage area without materially affecting the level of liquid nitrogen in the refrigerator. In one embodiment, turbulence is induced by introducing gaseous nitrogen into the refrigerator chamber near or below the level of the liquid nitrogen. In another embodiment, an atomized spray of liquid nitrogen is injected adjacent the top of the refrigerator chamber to absorb heat from the warmer nitrogen gas and to produce turbulence or circulation in the nitrogen gas in the chamber. In another embodiment, a gas circulating fan is provided in the top of the refrigeration chamber, with the fan being operated in response to a signal indicating that the temperature has reached a predetermined high level at a critical point in the chamber.
Abstract: A method and apparatus for determining whether a fluid, such as a refrigerant, is a liquid or a gas. To determine whether the fluid at a predetermined level (14) of a storage container (20) is a liquid or a gas, fluid is withdrawn from the container at the predetermined level, depressurized under conditions that would cause it to become a gas if it is a liquid before such depressurization, then the temperature of the fluid after depressurization is measured and compared to a reference temperature that is or is related to the temperature of the fluid in the container. If the temperature of the fluid after depressurization and the reference temperature are approximately equal, one can conclude that the fluid withdrawn from the predetermined level is a gas. If the temperature of the fluid after depressurization is considerably lower than the reference temperature, one can conclude that the fluid withdrawn from the predetermined level is a liquid.
Abstract: A control apparatus for maintaining constant the temperature and pressure of the vapor phase in a very low-temperature controlled liquefied gas container includes a pressure sensor, a temperature sensor, two electromagnetic valves, and a refrigerator. When operation of the refrigerator disturbs measurement at low temperature, the refrigerator is stopped. Gas vaporizes from a liquid phase, and gas is discharged from the container. In this manner, the temperature and pressure of the liquefied gas in the container can be maintained constant. After measurement, the liquid level in the container will be lowered by evaporation, so that the liquefied gas is supplied to the container. In this manner, the liquid level in the container can be maintained constant.
Abstract: The sensor assembly includes a sensor tube in communication with the inner tank. A flush line extending from the liquid cryogen fill line is connected to the sensor tube at a three-way valve. The three way valve also connects the sensor tube to a pressure transducer. During normal operation, the sensor tube is in communication with the pressure transducer such that the level of liquid in the dewar can be monitored. When the liquid level falls below a predetermined level, the pressure transducer activates the three-way valve to connect the sensor tube to the flush line and opens a solenoid located in the fill line. As the cryogen liquid enters the fill line, a portion of it is diverted through the flush line, is vaporized and is passed through the sensor tube. The relatively warm gas flow in the sensor tube prevents the formation of ice and eliminates the problems associated therewith.
Abstract: An apparatus for cryogenically cooling a sample comprises a sample chamber within which the sample is suspended, and a vacuum chamber enclosing the sample chamber. A cryogenic element forms at least part of the sample chamber and is in spaced-apart relation to the sample. The element is maintained at cryogenic temperatures by a gas cryopump. A sufficient amount of heat-conductive gas is introduced into the sample chamber for placing the sample in thermal communication with the cryogenic element, thereby cooling the sample to cryogenic temperatures.
Abstract: A cryogenic apparatus is described which is designed to be of a compact size and to provide multiple functions, including chilling of gas or liquid, condensation of condensible vapors, and separation of liquid and gas phases of liquified cryogenic gas. The level and/or temperature of cryogenic liquid in the apparatus is controlled by sensors. An inlet for liquified cryogenic gas and an inlet for fluid to be chilled or condensed pass through an upper closure and outlets for liquid cryogen and chilled or condensed fluid are provided in the lower wall of the vessel.
Abstract: A magnetometer device for measuring the magnetic fields caused by field sources includes a Dewar vessel that has an interior with access through a neck. The interior contains several superconducting gradiometers as well as corresponding SQUIDs. The Dewar vessel is arranged underneath or laterally to the field source. An insertion vessel for a liquid refrigerant which is thermally coupled to the SQUIDs and is located in the interior. The gaseous refrigerant taken from the insertion vessel is supplied to the gradiometers through hose lines. The refrigerant escaping into the interior is discharged to the outside via the neck. A throttling device is inserted into the neck to prevent warmer gaseous refrigerant from entering the interior.
Abstract: In a superconducting coil refrigerating method and a superconducting apparatus, a flow of liquid helium is induced in a helium vessel only at a specified time upon change of a current of the superconducting coil, before the current change and/or after the current change. The induction of the helium flow before the current change provides a condition that the transfer of helium gas bubbles which may be generated upon subsequent current change is rapidly effected. The induction of the helium flow upon the current change or after the current change results in the rapid exhaustion of helium gas bubbles which continue to generate or have been generated. With such a construction, even if a superconducting pulse magnet is used, any influence of helium gas bubbles produced due to an AC loss upon change of a current can be eliminated, thereby providing a coil which is stable to a pulse-excited magnetization thereof.
Abstract: Containers are pressurized by adding a controlled amount of liquid cryogen to uncapped containers as they move along an assembly line to a capping station. The liquid cryogen is added to the containers in a stream from a conduit outlet. The amount of cryogen delivered is controlled by sub-cooling the liquid cryogen as it flows across a flow-control restriction in the conduit, thereby ensuring that flow across the restriction is liquid. Control is also achieved by maintaining the temperature of the cryogen delivered from the outlet low enough to avoid detrimental flashing.
Abstract: An apparatus and method for regulating the temperature in a cryogenic test chamber. Liquid helium is drawn into a test chamber located in a cryogenic vessel through a capillary tube which is spaced apart from the test chamber. The capillary tube is thermally insulated from the liquid helium. In a high temperature mode, a heater element heats the capillary tube to a temperature just high enough to boil the liquid helium as the helium is drawn through the capillary tube into the test chamber, thereby insuring that only gaseous helium enters the test chamber and preventing any tendency of the temperature in the test chamber to oscillate when the test chamber is warmed to temperature only slightly higher than the temperature of the liquid helium.
Abstract: The disclosed system produces liquid nitrogen from ambient air which is supplied under pressure to a membrane separator. Most of the gases other than nitrogen permeate the membranes, and are vented to the atmosphere leaving almost pure nitrogen gas. The nitrogen gas is then supplied to a Dewar container in the neck of which is mounted the cylindrical cold head of a miniature cryogenic refrigerator. The temperature of the cold head is maintained below the liquefaction temperature of the nitrogen so that the gas is liquified as it passes over the cold head in heat exchanging relationship.
Abstract: A simplified refrigeration apparatus in which the evaporator part includes a straight, generally horizontal pipe system that is connected to a linear continuation forming a gas heat exchanger. The assembly is inserted in the cooling chamber of a refrigerator through an opening in the insulated refrigerator cabinet. The gas heat exchanger is positioned within said insulation while the evaporator part is projected into the interior of the cooling chamber. The assembly permits the easy removal from the refrigerator cabinet, when desired, and is of compact construction lending itself to requirements of a small refrigerator.