Abstract: A method of soldering electrical lead strands (of a width at least 0.3 inch) to a printed electrical path is disclosed. The path is planted on an alumina ceramic substrate and a solder pad is attached to a portion of the path. A flat surface portion of each lead strand is forced into full interengagement with a pad, a CO.sub.2 defocused laser beam is directed onto the soldering assembly with the beam controlled to have a beam power of at least 100 watts, a beam spot diameter no less than the width of the lead strand and no greater than the width of the pad, and a beam on-time effective to exert a controlled thermal radius on the soldering assembly to reflow only a preselected portion of the pad and effect a solder joint between the pad and strand portion, the joint having a strength of at least 400 grams. The parameters of the beam power, beam spot diameter, and beam on-time are optimally correlated by the following equation: ##EQU1## where: C is the critical thermal radius, a is the Gaussian radius at 1/e.
Abstract: A shifting mechanism for reverse drive that slows the input shaft of a manual transmission in which a reverse gear wheel is shifted into engagement with reverse drive gearwheels disposed on a constant mesh gear and an output shaft. In order to slow the input shaft with the clutch disconnected, a shift fork is located on a rotatable and displaceable gear selector shaft that carries a shift finger and shift forks displaceably thereon. The shift fork is axially displaceable against the force of a spring relative to a bracket arm connecting the fork to the shift finger. An axial cam cooperates with an inclined portion of the shift fork and two radial arms contact stop surfaces on the housing cover and on an arm of the shift fork.
Abstract: A method is disclosed of modifying a conventional internal combustion engine to accept ceramic material. A cast iron extension mamber is metallurgically joined to the cast iron engine block, the extension member having a wall defining a bore opening aligned with and larger than the bore opening of the engine block. The extension member has a height substantially equal to or greater than the axial stroke of the piston. The diameter of the upper portion of the wall, defining the bore opening in the engine block, is enlarged to define an annular shoulder; the shoulder has an outer surface substantially axially aligned with the wall defining the bore opening in the extension member. A cylindrical ceramic liner, such as zirconia or alumina, is attached within the wall of the bore opening of the extension member by use of a high strength metallic sleeve which is fitted along the outer surface of the shoulder. The ceramic liner has an internal surface aligned with the wall of the bore opening in the engine block.
Abstract: A circuit (10) for obtaining a voltage reading (V.sub.o) from a sensing element is characterized by the following structure. A first circuit (12) connects a first end (14) of a voltage source (16) to a first end (18) of a resistance heater (20). A second circuit (22) connects a second end (24) of the voltage source to a second end (26) of the resistance heater. A sensing element (28) has two leads (30,32). A third circuit (34) connects lead (30) of the sensing element to an external circuit (36). A load resistor (40) is coupled between the second circuit and the third circuit. An interconnecting circuit (42) couples lead (32) of the sensing element intermediate the resistance heater. The electrical resistance of resistance heater is substantially less than the electrical resistance of the sensing element.
Abstract: This specification is directed to a method of making a compound selected from the group consisting of birnessite compounds of the formula Bi.sub.x Mn.sub.y O.sub.2y+1.5x.zH.sub.2 O, wherein the y/x ratio is in a range of from about 7 to about 18 and the z/y ratio is in a range of from about 0.5 to about 0.6, Pb.sub.x Mn.sub.y O.sub.2y+x.zH.sub.2 O, wherein the y/x ratio is in a range of from about 6 to about 10 and the z/y ratio is in a range of from about 0.5 to about 0.6, and manganese oxide compounds containing both of these compounds. The method is characterized by the following steps. A solution is formed by mixing Mn(NO.sub.3).sub.2 with a nitrate of bismuth or lead or mixtures thereof. The solution is maintained at a relatively constant temperature and NaOH is added to the solution, whereby Mn(OH).sub.2 and a hydroxide of bismuth or lead or mixtures thereof form a suspension. While the suspension is being agitated, oxygen is passed through the suspension, whereby the Mn(OH).sub.
Abstract: An improved temperature sensing structure (40) for use in a glass bending furnace (10) is made of the following. A thermocouple element (42) is provided which has a pair of thermocouple leads (44) and (46) terminating in a junction (48) which defines a planar loop portion of the thermocouple element. Mounting structure (50) is provided for mounting the pair of thermocouple leads with the planar loop portion thereof projecting outwardly from a free end. A protection tube has an elongated portion (54) in surrounding relationship to the mounting structure which mounts the pair of thermocouple leads and a free end portion (56) which in part surrounds a significant portion of the planar loop portion of the thermocouple element. The surrounding part of the free end portion of the protection tube is positioned so that the planar loop portion of the thermocouple element lies in a plane in facing relationship to an unsurrounding part of the free end portion of the protection tube.
Abstract: A method of making a silicon metal containing article is characterized in the following steps. A water vehicle first slurry is formed which contains silicon metal particles, this first slurry being substantially free of ions which would cause a flocculation of the silicon metal particles. An organic vehicle based second slurry is formed which contains a compound which has an ion which would cause flocculation of silicon metal particles contained in a water vehicle slurry. The organic vehicle of said second slurry, however, is effective to suppress formation of ions by the ion forming compound. The first and the second slurries are added to form a castable silicon metal particle containing slurry in which the compound contained in the organic vehicle can form ions when in contact with the water vehicle. The castable silicon metal particle containing slurry is introduced into a casting mold.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for making a more densified silicon nitride comprising object under less stringent heating conditions without sacrificing physical properties. A mixture of silicon powder, 6-18% yttrium silicon oxynitride (a major proportion of which is the Y.sub.10 Si.sub.6 O.sub.24 N.sub.2 phase), 0.4-3% Al.sub.2 O.sub.3, and possibly up to 2% of an oxynitride forming oxide (Y.sub.2 O.sub.3) is compacted, nitrided, and sintered to produce a silicon nitride/YSiO.sub.2 N comprising object of relatively high density.
Abstract: A method is disclosed of protecting heated aluminum based metals subject to heat transfer through the metal to a circulating aqueous cooling solution in contact therewith. The initially constituted cooling solution contains an alkali metal silicate in an adjusted amount above 0.2 gram per liter. The solution while functioning in the cooling system is then exposed to an alkali metal silicate glass causing the glass to progressively dissolve and stabilize the silicate at a level of at least 0.1 gram per liter. The initially prepared solution may also contain ethylene or propylene glycol, alkali metal phosphates and tetraborates in a ratio greater than 4:1, and nitrate, mercaptobenzothiazole or tolyltriazole.
September 8, 1981
Date of Patent:
April 2, 1985
Ford Motor Company
John Huff, Ronald R. Wiggle, Vladimir Hospadaruk
Abstract: A head assembly is disclosed for an internal combustion engine. The assembly is comprised of a cast ceramic body with a coefficient of thermal expansion less than 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 in/in/.degree.F. (lithium aluminum silicate) fitting over the cylinder block of the engine to define a combustion chamber. The ceramic body has passages for hot gases extending between the combustion chamber and a side wall of the body, but the body contains no passages for conventional water cooling. A metallic shell sealingly clamps the ceramic body to the cylinder block of the engine; the shell supportably carries mechanical subassemblies which extend into the ceramic body for controlling the flow of gases therethrough. The shell carries at least part of the compressive loading imposed by the clamping.
Abstract: There is disclosed a method of using an exhaust gas catalyst for treatment of exhaust gases developed by burning a hydrocarbon fuel or a fuel containing hydrocarbon and alcohol blends in an internal combustion engine. These exhaust gases contain varying amounts of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen depending upon the operating conditions of an internal combustion engine. This specification teaches a method of using an improved catalyst composition in which a support medium is provided for supporting the catalyst system. This support medium has deposited thereon palladium and finely divided tungsten. Tungsten is present on the support media in a quantity such that tungsten is available to substantially all of the palladium on the support medium.
Abstract: A method is disclosed of densifying a silicon nitride comprising compact having 5-17% by weight yttrium silicon oxynitride and having a density of 2.0-2.6 gm/cm.sup.3. The method comprises (a) partially sintering the compact at a temperature of 3000.degree.-3200.degree. F. for a period of 0.5-72 hours to form a semidense body with a density of 2.9-3.15 gm/cm.sup.3, and (b) hot pressing a stacked assembly of said bodies in the hot zone of a hot pressing cavity to form fully dense anisotropic products, each body being separated from the other within the assembly by a distance no greater than 0.03 inch, and the stacked assembly occupying substantially the entire length of the hot zone of the hot pressing cavity.
Abstract: A method is disclosed for making a titanium dioxide element which can be used as an oxygen sensing element. The method includes obtaining a substrate for supporting a titanium dioxide film and placing that substrate in a vacuum chamber. A vacuum is drawn on the vacuum chamber and the chamber is heated to a temperature in a range from 400.degree.-700.degree. C. A low pressure carrier gas containing 1-10% by volume of oxygen along with a coating gas formed from an organometallic compound of titanium is flowed over the substrate. The coating gas is one which is heat decomposable into a titanium dioxide coating on the heated substrate. The coating gas and the carrier gas are at a total pressure from 100-200 Pa. The coating gas and carrier gas are flowed over the substrate until a titanium dioxide film of required thickness is built up. After formation of the required thickness of the titanium dioxide film, the substrate is removed from the vacuum chamber and heated to a temperature in a range from 800.degree.
March 15, 1984
Date of Patent:
March 12, 1985
Ford Motor Company
William J. Kaiser, Eleftherios M. Logothetis
Abstract: A method of making a powder additive consisting of yttrium silicon oxynitrides, preferably of the Y.sub.10 Si.sub.6 O.sub.24 N.sub.2 or YSiO.sub.2 N phases, is disclosed. Stoichiometric amounts of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 are mixed and arranged in intimate reactive contact, the amounts being to form a desired oxynitride according to the formula Y.sub.a Si.sub.b O.sub.c N.sub.d, where a, b, c and d represent the required element parts of the compound in equilibrium with the mixture elements. The mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere to a temperature and for a time sufficient to convert the stoichiometric amounts of the mixture to the desired yttrium silicon oxynitride. The heat agglomerated mixture is then ground to a powder.
Abstract: This specification teaches a method of operating an internal combustion engine having combustion chambers on a methanol fuel. In general, the method teaches the steps of heating the fuel to vaporize at least a portion thereof, thereafter heating at least a portion of the vaporized fuel to a decomposition temperature. At least a portion of the vaporized methanol fuel at the decomposition temperature is passed over a catalyst selected from the group consisting essentially of a palladium catalyst, a platinum/palladium catalyst, and a platinum/rhodium catalyst, thereby to decompose at least a part of the vaporized methanol fuel into hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The vaporized methanol fuel, along with the hydrogen and carbon monoxide, are injected into the combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine along with oxygen and, if desired, additional methanol fuel to be burned in the combustion chambers.
Abstract: A method of attaching a metal shaft (10) to a ceramic shaft (12) having a first diameter (d.sub.1) is characterized by the following steps. A shaft portion (16) is formed on the ceramic shaft with a second diameter (d.sub.2) less than the first diameter. The shaft portion extends from a free end (18) thereof along a portion of the length of the ceramic shaft to a terminal end (20) thereof where the ceramic shaft has a raised portion (22) formed thereon having a third diameter (d.sub.3) less than the first diameter but greater than the second diameter. The free end of the shaft portion has threads (24) thereon. A circular shaped expansion sleeve (26) is placed on the shaft portion in an encircling relationship therewith, the expansion sleeve extending from the raised portion of the metal shaft to a location (28) adjacent a termination of the threads on the shaft portion. All of the members are cooled and then assembled with the metal shaft.
Abstract: This specification teaches a method of preparing an article which is electronically conductive and resistant to corrosive attack by molten polysulfide salts. The method is carried out by the following steps. A sheet of graphite foil is coated with an amorphous pyrolytic or glassy carbon to fill any openings in and/or through the graphite foil. A thin layer of aluminum metal is coated onto at least one side of the graphite foil. The aluminum metal coated side of the graphite foil is bonded to an aluminum surface of an electronically conductive material. In this manner, an electronically conductive article is formed which is resistant to corrosive attack by molten polysulfide salts.
Abstract: A method of making a densified silicon nitride/oxynitride composite is disclosed. The method comprises: (a) shaping a substantially homogeneous powder mixture of silicon nitride, 6-18% yttrium silicon oxynitride of the Y.sub.10 Si.sub.6 O.sub.24 N.sub.2 phase in an amount to form a viscous solution with at least a portion of the silicon nitride, and (b) densifying the body by heat fusion, with or without the use of mechanical pressure, to a density and a dimension required for the final product.
July 19, 1983
Date of Patent:
January 29, 1985
Ford Motor Company
Andre Ezis, Elaine C. Beckwith, Howard D. Blair
Abstract: A filtration system is disclosed which removes particulates from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine. The system has (a) a filter element, (b) oxidation means for conducting a flow of heated gas through at least a portion of the filter element, the heated gas being effective to ignite the particulates in that portion, and (c) a flow control means. The flow control means has walls dividing the filter element into first and second portions, and a flow diverter effective to normally permit full exhaust gas flow through both of said filter portions, and effective to selectively permit exhaust glow through only one of the filter portions while permitting flow of heated gas of the oxidation means through the other of said filter portions.
Abstract: This specification discloses a method for preparing a plurality of large blocks of glass for shipment on a transportable device (10). The method includes providing an "A" frame carrier (18) on the transportable device. A plurality of layers of shrinkable film (32) and (34) are provided which lie over and on both sides of the "A" frame carrier. A block of glass is loaded on each side of the "A" frame carrier and wrapped in the layer (34) of shrinkable film in a manner that each of the first glass blocks is substantially enclosed in the shrinkable film. The shrinkable film is shrunk about the enclosed block of glass thereby to form a sealed pouch pack (36) about the first loaded block of glass. At least a second block of glass is loaded on each side of the "A" frame carrier in association with the previously loaded blocks of glass.