Nucleotide sequence of the haemophilus influenza Rd genome, fragments thereof, and uses thereof

The present invention provides the sequencing of the entire genome of Haemophilus influenzae Rd, SEQ ID NO: 1. The present invention further provides the sequence information stored on computer readable media, and computer-based systems and methods which facilitate its use. In addition to the entire genomic sequence, the present invention identifies over 1700 protein encoding fragments of the genome and identifies, by position relative to a unique NotI restriction endonuclease site, any regulatory elements which modulate the expression of the protein encoding fragments of the Haemophilus genome.

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[0001] This application is a divisional of and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 120 to U.S. application Ser. No. 09/643,990, filed Aug. 23, 2000, which is a continuation of and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 120 to U.S. application Ser. No. 08/487,429, filed Jun. 7, 1995, which is a continuation-in-part of and claims priority under 35 U.S.C. § 120 to U.S. application Ser. No. 08/426,787, filed Apr. 21, 1995, which is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.


[0003] This application refers to a “Sequence Listing”, which is provided as an electronic document on two identical compact discs (CD-R), labeled “Copy 1” and “Copy 2.” These compact discs each contain the electronic document, filename “PB186P1C1D1.ST25.txt” (2,357,775 bytes in size, created on Dec. 24, 2002), which is hereby incorporated in its entirety herein.


[0004] The present invention relates to the field of molecular biology. The present invention discloses compositions comprising the nucleotide sequence of Haemophilus influenzae, fragments thereof and usage in industrial fermentation and pharmaceutical development.


[0005] The complete genome sequence from a free living cellular organism has never been determined. The first mycobacterium sequence should be completed by 1996, while E. coli and S. cerevisae are expected to be completed before 1998. These are being done by random and/or directed sequencing of overlapping cosmid clones. No one has attempted to determine sequences of the order of a megabase or more by a random shotgun approach.

[0006] H. influenzae is a small (approximately 0.4×1 micron) non-motile, non-spore forming, germ-negative bacterium whose only natural host is human. It is a resident of the upper respiratory mucosa of children and adults and causes otitis media and respiratory tract infections mostly in children. The most serious complication is meningitis, which produces neurological sequelae in up to 50% of affected children. Six H. influenzae serotypes (a through f) have been identified based on immunologically distinct capsular polysaccharide antigens. A number of non-typeable strains are also known. Serotype b accounts for the majority of human disease.

[0007] Interest in the medically important aspects of H. influenzae biology has focused particularly on those genes which determine virulence characteristics of the organism. A number of the genes responsible for the capsular polysaccharide have been mapped and sequenced (Kroll et al., Mol. Microbiol. 5(6):1549-1560 (1991)). Several outer membrane protein (OMP) genes have been identified and sequenced (Langford et al., J. Gen. Microbiol. 138:155-159 (1992)). The lipoligosaccharide (LOS) component of the outer membrane and the genes of its synthetic pathway are under intensive study (Weiser et al., J. Bacteriol. 172:3304-3309 (1990)). While a vaccine has been available since 1984, the study of outer membrane components is motivated to some extent by the need for improved vaccines. Recently, the catalase gene was characterized and sequenced as a possible virulence-related gene (Bishni et al., in press). Elucidation of the H. influenzae genome will enhance the understanding of how H. influenzae causes invasive disease and how best to combat infection.

[0008] H. influenzae possesses a highly efficient natural DNA transformation system which has been intensively studied in the non-encapsulated (R), serotype d strain (Kahn and Smith, J. Membrane Biology 81:89-103 (1984)). At least 16 transformation-specific genes have been identified and sequenced. Of these, four are regulatory (Redfield, J. Bacteriol. 173:5612-5618 (1991), and Chandler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:1626-1630 (1992)), at least two are involved in recombination processes (Barouki and Smith, J. Bacteriol. 163(2):629-634 (1985)), and at least seven are targeted to the membranes and periplasmic space (Tomb et al., Gene 104:1-10 (1991), and Tomb, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:10252-10256 (1992)), where they appear to function as structural components or in the assembly of the DNA transport machinery. H. influenzae Rd transformation shows a number of interesting features including sequence-specific DNA uptake, rapid uptake of several double-stranded DNA molecules per competent cell into a membrane compartment called the transformasome, linear translocation of a single strand of the donor DNA into the cytoplasm, and synapsis and recombination of the strand with the chromosome by a single-strand displacement mechanism. The H. influenzae Rd transformation system is the most thoroughly studied of the gram-negative systems and distinct in a number of ways from the gram-positive systems.

[0009] The size of H. influenzae Rd genome has been determined by pulsed-field agarose gel electrophoresis of restriction digests to be approximately 1.9 Mb, making its genome approximately 40% the size of E. coli (Lee and Smith, J. Bacteriol. 170:4402-4405 (1988)). The restriction map of H. influenzae is circular (Lee et al., J. Bacteriol. 171:3016-3024 (1989), and Redfield and Lee, “Haemophilus influenzae Rd”, pp. 2110-2112, In O'Brien, S. J. (ed), Genetic Maps: Locus Maps of Complex Genomes, Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York). Various genes have been mapped to restriction fragments by Southern hybridization probing of restriction digest DNA bands. This map will be valuable in verification of the assembly of a complete genome sequence from randomly sequenced fragments. GenBank currently contains about 100 kb of non-redundant H. influenzae DNA sequences. About half are from serotype b and half from Rd.


[0010] The present invention is based on the sequencing of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. The primary nucleotide which was generated is provided in SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0011] The present invention provides the generated nucleotide sequence of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome, or a representative fragment thereof, in a form which can be readily used, analyzed, and interpreted by a skilled artisan. In one embodiment, present is provided as a contiguous string of primary sequence information corresponding to the nucleotide sequence depicted in SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0012] The present invention further provides nucleotide sequences which are at least 99.9% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0013] The nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, a representative fragment thereof, or a nucleotide sequence which is at least 99.9% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 may be provided in a variety of mediums to facilitate its use. In one application of this embodiment, the sequences of the present invention are recorded on computer readable media. Such media includes, but is not limited to: magnetic storage media, such as floppy discs, hard disc storage medium, and magnetic tape; optical storage media such as CD-ROM; electrical storage media such as RAM and ROM; and hybrids of these categories such as magnetic/optical storage media.

[0014] The present invention further provides systems, particularly computer-based systems which contain the sequence information herein described stored in a data storage means. Such systems are designed to identify commercially important fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome.

[0015] Another embodiment of the present invention is directed to isolated fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. The fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention include, but are not limited to, fragments which encode peptides, hereinafter open reading frames (ORFs), fragments which modulate the expression of an operably linked ORF, hereinafter expression modulating fragments (EMFs), fragments which mediate the uptake of a linked DNA fragment into a cell, hereinafter uptake modulating fragments (UMFs), and fragments which can be used to diagnose the presence of Haemophilus influenzae Rd in a sample, hereinafter, diagnostic fragments (DFs).

[0016] Each of the ORF fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome disclosed in Tables 1(a) and 2, and the EMF found 5′ to the ORF, can be used in numerous ways as polynucleotide reagents. The sequences can be used as diagnostic probes or diagnostic amplification primers for the presence of a specific microbe in a sample, for the production of commercially important pharmaceutical agents, and to selectively control gene expression.

[0017] The present invention further includes recombinant constructs comprising one or more fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention. The recombinant constructs of the present invention comprise vectors, such as a plasmid or viral vector, into which a fragment of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd has been inserted.

[0018] The present invention further provides host cells containing any one of the isolated fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention. The host cells can be a higher eukaryotic host such as a mammalian cell, a lower eukaryotic cell such as a yeast cell, or can be a procaryotic cell such as a bacterial cell.

[0019] The present invention is further directed to isolated proteins encoded by the ORFs of the present invention. A variety of methodologies known in the art can be utilized to obtain any one of the proteins of the present invention. At the simplest level, the amino acid sequence can be synthesized using commercially available peptide synthesizers. In an alternative method, the protein is purified from bacterial cells which naturally produce the protein. Lastly, the proteins of the present invention can alternatively be purified from cells which have been altered to express the desired protein.

[0020] The invention further provides methods of obtaining homologs of the fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention and homologs of the proteins encoded by the ORFs of the present invention. Specifically, by using the nucleotide and amino acid sequences disclosed herein as a probe or as primers, and techniques such as PCR cloning and colony/plaque hybridization, one skilled in the art can obtain homologs.

[0021] The invention further provides antibodies which selectively bind one of the proteins of the present invention. Such antibodies include both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies.

[0022] The invention further provides hybridomas which produce the above-described antibodies. A hybridoma is an immortalized cell line which is capable of secreting a specific monoclonal antibody.

[0023] The present invention further provides methods of identifying test samples derived from cells which express one of the ORF of the present invention, or homolog thereof. Such methods comprise incubating a test sample with one or more of the antibodies of the present invention, or one or more of the DFs of the present invention, under conditions which allow a skilled artisan to determine if the sample contains the ORF or product produced therefrom.

[0024] In another embodiment of the present invention, kits are provided which contain the necessary reagents to carry out the above-described assays.

[0025] Specifically, the invention provides a compartmentalized kit to receive, in close confinement, one or more containers which comprises: (a) a first container comprising one of the antibodies, or one of the DFs of the present invention; and (b) one or more other containers comprising one or more of the following: wash reagents, reagents capable of detecting presence of bound antibodies or hybridized DFs.

[0026] Using the isolated proteins of the present invention, the present invention further provides methods of obtaining and identifying agents capable of binding to a protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention. Specifically, such agents include antibodies (described above), peptides, carbohydrates, pharmaceutical agents and the like. Such methods comprise the steps of:

[0027] (a) contacting an agent with an isolated protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention; and

[0028] (b) determining whether the agent binds to said protein.

[0029] The complete genomic sequence of H. influenzae will be of great value to all laboratories working with this organism and for a variety of commercial purposes. Many fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome will be immediately identified by similarity searches against GenBank or protein databases and will be of immediate value to Haemophilus researchers and for immediate commercial value for the production of proteins or to control gene expression. A specific example concerns PHA synthase. It has been reported that polyhydroxybutyrate is present in the membranes of H. influenzae Rd and that the amount correlates with the level of competence for transformation. The PHA synthase that synthesizes this polymer has been identified and sequenced in a number of bacteria, none of which are evolutionarily close to H. influenzae. This gene has yet to be isolated from H. influenzae by use of hybridization probes or PCR techniques. However, the genomic sequence of the present invention allows the identification of the gene by utilizing search means described below.

[0030] Developing the methodology and technology for elucidating the entire genomic sequence of bacterial and other small genomes has and will greatly enhance the ability to analyze and understand chromosomal organization. In particular, sequenced genomes will provide the models for developing tools for the analysis of chromosome structure and function, including the ability to identify genes within large segments of genomic DNA, the structure, position, and spacing of regulatory elements, the identification of genes with potential industrial applications, and the ability to do comparative genomic and molecular phylogeny.


[0031] FIG. 1—restriction map of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome.

[0032] FIG. 2—Block diagram of a computer system 102 that can be used to implement the computer-based systems of present invention.

[0033] FIG. 3—A comparison of experimental coverage of up to approximately 4000 random sequence fragments assembled with AutoAssembler (squares) as compared to Lander-Waterman prediction for a 2.5 Mb genome (triangles) and a 1.6 Mb genome (circles) with a 460 bp average sequence length and a 25 bp overlap.

[0034] FIG. 4—Data flow and computer programs used to manage, assemble, edit, and annotate the H. influenzae genome. Both Macintosh and Unix platforms are used to handle the AB 373 sequence data files (Kerlavage et al., Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington D.C., 585 (1993)). Factura (AB) is a Macintosh program designed for automatic vector sequence removal and end trimming of sequence files. The program esp runs on a Macintosh platform and parses the feature data extracted from the sequence files by Factura to the Unix based H. influenzae relational database. Assembly is accomplished by retrieving a specific set of sequence files and their associated features using stp, an X-windows graphical interface and control program which can retrieve sequences from the H. influenzae database using user-defined or standard SQL queries. The sequence files were assembled using TIGR Assembler, an assembly engine designed at TIGR for rapid and accurate assembly of thousands of sequence fragments. TIGR Editor is a graphical interface which can parse the aligned sequence files from TIGR Assembler output and display the alignment and associated electropherograms for contig editing. Identification of putative coding regions was performed with Genemark (Borodovsky and McIninch, Computers Chem. 17(2):123 (1993)), a Markov and Bayes modeled program for predicting gene locations, and trained on a H. influenzae sequence data set. Peptide searches were performed against the three reading frames of each Genemark predicted coding region using blaze (Brutlag et al., Computers Chem. 17:203 (1993)) run on a Maspar MP-2 massively parallel computer with 4096 microprocessors. Results from each frame were combined into a single output file by mblzt. Optimal protein alignments were obtained using the program praze which extends alignments across potential frameshifts. The output was inspected using a custom graphic viewing program, gbyob, that interacts directly with the H. influenzae database. The alignments were further used to identify potential frameshift errors and were targeted for additional editing.

[0035] FIG. 5—A circular representation of the H. influenzae Rd chromosome illustrating the location of each predicted coding region containing a database match as well as selected global features of the genome. Outer perimeter: The location of the unique NotI restriction site (designated as nucleotide 1), the RsrII sites, and the SmaI sites. Outer concentric circle: The location of each identified coding region for which a gene identification was made. Second concentric circle: Regions of high G/C content and high A/T content. High G/C content regions are specifically associated with the 6 ribosomal operons and the mu-like prophage. Third concentric circle: Coverage by lambda clones. Over 300 lambda clones were sequenced from each end to confirm the overall structure of the genome and identify the 6 ribosomal operons. Fourth concentric circle: The locations of the 6 ribosomal operons, the tRNAs and the cryptic mu-like prophage. Fifth concentric circle: Simple tandem repeats. The locations of the following repeats are shown: CTGGCT, GTCT, ATT, AATGGC, TTGA, TTGG, TTTA, TTATC, TGAC, TCGTC, AACC, TTGC, CAAT, CCAA. The putative origin of replication is illustrated by the outward pointing arrows originating near base 603,000. Two potential termination sequences are shown near the opposite midpoint of the circle.

[0036] FIGS. 6(A)-6(AN)—Complete map of the H. influenzae Rd genome. Predicted coding regions are shown on each strand. rRNA and tRNA genes are shown as lines and triangles, respectively. GeneID numbers correspond to those in Tables 1(a), 1(b) and 2. Where possible, three-letter designations are also provided.

[0037] FIG. 7—A comparison of the region of the H. influenzae chromosome containing the 8 genes of the fimbrial gene cluster present in H. influenzae type b and the same region in H. influenzae Rd. The region is flanked by the pepN and purE genes in both organisms. However in the non-infectious Rd strain the 8 genes of the fimbrial gene cluster have been excised. A 172 bp spacer region is located in this region in the Rd strain and continues to be flanked by the pepN and purE genes.

[0038] FIG. 8—Hydrophobicity analysis of five predicted channel-proteins. The amino acid sequences of five predicted coding regions that do not display homology with known peptide sequences (GenBank release 87), each exhibit multiple hydrophobic domains that are characteristic of channel-forming proteins. The predicted coding region sequences were analyzed by the Kyte-Doolittle algorithm (Kyte and Doolittle, J. Mol. Biol. 157:105 (1982)) (with a range of 11 residues) using the GeneWorks software package (Intelligenetics).


[0039] The present invention is based on the sequencing of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. The primary nucleotide sequence which was generated is provided in SEQ ID NO: 1. As used herein, the “primary sequence” refers to the nucleotide sequence represented by the IUPAC nomenclature system.

[0040] The sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1 is oriented relative to a unique Not I restriction endonuclease site found in the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. A skilled artisan will readily recognize that this start/stop point was chosen for convenience and does not reflect a structural significance.

[0041] The present invention provides the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a representative fragment thereof, in a form which can be readily used, analyzed, and interpreted by a skilled artisan. In one embodiment, the sequence is provided as a contiguous string of primary sequence information corresponding to the nucleotide sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0042] As used herein, a “representative fragment of the nucleotide sequence depicted in SEQ ID NO: 1” refers to any portion of SEQ ID NO: 1 which is not presently represented within a publicly available database. Preferred representative fragments of the present invention are Haemophilus influenzae open reading frames, expression modulating fragments, uptake modulating fragments, and fragments which can be used to diagnose the presence of Haemophilus influenzae Rd in sample. A non-limiting identification of such preferred representative fragments is provided in Tables 1 (a) and 2.

[0043] The nucleotide sequence information provided in SEQ ID NO: 1 was obtained by sequencing the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome using a megabase shotgun sequencing method. Using three parameters of accuracy discussed in the Examples below, the present inventors have calculated that the sequence in SEQ ID NO: 1 has a maximum accuracy of 99.98%. Thus, the nucleotide sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1 is a highly accurate, although not necessarily a 100% perfect, representation of the nucleotide sequences of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome.

[0044] As discussed in detail below, using the information provided in SEQ ID NO: 1 and in Tables 1(a) and 2 together with routine cloning and sequencing methods, one of ordinary skill in the art will be able to clone and sequence all “representative fragments” of interest including open reading frames (ORFs) encoding a large variety of Haemophilus influenzae proteins. In very rare instances, this may reveal a nucleotide sequence error present in the nucleotide sequence disclosed in SEQ ID NO: 1. Thus, once the present invention is made available (i.e., once the information in SEQ If) NO: 1 and Tables 1(a) and 2 have been made available), resolving a rare sequencing error in SEQ ID NO: 1 will be well within the skill of the art. Nucleotide sequence editing software is publicly available. For example, Applied Biosystems' (AB) AutoAssembler™ can be used as an aid during visual inspection of nucleotide sequences.

[0045] Even if all of the very rare sequencing errors in SEQ ID NO: 1 were corrected, the resulting nucleotide sequence would still be at least 99.9% identical to the nucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0046] The nucleotide sequences of the genomes from different strains of Haemophilus influenzae differ slightly. However, the nucleotide sequence of the genomes of all Haemophilus influenzae strains will be at least 99.9% identical to the nucleotide sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1.

[0047] Thus, the present invention further provides nucleotide sequences which are at least 99.9% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 in a form which can be readily used, analyzed and interpreted by the skilled artisan. Methods for determining whether a nucleotide sequence is at least 99.9% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 are routine and readily available to the skilled artisan. For example, the well known fasta algorithm (Pearson and Lipman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2444 (1988)) can be used to generate the percent identity of nucleotide sequences.

[0048] Computer Related Embodiments

[0049] The nucleotide sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1, a representative fragment thereof, or a nucleotide sequence at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1 may be “provided” in a variety of mediums to facilitate use thereof. As used herein, provided refers to a manufacture, other than an isolated nucleic acid molecule, which contains a nucleotide sequence of the present invention, i.e., the nucleotide sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1, a representative fragment thereof, or a nucleotide sequence at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1. Such a manufacture provides the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome or a subset thereof (e.g., a Haemophilus Influenzae Rd open reading frame (ORF)) in a form which allows a skilled artisan to examine the manufacture using means not directly applicable to examining the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome or a subset thereof as it exists in nature or in purified form.

[0050] In one application of this embodiment, a nucleotide sequence of the present invention can be recorded on computer readable media. As used herein, “computer readable media” refers to any medium which can be read and accessed directly by a computer. Such media include, but are not limited to: magnetic storage media, such as floppy discs, hard disc storage medium, and magnetic tape; optical storage media such as CD-ROM; electrical storage media such as RAM and ROM; and hybrids of these categories such as magnetic/optical storage media. A skilled artisan can readily appreciate how any of the presently known computer readable mediums can be used to create a manufacture comprising computer readable medium having recorded thereon a nucleotide sequence of the present invention.

[0051] As used herein, “recorded” refers to a process for storing information on computer readable medium. A skilled artisan can readily adopt any of the presently know methods for recording information on computer readable medium to generate manufactures comprising the nucleotide sequence information of the present invention.

[0052] A variety of data storage structures are available to a skilled artisan for creating a computer readable medium having recorded thereon a nucleotide sequence of the present invention. The choice of the data storage structure will generally be based on the means chosen to access the stored information. In addition, a variety of data processor programs and formats can be used to store the nucleotide sequence information of the present invention on computer readable medium. The sequence information can be represented in a word processing text file, formatted in commercially-available software such as WordPerfect and MicroSoft Word, or represented in the form of an ASCII file, stored in a database application, such as DB2, Sybase, Oracle, or the like. A skilled artisan can readily adapt any number of dataprocessor structuring formats (e.g. text file or database) in order to obtain computer readable medium having recorded thereon the nucleotide sequence information of the present invention.

[0053] By providing the nucleotide sequence SEQ ID NO: 1, a representative fragment thereof, or a nucleotide sequence at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1 in computer readable form, a skilled artisan can routinely access the sequence information for a variety of purposes. Computer software is publicly available which allows a skilled artisan to access sequence information provided in a computer readable medium. The examples which follow demonstrate how software which implements the BLAST (Altschul et al., J. Mol. Biol. 215:403-410 (1990)) and BLAZE (Brutlag et al., Comp. Chem. 17:203-207 (1993)) search algorithms on a Sybase system was used to identify open reading frames (ORFs) within the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome which contain homology to ORFs or proteins from other organisms. Such ORFs are protein encoding fragments within the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome and are useful in producing commercially important proteins such as enzymes used in fermentation reactions and in the production of commercially useful metabolites.

[0054] The present invention further provides systems, particularly computer-based systems, which contain the sequence information described herein. Such systems are designed to identify commercially important fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome.

[0055] As used herein, “a computer-based system” refers to the hardware means, software means, and data storage means used to analyze the nucleotide sequence information of the present invention. The minimum hardware means of the computer-based systems of the present invention comprises a central processing unit (CPU), input means, output means, and data storage means. A skilled artisan can readily appreciate that any one of the currently available computer-based system are suitable for use in the present invention.

[0056] As stated above, the computer-based systems of the present invention comprise a data storage means having stored therein a nucleotide sequence of the present invention and the necessary hardware means and software means for supporting and implementing a search means. As used herein, “data storage means” refers to memory which can store nucleotide sequence information of the present invention, or a memory access means which can access manufactures having recorded thereon the nucleotide sequence information of the present invention.

[0057] As used herein, “search means” refers to one or more programs which are implemented on the computer-based system to compare a target sequence or target structural motif with the sequence information stored within the data storage means. Search means are used to identify fragments or regions of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome which match a particular target sequence or target motif. A variety of known algorithms are disclosed publicly and a variety of commercially available software for conducting search means are and can be used in the computer-based systems of the present invention. Examples of such software includes, but is not limited to, MacPattern (EMBL), BLASTN and BLASTX (NCBIA). A skilled artisan can readily recognize that any one of the available algorithms or implementing software packages for conducting homology searches can be adapted for use in the present computer-based systems.

[0058] As used herein, a “target sequence” can be any DNA or amino acid sequence of six or more nucleotides or two or more amino acids. A skilled artisan can readily recognize that the longer a target sequence is, the less likely a target sequence will be present as a random occurrence in the database. The most preferred sequence length of a target sequence is from about 10 to 100 amino acids or from about 30 to 300 nucleotide residues. However, it is well recognized that searches for commercially important fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome, such as sequence fragments involved in gene expression and protein processing, may be of shorter length.

[0059] As used herein, “a target structural motif,” or “target motif,” refers to any rationally selected sequence or combination of sequences in which the sequence(s) are chosen based on a three-dimensional configuration which is formed upon the folding of the target motif. There are a variety of target motifs known in the art. Protein target motifs include, but are not limited to, enzymatic active sites and signal sequences. Nucleic acid target motifs include, but are not limited to, promoter sequences, hairpin structures and inducible expression elements (protein binding sequences).

[0060] A variety of structural formats for the input and output means can be used to input and output the information in the computer-based systems of the present invention. A preferred format for an output means ranks fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome possessing varying degrees of homology to the target sequence or target motif. Such presentation provides a skilled artisan with a ranking of sequences which contain various amounts of the target sequence or target motif and identifies the degree of homology contained in the identified fragment.

[0061] A variety of comparing means can be used to compare a target sequence or target motif with the data storage means to identify sequence fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. In the present examples, implementing software which implement the BLAST and BLAZE algorithms (Altschul et al., J. Mol. Biol. 215:403-410 (1990)) was used to identify open reading frames within the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. A skilled artisan can readily recognize that any one of the publicly available homology search programs can be used as the search means for the computer-based systems of the present invention.

[0062] One application of this embodiment is provided in FIG. 2. FIG. 2 provides a block diagram of a computer system 102 that can be used to implement the present invention. The computer system 102 includes a processor 106 connected to a bus 104. Also connected to the bus 104 are a main memory 108 (preferably implemented as random access memory, RAM) and a variety of secondary storage devices 110, such as a hard drive 112 and a removable medium storage device 114. The removable medium storage device 114 may represent, for example, a floppy disk drive, a CD-ROM drive, a magnetic tape drive, etc. A removable storage medium 116 (such as a floppy disk, a compact disk, a magnetic tape, etc.) containing control logic and/or data recorded therein may be inserted into the removable medium storage device 114. The computer system 102 includes appropriate software for reading the control logic and/or the data from the removable medium storage device 114 once inserted in the removable medium storage device 114.

[0063] A nucleotide sequence of the present invention may be stored in a well known manner in the main memory 108, any of the secondary storage devices 110, and/or a removable storage medium 116. Software for accessing and processing the genomic sequence (such as search tools, comparing tools, etc.) reside in main memory 108 during execution.

[0064] Biochemical Embodiments

[0065] Another embodiment of the present invention is directed to isolated fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. The fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention include, but are not limited to fragments which encode peptides, hereinafter open reading frames (ORFs), fragments which modulate the expression of an operably linked ORF, hereinafter expression modulating fragments (EMFs), fragments which mediate the uptake of a linked DNA fragment into a cell, hereinafter uptake modulating fragments (UMFs), and fragments which can be used to diagnose the presence of Haemophilus influenzae Rd in a sample, hereinafter diagnostic fragments (DFs).

[0066] As used herein, an “isolated nucleic acid molecule” or an “isolated fragment of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome” refers to a nucleic acid molecule possessing a specific nucleotide sequence which has been subjected to purification means to reduce, from the composition, the number of compounds which are normally associated with the composition. A variety of purification means can be used to generated the isolated fragments of the present invention. These include, but are not limited to methods which separate constituents of a solution based on charge, solubility, or size.

[0067] In one embodiment, Haemophilus influenaze Rd DNA can be mechanically sheared to produce fragments of 15-20 kb in length. These fragments can then be used to generate an Haemophilus influenzae Rd library by inserting them into lambda clones as described in the Examples below. Primers flanking, for example, an ORF provided in Table 1(a) can then be generated using nucleotide sequence information provided SEQ ID NO: 1. PCR cloning can then be used to isolate the ORF from the lambda DNA library. PCR cloning is well known in the art. Thus, given the availability of SEQ ID NO: 1, Table 1(a) and Table 2, it would be routine to isolate any ORF or other nucleic acid fragment of the present invention.

[0068] The isolated nucleic acid molecules of the present invention include, but are not limited to single stranded and double stranded DNA, and single stranded RNA.

[0069] As used herein, an “open reading frame,” ORF, means a series of triplets coding for amino acids without any termination codons and is a sequence translatable into protein. Tables 1a, 1b and 2 identify ORFs in the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome. In particular, Table 1(a) indicates the location of ORFs within the Haemophilus influenzae genome which encode the recited protein based on homology matching with protein sequences from the organism appearing in parentheticals (see the fourth column of Table 1(a)).

[0070] The first column of Table 1(a) provides the “GeneID” of a particular ORF. This information is useful for two reasons. First, the complete map of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome provided in FIGS. 6(A)-6(AN) refers to the ORFs according to their GeneID numbers. Second, Table 1(b) uses the GeneID numbers to indicate which ORFs were provided previously in a public database.

[0071] The second and third columns in Table 1(a) indicate an ORFs position in the nucleotide sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1. One of ordinary skill will recognize that ORFs may be oriented in opposite directions in the Haemophilus influenzae genome. This is reflected in columns 2 and 3.

[0072] The fifth column of Table 1(a) indicates the percent identity of the protein encoded for by an ORF to the corresponding protein from the organism appearing in parentheticals in the fourth column.

[0073] The sixth column of Table 1(a) indicates the percent similarity of the protein encoded for by an ORF to the corresponding protein from the organism appearing in parentheticals in the fourth column. The concepts of percent identity and percent similarity of two polypeptide sequences is well understood in the art. For example, two polypeptides 10 amino acids in length which differ at three amino acid positions (e.g., at positions 1, 3 and 5) are said to have a percent identity of 70%. However, the same two polypeptides would be deemed to have a percent similarity of 80% if, for example at position 5, the amino acids moieties, although not identical, were “similar” (i.e., possessed similar biochemical characteristics).

[0074] The seventh column in Table 1(a) indicates the length of the amino acid homology match.

[0075] Table 2 provides ORFs of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome which encode polypeptide sequences which did not elicit a “homology match” with a known protein sequence from another organism. Further details concerning the algorithms and criteria used for homology searches are provided in the Examples below.

[0076] A skilled artisan can readily identify ORFs in the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome other than those listed in Tables 1(a), 1(b) and 2, such as ORFs which are overlapping or encoded by the opposite strand of an identified ORF in addition to those ascertainable using the computer-based systems of the present invention.

[0077] As used herein, an “expression modulating fragment,” EMF, means a series of nucleotide molecules which modulates the expression of an operably linked ORF or EMF.

[0078] As used herein, a sequence is said to “modulate the expression of an operably linked sequence” when the expression of the sequence is altered by the presence of the EMF. EMFs include, but are not limited to, promoters, and promoter modulating sequences (inducible elements). One class of EMFs are fragments which induce the expression or an operably linked ORF in response to a specific regulatory factor or physiological event. A review of known EMFs from Haemophilus are described by (Tomb et al. Gene 104:1-10 (1991), Chandler, M. S., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:1626-1630 (1992).

[0079] EMF sequences can be identified within the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome by their proximity to the ORFs provided in Tables 1(a), 1(b) and 2. An intergenic segment, or a fragment of the intergenic segment, from about 10 to 200 nucleotides in length, taken 5′ from any one of the ORFs of Tables 1(a), 1(b), or 2 will modulate the expression of an operably linked 3′ ORF in a fashion similar to that found with the naturally linked ORF sequence. As used herein, an “intergenic segment” refers to the fragments of the Haemophilus genome which are between two ORF(s) herein described. Alternatively, EMFs can be identified using known EMFs as a target sequence or target motif in the computer-based systems of the present invention.

[0080] The presence and activity of an EMF can be confirmed using an EMF trap vector. An EMF trap vector contains a cloning site 51 to a marker sequence. A marker sequence encodes an identifiable phenotype, such as antibiotic resistance or a complementing nutrition auxotrophic factor, which can be identified or assayed when the EMF trap vector is placed within an appropriate host under appropriate conditions. As described above, a EMF will modulate the expression of an operably linked marker sequence. A more detailed discussion of various marker sequences is provided below.

[0081] A sequence which is suspected as being a EMF is cloned in all three reading frames in one or more restriction sites upstream from the marker sequence in the EMF trap vector. The vector is then transformed into an appropriate host using known procedures and the phenotype of the transformed host in examined under appropriate conditions. As described above, an EMF will modulate the expression of an operably linked marker sequence.

[0082] As used herein, an “uptake modulating fragment,” UMF, means a series of nucleotide molecules which mediate the uptake of a linked DNA fragment into a cell. UMFs can be readily identified using known UMFs as a target sequence or target motif with the computer-based systems described above.

[0083] The presence and activity of a UMF can be confirmed by attaching the suspected UMF to a marker sequence. The resulting nucleic acid molecule is then incubated with an appropriate host under appropriate conditions and the uptake of the marker sequence is determined. As described above, a UMF will increase the frequency of uptake of a linked marker sequence. A review of DNA uptake in Haemophilus is provided by Goodgall, S. H., et al., J. Bact. 172:5924-5928 (1990).

[0084] As used herein, a “diagnostic fragment,” DF, means a series of nucleotide molecules which selectively hybridize to Haemophilus influenzae sequences. DFs can be readily identified by identifying unique sequences within the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome, or by generating and testing probes or amplification primers consisting of the DF sequence in an appropriate diagnostic format which determines amplification or hybridization selectivity.

[0085] The sequences falling within the scope of the present invention are not limited to the specific sequences herein described, but also include allelic and species variations thereof. Allelic and species variations can be routinely determined by comparing the sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1, a representative fragment thereof, or a nucleotide sequence at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1 with a sequence from another isolate of the same species. Furthermore, to accommodate codon variability, the invention includes nucleic acid molecules coding for the same amino acid sequences as do the specific ORFs disclosed herein. In other words, in the coding region of an ORF, substitution of one codon for another which encodes the same amino acid is expressly contemplated.

[0086] Any specific sequence disclosed herein can be readily screened for errors by resequencing a particular fragment, such as an ORF, in both directions (i.e., sequence both strands). Alternatively, error screening can be performed by sequencing corresponding polynucleotides of Haemophilus influenzae origin isolated by using part or all of the fragments in question as a probe or primer.

[0087] Each of the ORFs of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome disclosed in Tables 1(a), 1(b) and 2, and the EMF found 51 to the ORF, can be used in numerous ways as polynucleotide reagents. The sequences can be used as diagnostic probes or diagnostic amplification primers to detect the presence of a specific microbe, such as Haemophilus influenzae RD, in a sample. This is especially the case with the fragments or ORFs of Table 2, which will be highly selective for Haemophilus influenzae.

[0088] In addition, the fragments of the present invention, as broadly described, can be used to control gene expression through triple helix formation or antisense DNA or RNA, both of which methods are based on the binding of a polynucleotide sequence to DNA or RNA. Polynucleotides suitable for use in these methods are usually 20 to 40 bases in length and are designed to be complementary to a region of the gene involved in transcription (triple helix—see Lee et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 6:3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science 241:456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science 251:1360 (1991)) or to the mRNA itself (antisense—Okano, J. Neurochem. 56:560 (1991); Oligodeoxynucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988)).

[0089] Triple helix- formation optimally results in a shut-off of RNA transcription from DNA, while antisense RNA hybridization blocks translation of an mRNA molecule into polypeptide. Both techniques have been demonstrated to be effective in model systems. Information contained in the sequences of the present invention is necessary for the design of an antisense or triple helix oligonucleotide.

[0090] The present invention further provides recombinant constructs comprising one or more fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention. The recombinant constructs of the present invention comprise a vector, such as a plasmid or viral vector, into which a fragment of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd has been inserted, in a forward or reverse orientation. In the case of a vector comprising one of the ORFs of the present invention, the vector may further comprise regulatory sequences, including for example, a promoter, operably linked to the ORF. For vectors comprising the EMFs and UMFs of the present invention, the vector may further comprise a marker sequence or heterologous ORF operably linked to the EMF or UMF. Large numbers of suitable vectors and promoters are known to those of skill in the art and are commercially available for generating the recombinant constructs of the present invention. The following vectors are provided by way of example. Bacterial: pBs, phagescript, PsiX174, pBluescript SK, pBs KS, pNH8a, pNH16a, pNH18a, pNH46a (Stratagene); pTrc99A, pKK223-3, pKK233-3, pDR540, pRIT5 (Pharmacia). Eukaryotic: pWLneo, pSV2cat, pOG44, pXT1, pSG (Stratagene) pSVK3, pBPV, pMSG, pSVL (Pharmacia).

[0091] Promoter regions can be selected from any desired gene using CAT (chloramphenicol transferase) vectors or other vectors with selectable markers. Two appropriate vectors are pKK232-8 and pCM7. Particular named bacterial promoters include lac, lacZ, T3, T7, gpt, lambda PR, and trc. Eukaryotic promoters include CMV immediate early, HSV thymidine kinase, early and late SV40, LTRs from retrovirus, and mouse metallothionein-I. Selection of the appropriate vector and promoter is well within the level of ordinary skill in the art.

[0092] The present invention further provides host cells containing any one of the isolated fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention, wherein the fragment has been introduced into the host cell using known transformation methods. The host cell can be a higher eukaryotic host cell, such as a mammalian cell, a lower eukaryotic host cell, such as a yeast cell, or the host cell can be a procaryotic cell, such as a bacterial cell. Introduction of the recombinant construct into the host cell can be effected by calcium phosphate transfection, DEAE, dextran mediated transfection, or electroporation (Davis, L. et al., Basic Methods in Molecular Biology (1986)).

[0093] The host cells containing one of the fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention, can be used in conventional manners to produce the gene product encoded by the isolated fragment (in the case of an ORF) or can be used to produce a heterologous protein under the control of the EMF.

[0094] The present invention further provides isolated polypeptides encoded by the nucleic acid fragments of the present invention or by degenerate variants of the nucleic acid fragments of the present invention. By “degenerate variant” is intended nucleotide fragments which differ from a nucleic acid fragment of the present invention (e.g., an ORF) by nucleotide sequence but, due to the degeneracy of the Genetic Code, encode an identical polypeptide sequence. Preferred nucleic acid fragments of the present invention are the ORFs depicted in Table 1(a) which encode proteins.

[0095] A variety of methodologies known in the art can be utilized to obtain any one of the isolated polypeptides or proteins of the present invention. At the simplest level, the amino acid sequence can be synthesized using commercially available peptide synthesizers. This is particularly useful in producing small peptides and fragments of larger polypeptides. Fragments are useful, for example, in generating antibodies against the native polypeptide. In an alternative method, the polypeptide or protein is purified from bacterial cells which naturally produce the polypeptide or protein. One skilled in the art can readily follow known methods for isolating polypeptides and proteins in order to obtain one of the isolated polypeptides or proteins of the present invention. These include, but are not limited to, immunochromatography, HPLC, size-exclusion chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and immuno-affinity chromatography.

[0096] The polypeptides and proteins of the present invention can alternatively be purified from cells which have been altered to express the desired polypeptide or protein. As used herein, a cell is said to be altered to express a desired polypeptide or protein when the cell, through genetic manipulation, is made to produce a polypeptide or protein which it normally does not produce or which the cell normally produces at a lower level. One skilled in the art can readily adapt procedures for introducing and expressing either recombinant or synthetic sequences into eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells in order to generate a cell which produces one of the polypeptides or proteins of the present invention.

[0097] Any host/vector system can be used to express one or more of the ORFs of the present invention. These include, but are not limited to, eukaryotic hosts such as HeLa cells, Cv-1 cell, COS cells, and Sf9 cells, as well as prokaryotic host such as E. coli and B. subtilis. The most preferred cells are those which do not normally express the particular polypeptide or protein or which expresses the polypeptide or protein at low natural level.

[0098] “Recombinant,” as used herein, means that a polypeptide or protein is derived from recombinant (e.g., microbial or mammalian) expression systems. “Microbial” refers to recombinant polypeptides or proteins made in bacterial or fungal (e.g., yeast) expression systems. As a product, “recombinant microbial” defines a polypeptide or protein essentially free of native endogenous substances and unaccompanied by associated native glycosylation. Polypeptides or proteins expressed in most bacterial cultures, e.g., E. coli, will be free of glycosylation modifications; polypeptides or proteins expressed in yeast will have a glycosylation pattern different from that expressed in mammalian cells.

[0099] “Nucleotide sequence” refers to a heteropolymer of deoxyribonucleotides. Generally, DNA segments encoding the polypeptides and proteins provided by this invention are assembled from fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome and short oligonucleotide linkers, or from a series of oligonucleotides, to provide a synthetic gene which is capable of being expressed in a recombinant transcriptional unit comprising regulatory elements derived from a microbial or viral operon.

[0100] “Recombinant expression vehicle or vector” refers to a plasmid or phage or virus or vector, for expressing a polypeptide from a DNA (RNA) sequence. The expression vehicle can comprise a transcriptional unit comprising an assembly of (1) a genetic element or elements having a regulatory role in gene expression, for example, promoters or enhancers, (2) a structural or coding sequence which is transcribed into mRNA and translated into protein, and (3) appropriate transcription initiation and termination sequences. Structural units intended for use in yeast or eukaryotic expression systems preferably include a leader sequence enabling extracellular secretion of translated protein by a host cell. Alternatively, where recombinant protein is expressed without a leader or transport sequence, it may include an N-terminal methionine residue. This residue may or may not be subsequently cleaved from the expressed recombinant protein to provide a final product.

[0101] “Recombinant expression system” means host cells which have stably integrated a recombinant transcriptional unit into chromosomal DNA or carry the recombinant transcriptional unit extra chromosomally. The cells can be prokaryotic or eukaryotic. Recombinant expression systems as defined herein will express heterologous polypeptides or proteins upon induction of the regulatory elements linked to the DNA segment or synthetic gene to be expressed.

[0102] Mature proteins can be expressed in mammalian cells, yeast, bacteria, or other cells under the control of appropriate promoters. Cell-free translation systems can also be employed to produce such proteins using RNAs derived from the DNA constructs of the present invention. Appropriate cloning and expression vectors for use with prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts are described by Sambrook, et al., in Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Second Edition, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. (1989), the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference.

[0103] Generally, recombinant expression vectors will include origins of replication and selectable markers permitting transformation of the host cell, e.g., the ampicillin resistance gene of E. coli and S. cerevisiae TRP1 gene, and a promoter derived from a highly-expressed gene to direct transcription of a downstream structural sequence. Such promoters can be derived from operons encoding glycolytic enzymes such as 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), a-factor, acid phosphatase, or heat shock proteins, among others. The heterologous structural sequence is assembled in appropriate phase with translation initiation and termination sequences, and preferably, a leader sequence capable of directing secretion of translated protein into the periplasmic space or extracellular medium. Optionally, the heterologous sequence can encode a fusion protein including an N-terminal identification peptide imparting desired characteristics, e.g., stabilization or simplified purification of expressed recombinant product.

[0104] Useful expression vectors for bacterial use are constructed by inserting a structural DNA sequence encoding a desired protein together with suitable translation initiation and termination signals in operable reading phase with a functional promoter. The vector will comprise one or more phenotypic selectable markers and an origin of replication to ensure maintenance of the vector and to, if desirable, provide amplification within the host. Suitable prokaryotic hosts for transformation include E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium and various species within the genera Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, and Staphylococcus, although others may, also be employed as a matter of choice.

[0105] As a representative but nonlimiting example, useful expression vectors for bacterial use can comprise a selectable marker and bacterial origin of replication derived from commercially available plasmids comprising genetic elements of the well known cloning vector pBR322 (ATCC 37017). Such commercial vectors include, for example, pKK223-3 (Pharmacia Fine Chemicals, Uppsala, Sweden) and GEM 1 (Promega Biotec, Madison, Wis., USA). These pBR322 “backbone” sections are combined with an appropriate promoter and the structural sequence to be expressed.

[0106] Following transformation of a suitable host strain and growth of the host strain to an appropriate cell density, the selected promoter is derepressed by appropriate means (e.g., temperature shift or chemical induction) and cells are cultured for an additional period. Cells are typically harvested by centrifugation, disrupted by physical or chemical means, and the resulting crude extract retained for further purification.

[0107] Various mammalian cell culture systems can also be employed to express recombinant protein. Examples of mammalian expression systems include the COS-7 lines of monkey kidney fibroblasts, described by Gluzman, Cell 23:175 (1981), and other cell lines capable of expressing a compatible vector, for example, the C127, 3T3, CHO, HeLa and BHK cell lines. Mammalian expression vectors will comprise an origin of replication, a suitable promoter and enhancer, and also any necessary ribosome binding sites, polyadenylation site, splice donor and acceptor sites, transcriptional termination sequences, and 5′ flanking nontranscribed sequences. DNA sequences derived from the SV40 viral genome, for example, SV40 origin, early promoter, enhancer, splice, and polyadenylation sites may be used to provide the required nontranscribed genetic elements.

[0108] Recombinant polypeptides and proteins produced in bacterial culture is usually isolated by initial extraction from cell pellets, followed by one or more salting-out, aqueous ion exchange or size exclusion chromatography steps. Protein refolding steps can be used, as necessary, in completing configuration of the mature protein. Finally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be employed for final purification steps. Microbial cells employed in expression of proteins can be disrupted by any convenient method, including freeze-thaw cycling, sonication, mechanical disruption, or use of cell lysing agents.

[0109] The present invention further includes isolated polypeptides, proteins and nucleic acid molecules which are substantially equivalent to those herein described. As used herein, substantially equivalent can refer both to nucleic acid and amino acid sequences, for example a mutant sequence, that varies from a reference sequence by one or more substitutions, deletions, or additions, the net effect of which does not result in an adverse functional dissimilarity between reference and subject sequences. For purposes of the present invention, sequences having equivalent biological activity, and equivalent expression characteristics are considered substantially equivalent. For purposes of determining equivalence, truncation of the mature sequence should be disregarded.

[0110] The invention further provides methods of obtaining homologs from other strains of Haemophilus influenzae, of the fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention and homologs of the proteins encoded by the ORFs of the present invention. As used herein, a sequence or protein of Haemophilus influenzae is defined as a homolog of a fragment of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome or a protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention, if it shares significant homology to one of the fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome of the present invention or a protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention. Specifically, by using the sequence disclosed herein as a probe or as primers, and techniques such as PCR cloning and colony/plaque hybridization, one skilled in the art can obtain homologs.

[0111] As used herein, two nucleic acid molecules or proteins are said to “share significant homology” if the two contain regions which process greater than 85% sequence (amino acid or nucleic acid) homology.

[0112] Region specific primers or probes derived from the nucleotide sequence provided in SEQ ID NO: 1 or from a nucleotide sequence at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1 can be used to prime DNA synthesis and PCR amplification, as well as to identify colonies containing cloned DNA encoding a homolog using known methods (Innis et al, PCR Protocols, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif. (1990)).

[0113] When using primers derived from SEQ ID NO: 1 or from a nucleotide sequence at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1, one skilled in the art will recognize that by employing high stringency conditions (e.g., annealing at 50-60° C.) only sequences which are greater than 75% homologous to the primer will be amplified. By employing lower stringency conditions (e.g., annealing at 35-37° C.), sequences which are greater than 40-50% homologous to the primer will also be amplified.

[0114] When using DNA probes derived from SEQ ID NO: 1 or from a nucleotide sequence at least 99.9% identical to SEQ ID NO: 1 for colony/plaque hybridization, one skilled in the art will recognize that by employing high stringency conditions (e.g., hybridizing at 50-65° C. in 5×SSC and 50% formamide, and washing at 50-65° C. in 0.5×SSC), sequences having regions which are greater than 90% homologous to the probe can be obtained, and that by employing lower stringency conditions (e.g., hybridizing at 35-37° C. in 5×SSC and 40-45% formamide, and washing at 42° C. in SSC), sequences having regions which are greater than 35-45% homologous to the probe will be obtained.

[0115] Any organism can be used as the source for homologs of the present invention so long as the organism naturally expresses such a protein or contains genes encoding the same. The most preferred organism for isolating homologs are bacterias which are closely related to Haemophilus influenzae Rd.

[0116] Uses for the Compositions of the Invention

[0117] Each ORF provided in Table 1(a) was assigned to one of 102 biological role categories adapted from Riley, M., Microbiology Reviews 57(4):862 (1993)). This allows the skilled artisan to determine a use for each identified coding sequence. Tables 1(a) further provides an identification of the type of polypeptide which is encoded for by each ORF. As a result, one skilled in the art can use the polypeptides of the present invention for commercial, therapeutic and industrial purposes consistent with the type of putative identification of the polypeptide.

[0118] Such identifications permit one skilled in the art to use the Haemophilus influenzae OREs in a manner similar to the known type of sequences for which the identification is made; for example, to ferment a particular sugar source or to produce a particular metabolite. (For a review of enzymes used within the commercial industry, see Biochemical Engineering and Biotechnology Handbook 2nd, eds. Macmillan Publ. Ltd., NY (1991) and Biocatalysts in Organic Syntheses, ed. J. Tramper et al., Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1985)).

[0119] Biosynthetic Enzymes

[0120] Open reading frames encoding proteins involved in mediating the catalytic reactions involved in intermediary and macromolecular metabolism, the biosynthesis of small molecules, cellular processes and other functions includes enzymes involved in the degradation of the intermediary products of metabolism, enzymes involved in central intermediary metabolism, enzymes involved in respiration, both aerobic and anaerobic, enzymes involved in fermentation, enzymes involved in ATP proton motor force conversion, enzymes involved in broad regulatory function, enzymes involved in amino acid synthesis, enzymes involved in nucleotide synthesis, enzymes involved in cofactor and vitamin synthesis, can be used for industrial biosynthesis. The various metabolic pathways present in Haemophilus can be identified based on absolute nutritional requirements as well as by examining the various enzymes identified in Table 1(a).

[0121] Identified within the category of intermediary metabolism, a number of the proteins encoded by the identified ORFs in Tables 1(a) are particularly involved in the degradation of intermediary metabolites as well as non-macromolecular metabolism. Some of the enzymes identified include amylases, glucose oxidases, and catalase.

[0122] Proteolytic enzymes are another class of commercially important enzymes. Proteolytic enzymes find use in a number of industrial processes including the processing of flax and other vegetable fibers, in the extraction, clarification and depectinization of fruit juices, in the extraction of vegetables' oil and in the maceration of fruits and vegetables to give unicellular fruits. A detailed review of the proteolytic enzymes used in the food industry is provided by Rombouts et al., Symbiosis 21:79 (1986) and Voragen et al. in Biocatalyst in Agricultural Biotechnology, edited J. R. whitaker et al., American Chemical Society Symposium Series 389:93 (1989)).

[0123] The metabolism of glucose, galactose, fructose and xylose are important parts of the primary metabolism of Haemophilus. Enzymes involved in the degradation of these sugars can be used in industrial fermentation. Some of the important sugar transforming enzymes, from a commercial viewpoint, include sugar isomerases such as glucose isomerase. Other metabolic enzymes have found commercial use such as glucose oxidases which produces ketogulonic acid (KGA). KGA is an intermediate in the commercial production of ascorbic acid using the Reichstein's procedure (see Krueger et al., Biotechnology 6(A), Rhine, H. J. et al., eds., Verlag Press, Weinheim, Germany (1984)).

[0124] Glucose oxidase (GOD) is commercially available and has been used in purified form as well as in an immobilized form for the deoxygenation of beer. See Hartmeir et al., Biotechnology Letters 1:21 (1979). The most important application of GOD is the industrial scale fermentation of gluconic acid. Market for gluconic acids which are used in the detergent, textile, leather, photographic, pharmaceutical, food, feed and concrete industry (see Bigelis in Gene Manipulations and Fungi, Benett, J. W. et al., eds., Academic Press, New York (1985), p. 357). In addition to industrial applications, GOD has found applications in medicine for quantitative determination of glucose in body fluids recently in biotechnology for analyzing syrups from starch and cellulose hydrosylates. See Owusu et al., Biochem. et Biophysica. Acta. 872:83 (1986).

[0125] The main sweetener used in the world today is sugar which comes from sugar beets and sugar cane. In the field of industrial enzymes, the glucose isomerase process shows the largest expansion in the market today. Initially, soluble enzymes were used and later immobilized enzymes were developed (Krueger et al., Biotechnology, The Textbook of Industrial Microbiology, Sinauer Associated Incorporated, Sunderland, Mass. (1990)). Today, the use of glucose-produced high fructose syrups is by far the largest industrial business using immobilized enzymes. A review of the industrial use of these enzymes is provided by Jorgensen, Starch 40:307 (1988).

[0126] Proteinases, such as alkaline serine proteinases, are used as detergent additives and thus represent one of the largest volumes of microbial enzymes used in the industrial sector. Because of their industrial importance, there is a large body of published and unpublished information regarding the use of these enzymes in industrial processes. (See Faultman et al., Acid Proteases Structure Function and Biology, Tang, J., ed., Plenum Press, New York (1977) and Godfrey et al., Industrial Enzymes, MacMillan Publishers, Surrey, UK (1983) and Hepner et al., Report Industrial Enzymes by 1990, Hel Hepner & Associates, London (1986)).

[0127] Another class of commercially usable proteins of the present invention are the microbial lipases identified in Table 1 (see Macrae et al., Philosophical Transactions of the Chiral Society of London 310:227 (1985) and Poserke, Journal of the American Oil Chemist Society 61:1758 (1984). A major use of lipases is in the fat and oil industry for the production of neutral glycerides using lipase catalyzed inter-esterification of readily available triglycerides. Application of lipases include the use as a detergent additive to facilitate the removal of fats from fabrics in the course of the washing procedures.

[0128] The use of enzymes, and in particular microbial enzymes, as catalyst for key steps in the synthesis of complex organic molecules is gaining popularity at a great rate. One area of great interest is the preparation of chiral intermediates. Preparation of chiral intermediates is of interest to a wide range of synthetic chemists particularly those scientists involved with the preparation of new pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, fragrances and flavors. (See Davies et al., Recent Advances in the Generation of Chiral Intermediates Using Enzymes, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1990)). The following reactions catalyzed by enzymes are of interest to organic chemists: hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters, phosphate esters, amides and nitrites, esterification reactions, trans-esterification reactions, synthesis of amides, reduction of alkanones and oxoalkanates, oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds, oxidation of sulfides to sulfoxides, and carbon bond forming reactions such as the aldol reaction. When considering the use of an enzyme encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention for biotransformation and organic synthesis it is sometimes necessary to consider the respective advantages and disadvantages of using a microorganism as opposed to an isolated enzyme. Pros and cons of using a whole cell system on the one hand or an isolated partially purified enzyme on the other hand, has been described in detail by Bud et al., Chemistry in Britain (1987), p. 127.

[0129] Amino transferases, enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of amino acids, are useful in the catalytic production of amino acids. The advantages of using microbial based enzyme systems is that the amino transferase enzymes catalyze the stereo-selective synthesis of only l-amino acids and generally possess uniformly high catalytic rates. A description of the use of amino transferases for amino acid production is provided by Roselle-David, Methods of Enzymology 136:479 (1987).

[0130] Another category of useful proteins encoded by the ORFs of the present invention include enzymes involved in nucleic acid synthesis, repair, and recombination. A variety of commercially important enzymes have previously been isolated from members of Haemophilus sp. These include the Hinc II, Hind III, and Hinf I restriction endonucleases. Table 1(a) identifies a wide array of enzymes, such as restriction enzymes, ligases, gyrases and methylases, which have immediate use in the biotechnology industry.

[0131] Generation of Antibodies

[0132] As described here, the proteins of the present invention, as well as homologs thereof, can be used in a variety procedures and methods known in the art which are currently applied to other proteins. The proteins of the present invention can further be used to generate an antibody which selectively binds the protein. Such antibodies can be either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies, as well fragments of these antibodies, and humanized forms.

[0133] The invention further provides antibodies which selectively bind to one of the proteins of the present invention and hybridomas which produce these antibodies. A hybridoma is an immortalized cell line which is capable of secreting a specific monoclonal antibody.

[0134] In general, techniques for preparing polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as well as hybridomas capable of producing the desired antibody are well known in the art (Campbell, A. M., Monoclonal Antibody Technology: Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1984); St. Groth et al., J. Immunol. Methods 35:1-21 (1980); Kohler and Milstein, Nature 256:495-497 (1975)), the trioma technique, the human B-cell hybridoma technique (Kozbor et al., Immunology Today 4:72 (1983); Cole et al., in Monoclonal Antibodies and Cancer Therapy, Alan R. Liss, Inc. (1985), pp. 77-96).

[0135] Any animal (mouse, rabbit, etc.) which is known to produce antibodies can be immunized with the pseudogene polypeptide. Methods for immunization are well known in the art. Such methods include subcutaneous or interperitoneal injection of the polypeptide. One skilled in the art will recognize that the amount of the protein encoded by the ORF of the present invention used for immunization will vary based on the animal which is immunized, the antigenicity of the peptide and the site of injection.

[0136] The protein which is used as an immunogen may be modified or administered in an adjuvant in order to increase the protein's antigenicity. Methods of increasing the antigenicity of a protein are well known in the art and include, but are not limited to coupling the antigen with a heterologous protein (such as globulin or &bgr;-galactosidase) or through the inclusion of an adjuvant during immunization.

[0137] For monoclonal antibodies, spleen cells from the immunized animals are removed, fused with myeloma cells, such as SP2/0-Ag14 myeloma cells, and allowed to become monoclonal antibody producing hybridoma cells.

[0138] Any one of a number of methods well known in the art can be used to identify the hybridoma cell which produces an antibody with the desired characteristics. These include screening the hybridomas with an ELISA assay, western blot analysis, or radioimmunoassay (Lutz et al., Exp. Cell Res. 175:109-124 (1988)).

[0139] Hybridomas secreting the desired antibodies are cloned and the class and subclass is determined using procedures known in the art (Campbell, A. M., Monoclonal Antibody Technology: Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1984)).

[0140] Techniques described for the production of single chain antibodies (U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,778) can be adapted to produce single chain antibodies to proteins of the present invention.

[0141] For polyclonal antibodies, antibody containing antisera is isolated from the immunized animal and is screened for the presence of antibodies with the desired specificity using one of the above-described procedures.

[0142] The present invention further provides the above-described antibodies in detectably labeled form. Antibodies can be detectably labeled through the use of radioisotopes, affinity labels (such as biotin, avidin, etc.), enzymatic labels (such as horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, etc.) fluorescent labels (such as FITC or rhodamine, etc.), paramagnetic atoms, etc. Procedures for accomplishing such labeling are well-known in the art, for example see (Sternberger, L. A. et al., J. Histochem. Cytochem. 18:315 (1970); Bayer, E. A. et al., Meth. Enzym. 62:308 (1979); Engval, E. et al., Immunol. 109:129 (1972); Goding, J. W. J. Immunol. Meth. 13:215 (1976)).

[0143] The labeled antibodies of the present invention can be used for in vitro, in vivo, and in situ assays to identify cells or tissues in which a fragment of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome is expressed.

[0144] The present invention further provides the above-described antibodies immobilized on a solid support. Examples of such solid supports include plastics such as polycarbonate, complex carbohydrates such as agarose and sepharose, acrylic resins and such as polyacrylamide and latex beads. Techniques for coupling antibodies to such solid supports are well known in the art (Weir, D. M. et al., “Handbook of Experimental Immunology” 4th Ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England, Chapter 10 (1986); Jacoby, W. D. et al., Meth. Enzym. 34 Academic Press, N.Y. (1974)). The immobilized antibodies of the present invention can be used for in vitro, in vivo, and in situ assays as well as for immunoaffinity purification of the proteins of the present invention.

[0145] Diagnostic Assays and Kits

[0146] The present invention further provides methods to identify the expression of one of the ORFs of the present invention, or homolog thereof, in a test sample, using one of the DFs or antibodies of the present invention.

[0147] In detail, such methods comprise incubating a test sample with one or more of the antibodies or one or more of the DFs of the present invention and assaying for binding of the DFs or antibodies to components within the test sample.

[0148] Conditions for incubating a DF or antibody with a test sample vary. Incubation conditions depend on the format employed in the assay, the detection methods employed, and the type and nature of the DF or antibody used in the assay. One skilled in the art will recognize that any one of the commonly available hybridization, amplification or immunological assay formats can readily be adapted to employ the DFs or antibodies of the present invention. Examples of such assays can be found in Chard, T., An Introduction to Radioimmunoassay and Related Techniques, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1986); Bullock, G. R. et al., Techniques in Immunocytochemistry, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla. Vol. 1 (1982), Vol. 2 (1983), Vol. 3 (1985); Tijssen, P., Practice and Theory of Enzyme Immunoassays: Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (1985).

[0149] The test samples of the present invention include cells, protein or membrane extracts of cells, or biological fluids such as sputum, blood, serum, plasma, or urine. The test sample used in the above-described method will vary based on the assay format, nature of the detection method and the tissues, cells or extracts used as the sample to be assayed. Methods for preparing protein extracts or membrane extracts of cells are well known in the art and can be readily be adapted in order to obtain a sample which is compatible with the system utilized.

[0150] In another embodiment of the present invention, kits are provided which contain the necessary reagents to carry out the assays of the present invention.

[0151] Secifically, the invention provides a compartmentalized kit to receive, in close confinement, one or more containers which comprises: (a) a first container comprising one of the DFs or antibodies of the present invention; and (b) one or more other containers comprising one or more of the following: wash reagents, reagents capable of detecting presence of a bound DF or antibody.

[0152] In detail, a compartmentalized kit includes any kit in which reagents are contained in separate containers. Such containers include small glass containers, plastic containers or strips of plastic or paper. Such containers allows one to efficiently transfer reagents from one compartment to another compartment such that the samples and reagents are not cross-contaminated, and the agents or solutions of each container can be added in a quantitative fashion from one compartment to another. Such containers will include a container which will accept the test sample, a container which contains the antibodies used in the assay, containers which contain wash reagents (such as phosphate buffered saline, Tris-buffers, etc.), and containers which contain the reagents used to detect the bound antibody or DF.

[0153] Types of detection reagents include labeled nucleic acid probes, labeled secondary antibodies, or in the alternative, if the primary antibody is labeled, the enzymatic, or antibody binding reagents which are capable of reacting with the labeled antibody. One skilled in the art will readily recognize that the disclosed DFs and antibodies of the present invention can be readily incorporated into one of the established kit formats which are well known in the art.

[0154] Screening Assay for Binding Agents

[0155] Using the isolated proteins of the present invention, the present invention further provides methods of obtaining and identifying agents which bind to a protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention or to one of the fragments and the Haemophilus genome herein described.

[0156] In detail, said method comprises the steps of:

[0157] (a) contacting an agent with an isolated protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention, or an isolated fragment of the Haemophilus genome; and

[0158] (b) determining whether the agent binds to said protein or said fragment.

[0159] The agents screened in the above assay can be, but are not limited to, peptides, carbohydrates, vitamin derivatives, or other pharmaceutical agents. The agents can be selected and screened at random or rationally selected or designed using protein modeling techniques.

[0160] For random screening, agents such as peptides, carbohydrates, pharmaceutical agents and the like are selected at random and are assayed for their ability to bind to the protein encoded by the ORF of the present invention.

[0161] Alternatively, agents may be rationally selected or designed. As used herein, an agent is said to be “rationally selected or designed” when the agent is chosen based on the configuration of the particular protein. For example, one skilled in the art can readily adapt currently available procedures to generate peptides, pharmaceutical agents and the like capable of binding to a specific peptide sequence in order to generate rationally designed antipeptide peptides, for example see Hurby et al., Application of Synthetic Peptides: Antisense Peptides,” In Synthetic Peptides, A User's Guide, W. H. Freeman, NY (1992), pp. 289-307, and Kaspczak et al., Biochemistry 28:9230-8 (1989), or pharmaceutical agents, or the like.

[0162] In addition to the foregoing, one class of agents of the present invention, as broadly described, can be used to control gene expression through binding to one of the ORFs or EMFs of the present invention. As described above, such agents can be randomly screened or rationally designed/selected. Targeting the ORF or EMF allows a skilled artisan to design sequence specific or element specific agents, modulating the expression of either a single ORF or multiple ORFs which rely on the same EMF for expression control.

[0163] One class of DNA binding agents are agents which contain base residues which hybridize or form a triple helix formation by binding to DNA or RNA. Such agents can be based on the classic phosphodiester, ribonucleic acid backbone, or can be a variety of sulfhydryl or polymeric derivatives which have base attachment capacity.

[0164] Agents suitable for use in these methods usually contain 20 to 40 bases and are designed to be complementary to a region of the gene involved in transcription (triple helix—see Lee et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 6:3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science 241:456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science 251: 1360 (1991)) or to the mRNA itself (antisense—Okano, J. Neurochem. 56:560 (1991); Oligodeoxynucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988)). Triple helix- formation optimally results in a shut-off of RNA transcription from DNA, while antisense RNA hybridization blocks translation of an mRNA molecule into polypeptide. Both techniques have been demonstrated to be effective in model systems. Information contained in the sequences of the present invention is necessary for the design of an antisense or triple helix oligonucleotide and other DNA binding agents.

[0165] Agents which bind to a protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention can be used as a diagnostic agent, in the control of bacterial infection by modulating the activity of the protein encoded by the ORF. Agents which bind to a protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention can be formulated using known techniques to generate a pharmaceutical composition for use in controlling Haemophilus growth and infection.

[0166] Vaccine and Pharmaceutical Composition

[0167] The present invention further provides pharmaceutical agents which can be used to modulate the growth of Haemophilus influenzae, or another related organism, in vivo or in vitro. As used herein, a “pharmaceutical agent” is defined as a composition of matter which can be formulated using known techniques to provide a pharmaceutical compositions. As used herein, the “pharmaceutical agents of the present invention” refers the pharmaceutical agents which are derived from the proteins encoded by the ORFs of the present invention or are agents which are identified using the herein described assays.

[0168] As used herein, a pharmaceutical agent is said to “modulated the growth of Haemophilus sp., or a related organism, in vivo or in vitro,” when the agent reduces the rate of growth, rate of division, or viability of the organism in question. The pharmaceutical agents of the present invention can modulate the growth of an organism in many fashions, although an understanding of the underlying mechanism of action is not needed to practice the use of the pharmaceutical agents of the present invention. Some agents will modulate the growth by binding to an important protein thus blocking the biological activity of the protein, while other agents may bind to a component of the outer surface of the organism blocking attachment or rendering the organism more prone to act the bodies nature immune system. Alternatively, the agent may be comprise a protein encoded by one of the ORFs of the present invention and serve as a vaccine. The development and use of a vaccine based on outer membrane components, such as the LPS, are well known in the art.

[0169] As used herein, a “related organism” is a broad term which refers to any organism whose growth can be modulated by one of the pharmaceutical agents of the present invention. In general, such an organism will contain a homolog of the protein which is the target of the pharmaceutical agent or the protein used as a vaccine. As such, related organism do not need to be bacterial but may be fungal or viral pathogens.

[0170] The pharmaceutical agents and compositions of the present invention may be administered in a convenient manner such as by the oral, topical, intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intranasal or intradermal routes. The pharmaceutical compositions are administered in an amount which is effective for treating and/or prophylaxis of the specific indication. In general, they are administered in an amount of at least about 10 &mgr;g/kg body weight and in most cases they will be administered in an amount not in excess of about 8 mg/Kg body weight per day. In most cases, the dosage is from about 10 &mgr;g/kg to about 1 mg/kg body weight daily, taking into account the routes of administration, symptoms, etc.

[0171] The agents of the present invention can be used in native form or can be modified to form a chemical derivative. As used herein, a molecule is said to be a “chemical derivative” of another molecule when it contains additional chemical moieties not normally a part of the molecule. Such moieties may improve the molecule's solubility, absorption, biological halflife, etc. The moieties may alternatively decrease the toxicity of the molecule, eliminate or attenuate any undesirable side effect of the molecule, etc. Moieties capable of mediating such effects are disclosed in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (1980).

[0172] For example, a change in the immunological character of the functional, derivative, such as affinity for a given antibody, is measured by a competitive type immunoassay. Changes in immunomodulation activity are measured by the appropriate assay. Modifications of such protein properties as redox or thermal stability, biological halflife, hydrophobicity, susceptibility to proteolytic degradation or the tendency to aggregate with carriers or into multimers are assayed by methods well known to the ordinarily skilled artisan.

[0173] The therapeutic effects of the agents of the present invention may be obtained by providing the agent to a patient by any suitable means (i.e., inhalation, intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, enterally, or parenterally). It is preferred to administer the agent of the present invention so as to achieve an effective concentration within the blood or tissue in which the growth of the organism is to be controlled.

[0174] To achieve an effective blood concentration, the preferred method is to administer the agent by injection. The administration may be by continuous infusion, or by single or multiple injections.

[0175] In providing a patient with one of the agents of the present invention, the dosage of the administered agent will vary depending upon such factors as the patient's age, weight, height, sex, general medical condition, previous medical history, etc. In general, it is desirable to provide the recipient with a dosage of agent which is in the range of from about 1 pg/kg to 10 mg/kg (body weight of patient), although a lower or higher dosage may be administered. The therapeutically effective dose can be lowered by using combinations of the agents of the present invention or another agent.

[0176] As used herein, two or more compounds or agents are said to be administered “in combination” with each other when either (1) the physiological effects of each compound, or (2) the serum concentrations of each compound can be measured at the same time. The composition of the present invention can be administered concurrently with, prior to, or following the administration of the other agent.

[0177] The agents of the present invention are intended to be provided to recipient subjects in an amount sufficient to decrease the rate of growth (as defined above) of the target organism.

[0178] The administration of the agent(s) of the invention may be for either a “prophylactic” or “therapeutic” purpose. When provided prophylactically, the agent(s) are provided in advance of any symptoms indicative of the organisms growth. The prophylactic administration of the agent(s) serves to prevent, attenuate, or decrease the rate of onset of any subsequent infection. When provided therapeutically, the agent(s) are provided at (or shortly after) the onset of an indication of infection. The therapeutic administration of the compound(s) serves to attenuate the pathological symptoms of the infection and to increase the rate of recovery.

[0179] The agents of the present invention are administered to the mammal in a pharmaceutically acceptable form and in a therapeutically effective concentration. A composition is said to be “pharmacologically acceptable” if its administration can be tolerated by a recipient patient. Such an agent is said to be administered in a “therapeutically effective amount” if the amount administered is physiologically significant. An agent is physiologically significant if its presence results in a detectable change in the physiology of a recipient patient.

[0180] The agents of the present invention can be formulated according to known methods to prepare pharmaceutically useful compositions, whereby these materials, or their functional derivatives, are combined in admixture with a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier vehicle. Suitable vehicles and their formulation, inclusive of other human proteins, e.g., human serum albumin, are described, for example, in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (16th ed., Osol, A., Ed., Mack, Easton Pa. (1980)). In order to form a pharmaceutically acceptable composition suitable for effective administration, such compositions will contain an effective amount of one or more of the agents of the present invention, together with a suitable amount of carrier vehicle.

[0181] Additional pharmaceutical methods may be employed to control the duration of action. Control release preparations may be achieved through the use of polymers to complex or absorb one or more of the agents of the present invention. The controlled delivery may be exercised by selecting appropriate macromolecules (for example polyesters, polyamino acids, polyvinyl, pyrrolidone, ethylenevinylacetate, methylcellulose, carboxymethylcellulose, or protamine, sulfate) and the concentration of macromolecules as well as the methods of incorporation in order to control release. Another possible method to control the duration of action by controlled release preparations is to incorporate agents of the present invention into particles of a polymeric material such as polyesters, polyamino acids, hydrogels, poly(lactic acid) or ethylene vinylacetate copolymers. Alternatively, instead of incorporating these agents into polymeric particles, it is possible to entrap these materials in microcapsules prepared, for example, by coacervation techniques or by interfacial polymerization, for example, hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin-microcapsules and poly-(methylmethacylate) microcapsules, respectively, or in colloidal drug delivery systems, for example, liposomes, albumin microspheres, microemulsions, nanoparticles, and nanocapsules or in macroemulsions. Such techniques are disclosed in Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences (1980).

[0182] The invention further provides a pharmaceutical pack or kit comprising one or more containers filled with one or more of the ingredients of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention. Associated with such container(s) can be a notice in the form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use or sale of pharmaceuticals or biological products, which notice reflects approval by the agency of manufacture, use or sale for human administration. In addition, the agents of the present invention may be employed in conjunction with other therapeutic compounds.

[0183] Shot-Gun Approach to Megabase DNA Sequencing

[0184] The present invention further provides the first demonstration that a sequence of greater than one megabase can be sequenced using a random shotgun approach. This procedure, described in detail in the examples that follow, has eliminated the up front cost of isolating and ordering overlapping or contiguous subclones prior to the start of the sequencing protocols.

[0185] Certain aspects of the present invention are described in greater detail in the non-limiting Examples that follow.


[0186] Experimental Design and Methods

[0187] 1. Shotgun Sequencing Strategy

[0188] The overall strategy for a shotgun approach to whole genome sequencing is outlined in Table 3. The theory of shotgun sequencing follows from the Lander and Waterman (Landerman and Waterman, Genomics 2: 231 (1988)) application of the equation for the Poisson distribution px=mxe−m/x!, where x is the number of occurrences of an event, m is the mean number of occurrences, and px is the probability that any given base is not sequenced after a certain amount of random sequence has been generated. If L is the genome length, n is the number of clone insert ends sequenced, and w is the sequencing read length, then m=nw/L, and the probability that no clone originates at any of the w bases preceding a given base, i.e., the probability that the base is not sequenced, is p0=e−m. Using the fold coverage as the unit for m, one sees that after 1.8 Mb of sequence has been randomly generated, m=1, representing 1× coverage. In this case, p0=e=0.37, thus approximately 37% is unsequenced. For example, 5× coverage (approximately 9500 clones sequenced from both insert ends and an average sequence read length of 460 bp) yields p0=e−5=0.0067, or 0.67% unsequenced. The total gap length is Le−m, and the average gap size is L/n. 5× coverage would leave about 128 gaps averaging about 100 bp in size. The treatment is essentially that of Lander and Waterman, Genomics 2:231 (1988). Table 4 illustrates the coverage for a 1.9 Mb genome with an average fragment size of 460 bp.

[0189] 2. Random Library Construction

[0190] In order to approximate the random model described above during actual sequencing, a nearly ideal library of cloned genomic fragment is required. The following library construction procedure was developed to achieve this.

[0191] H. influenzae Rd KW20 DNA was prepared by phenol extraction. A mixture (3.3 ml) containing 600 &mgr;g DNA, 300 mM sodium acetate, 10 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM Na-EDTA, 30% glycerol was sonicated (Branson Model 450 Sonicator) at the lowest energy setting for 1 min. at 0° using a 3 mm probe. The DNA was ethanol precipitated and redissolved in 500 &mgr;l TE buffer. To create blunt-ends, a 100 &mgr;l aliquot was digested for 10 min at 300 in 200 &mgr;l BAL31 buffer with 5 units BAL31 2nuclease (New England BioLabs). The DNA was phenol-extracted, ethanol-precipitated, redissolved in 100 &mgr;l TE buffer, electrophoresed on a 1.0% low melting agarose gel, and the 1.6-2.0 kb size fraction was excised, phenol-extracted, and redissolved in 20 [&mgr;l TE buffer. A two-step ligation procedure was used to produce a plasmid library with 97% insert of which >99% were single inserts. The first ligation mixture (50 &mgr;l) contained 2 &mgr;g of DNA fragments, 2 &mgr;g SmaaI/BAP pUC18 DNA (Pharmacia), and 10 units T4 ligase (GIBCO/BRL), and incubation was at 14° for 4 hr. After phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation, the DNA was dissolved in 20 &mgr;l TE buffer and electrophoresed on a 1.0% low melting agarose gel. A ladder of ethidium bromide-stained linear bands, identified by size as insert (i), vector (v), v+i, v+2i, v+3i, . . . was visualized by 360 nm UV light, and the v+i DNA was excised and recovered in 20 &mgr;l TE. The v+i DNA was blunt-ended by T4 polymerase treatment for 5 min. at 370 in a reaction mixture (50 &mgr;l) containing the v+i linears, 500 &mgr;M each of the 4 dNTP's, and 9 units of T4 polymerase (New England BioLabs) under recommended buffer conditions. After phenol extraction and ethanol precipitation the repaired v+i linears were dissolved in 20 &mgr;l TE. The final ligation to produce circles was carried out in a 50 &mgr;l reaction containing 5 &mgr;l of v+i linears and 5 units of T4 ligase at 14° overnight. After 10 min. at 70° the reaction mixture was stored at −20°.

[0192] This two-stage procedure resulted in a molecularly random collection of single-insert plasmid recombinants with minimal contamination from double-insert chimeras (<1%) or free vector (<3%). Since deviation from randomness is most likely to occur during cloning, E. coli host cells deficient in all recombination and restriction functions (A. Greener, Strategies 3 (1):5 (1990)) were used to prevent rearrangements, deletions, and loss of clones by restriction. Transformed cells were plated directly on antibiotic diffusion plates to avoid the usual broth recovery phase which allows multiplication and selection of the most rapidly growing cells. Plating occurred as follows:

[0193] A 100 &mgr;l aliquot of Epicurian Coli SURE II Supercompetent Cells (Stratagene 200152) was thawed on ice and transferred to a chilled Falcon 2059 tube on ice. A 1.7 &mgr;l aliquot of 1.42 M &bgr;-mercaptoethanol was added to the aliquot of cells to a final concentration of 25 mM. Cells were incubated on ice for 10 min. A 1 &mgr;l aliquot of the final ligation was added to the cells and incubated on ice for 30 min. The cells were heat pulsed for 30 sec. at 42° and placed back on ice for 2 min. The outgrowth period in liquid culture was eliminated from this protocol in order to minimize the preferential growth of any given transformed cell. Instead the transformation were plated directly on a nutrient rich SOB plate containing a 5 ml bottom layer of SOB agar (1.5% SOB agar: 20 g tryptone, 5 g yeast extract, 0.5 g NaCl, 1.5% Difco Agar/L). The 5 ml bottom layer is supplemented with 0.4 ml ampicillin (50 mg/ml)/100 ml SOB agar. The 15 ml top layer of SOB agar is supplemented with 1 ml X-Gal (2%), 1 ml MgCl2 (1 M), and 1 ml MgSO4/100 ml SOB agar. The 15 ml top layer was poured just prior to plating. Our titer was approximately 100 colonies/10 &mgr;l aliquot of transformation.

[0194] All colonies were picked for template preparation regardless of size. Only clones lost due to “poison” DNA or deleterious gene products would be deleted from the library, resulting in a slight increase in gap number over that expected.

[0195] In order to evaluate the quality of the H. influenzae library, sequence data were obtained from approximately 4000 templates using the M13-21 primer. The random sequence fragments were assembled using the AutoAssembler™ software (Applied Biosystems division of Perkin-Elmer (AB)) after obtaining 1300, 1800, 2500, 3200, and 3800 sequence fragments, and the number of unique assembled base pairs was determined. Based on the equations described above, an ideal plot of the number of base pairs remaining to be sequenced as a function of the # of sequenced fragments obtained with an average read length of 460 bp for a 2.5×106 and a 1.9×106 bp genome was determined (FIG. 3). The progression of assembly was plotted using the actual data obtained from the assembly of up to 3800 sequence fragments and compared the data that is provided in the ideal plot (FIG. 3). FIG. 3 illustrates that there was essentially no deviation of the actual assembly data from the ideal plot, indicating that we had constructed close to an ideal random library with minimal contamination from double insert chimeras and free of vector.

[0196] 3. Random DNA Sequencing

[0197] High quality double stranded DNA plasmid templates (19,687) were prepared using a “boiling bead” method developed in collaboration with Advanced Genetic Technology Corp. (Gaithersburg, Md.) (Adams et al., Science 252:1651 (1991); Adams et al., Nature 355:632 (1992)). Plasmid preparation was performed in a 96-well format for all stages of DNA preparation from bacterial growth through final DNA purification. Template concentration was determined using Hoechst Dye and a Millipore Cytofluor. DNA concentrations were not adjusted, but low-yielding templates were identified where possible and not sequenced. Templates were also prepared from two H. influenzae lambda genomic libraries. An amplified library was constructed in vector Lambda GEM-12 (Promega) and an unamplified library was constructed in Lambda DASH II (Stratagene). In particular, for the unamplified lambda library, H. influenzae Rd KW20 DNA (>100 kb) was partially digested in a reaction mixture (200 &mgr;l) containing 50 &mgr;g DNA, 1× Sau3AI buffer, 20 units Sau3AI for 6 min. at 23°. The digested DNA was phenol-extracted and electrophoresed on a 0.5% low melting agarose gel at 2V/cm for 7 hours. Fragments from 15 to 25 kb were excised and recovered in a final volume of 6 &mgr;l. One ill of fragments was used with 1 &mgr;l of DASHII vector (Stratagene) in the recommended ligation reaction. One &mgr;l of the ligation mixture was used per packaging reaction following the recommended protocol with the Gigapack II XL Packaging Extract (Stratagene, #227711). Phage were plated directly without amplification from the packaging mixture (after dilution with 500 &mgr;l of recommended SM buffer and chloroform treatment). Yield was about 2.5×103 pfu/&mgr;l. The amplified library was prepared essentially as above except the lambda GEM-12 vector was used. After packaging, about 3.5×104 pfu were plated on the restrictive NM539 host. The lysate was harvested in 2 ml of SM buffer and stored frozen in 7% dimethylsulfoxide. The phage titer was approximately 1×109 pfu/ml.

[0198] Liquid lysates (10 ml) were prepared from randomly selected plaques and template was prepared on an anion-exchange resin (Qiagen). Sequencing reactions were carried out on plasmid templates using the AB Catalyst LabStation with Applied Biosystems PRISM Ready Reaction Dye Primer Cycle Sequencing Kits for the M13 forward (M13-21) and the M13 reverse (M13RP1) primers (Adams et al., Nature 368:474 (1994)). Dye terminator sequencing reactions were carried out on the lambda templates on a Perkin-Elmer 9600 Thermocycler using the Applied Biosystems Ready Reaction Dye Terminator Cycle Sequencing kits. T7 and SP6 primers were used to sequence the ends of the inserts from the Lambda GEM-12 library and T7 and T3 primers were used to sequence the ends of the inserts from the Lambda DASH II library. Sequencing reactions (28,643) were performed by eight individuals using an average of fourteen AB 373 DNA Sequencers per day over a 3 month period. All sequencing reactions were analyzed using the Stretch modification of the AB 373, primarily using a 34 cm well-to-read distance. The overall sequencing success rate was 84% for M13-21 sequences, 83% for M13RP1 sequences and 65% for dye-terminator reactions. The average usable read length was 485 bp for M13-21 sequences, 444 bp for M13RP1 sequences, and 375 bp for dye-terminator reactions. Table 5 summarizes the high-throughput sequencing phase of the invention.

[0199] Richards et al. (Richards et al., Automated DNA sequencing and Analysis, M. D. Adams, C. Fields, J. C. Venter, Eds. (Academic Press, London, 1994), Chap. 28.) described the value of using sequence from both ends of sequencing templates to facilitate ordering of contigs in shotgun assembly projects of lambda and cosmid clones. We balanced the desirability of both-end sequencing (including the reduced cost of lower total number of templates) against shorter read-lengths for sequencing reactions performed with the M13RP1 (reverse) primer compared to the M13-21 (forward) primer. Approximately one-half of the templates were sequenced from both ends. In total, 9,297 M13RP1 sequencing reactions were done. Random reverse sequencing reactions were done based on successful forward sequencing reactions. Some M13RP1 sequences were obtained in a semi-directed fashion: M13-21 sequences pointing outward at the ends of contigs were chosen for M13RP1 sequencing in an effort to specifically order contigs. The semi-directed strategy was effective, and clone-based ordering formed an integral part of assembly and gap closure (see below).

[0200] 4. Protocol for Automated Cycle Sequencing

[0201] The sequencing consisted of using eight ABI Catalyst robots and fourteen AB 373 Automated DNA Sequencers. The Catalyst robot is a publicly available sophisticated pipetting and temperature control robot which has been developed specifically for DNA sequencing reactions. The Catalyst combines pre-aliquoted templates and reaction mixes consisting of deoxy- and dideoxynucleotides, the Taq thermostable DNA polymerase, fluorescently-labelled sequencing primers, and reaction buffer. Reaction mixes and templates were combined in the wells of an aluminum 96-well thermocycling plate. Thirty consecutive cycles of linear amplification (e.g., one primer synthesis) steps were performed including denaturation, annealing of primer and template, and extension of DNA synthesis. A heated lid with rubber gaskets on the thermocycling plate prevented evaporation without the need for an oil overlay.

[0202] Two sequencing protocols were used: dye-labelled primers and dye-labelled dideoxy chain terminators. The shotgun sequencing involves use of four dye-labelled sequencing primers, one for each of the four terminator nucleotide. Each dye-primer is labeled with a different fluorescent dye, permitting the four individual reactions to be combined into one lane of the 373 DNA Sequencer for electrophoresis, detection, and base-calling. AB currently supplies pre-mixed reaction mixes in bulk packages containing all the necessary non-template reagents for sequencing. Sequencing can be done with both plasmid and PCR-generated templates with both dye-primers and dye-terminators with approximately equal fidelity, although plasmid templates generally give longer usable sequences.

[0203] Thirty-two reactions were loaded per 373 Sequencer each day, for a total of 960 samples. Electrophoresis was run overnight following the manufacture's protocols, and the data was collected for twelve hours. Following electrophoresis and fluorescence detection, the AB 373 performs automatic lane tracking and base-calling. The lane-tracking was confirmed visually. Each sequence electropherogram (or fluorescence lane trace) was inspected visually and assessed for quality. Trailing sequences of low quality were removed and the sequence itself was loaded via software to a Sybase database (archived daily to a 8 mm tape). Leading vector polylinker sequence was removed automatically by software program. Average edited lengths of sequences from the standard ABI 373 were around 400 bp and depended mostly on the quality of the template used for the sequencing reaction. All of the ABI 373 Sequencers were converted to Stretch Liners, which provided a longer electrophoresis path prior to fluorescence detection, thus increasing the average number of usable bases to 500-600 bp.

[0204] Informatics

[0205] 1. Data Management

[0206] A number of information management systems (LIMA) for a large-scale sequencing lab have been developed (Kerlavage et al., Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society Press, Washington D.C., 585 (1993)). The system used to collect and assemble the sequence data was developed using the Sybase relational data management system and was designed to automate data flow wherever possible and to reduce user error. The database stores and correlates all information collected during the entire operation from template preparation to final analysis of the genome. Because the raw output of the AB 373 Sequencers was based on a Macintosh platform and the data management system chosen was based on a Unix platform, it was necessary to design and implement a variety of multi-user, client server applications which allow the raw data as well as analysis results to flow seamlessly into the database with a minimum of user effort. A description of the software programs used for large sequence assembly and management is provided in FIG. 4.

[0207] 2. Assembly

[0208] In assembly engine (TIGR Assembler) was developed for the rapid and accurate assembly of thousands of sequence fragments. The AB AutoAssembler™ was modified (and named TIGR Editor) to provide a graphical interface to the electropherogram for the purpose of editing data associated with the aligned sequence file output of TIGR Assembler. TIGR Editor maintains synchrony between the electropherogram files on the Macintosh platform and the sequence data in the H. influenzae database on the Unix platform.

[0209] The TIGR assembler simultaneously clusters and assembles fragments of the genome. In order to obtain the speed necessary to assemble more than 104 fragments, the algorithm builds a hash table of 10 bp oligonucleotide subsequences to generate a list of potential sequence fragment overlaps. The number of potential overlaps for each fragment determines which fragments are likely to fall into repetitive elements. Beginning with a single seed sequence fragment, TIGR Assembler extends the current contig by attempting to add the best matching fragment based on oligonucleotide content. The current contig and candidate fragment are aligned using a modified version of the Smith-Waterman algorithm (Waterman, M. S., Methods in Enzymology 164:765 (1988)) which provides for optimal gapped alignments. The current contig is extended by the fragment only if strict criteria for the quality of the match are met. The match criteria include the minimum length of overlap, the maximum length of an unmatched end, and the minimum percentage match. These criteria are automatically lowered by the algorithm in regions of minimal coverage and raised in regions with a possible repetitive element. The number of potential overlaps for each fragment determines which fragments are likely to fall into repetitive elements. Fragments representing the boundaries of repetitive elements and potentially chimeric fragments are often rejected based on partial mismatches at the ends of alignments and excluded from the current contig. TIGR Assembler is designed to take advantage of clone size information coupled with sequencing from both ends of each template. It enforces the constraint that sequence fragments from two ends of the same template point toward one another in the contig and are located within a certain ranged of base pairs (definable for each clone based on the known clone size range for a given library). Assembly of 24,304 sequence fragments of H. influenzae required 30 hours of CPU time using one processor on a SPARCenter 2000 with 512 Mb of RAM. This process resulted in approximately 210 contigs. Because of the high stringency of the TIGR Assembler, all contigs were searched against each other using grasta (a modified fasta (Person and Lipman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85:2444 (1988)). In this way, additional overlaps were detected which enabled compression of the data set into 140 contigs. The location of each fragment in the contigs and extensive information about the consensus sequence itself were loaded into the H. influenzae relational database.

[0210] 3. Ordering Assembled Contigs

[0211] After assembly the relative positions of the 140 contigs were unknown. The contigs were ordered by asm.align. Asm.align uses a number of relationships to identify and align contigs that are adjacent to each other. Using this algorithm, the 140 contigs were placed onto 42 groups totaling 42 physical gaps (no template DNA for the region) and 98 sequence gaps (template available for gap closure).

[0212] Ordering Contigs Separated by Physical Gaps and Achieving Closure

[0213] Four integrated strategies were developed to order contigs separated by physical gaps. Oligonucleotide primers were designed and synthesized from the end of each contig group. These primers were then available for use in one or more of the strategies outlined below:

[0214] Southern analysis was done to develop a unique “fingerprint” for a subset of 72 of the above oligonucleotides. This procedure was based upon the supposition that labeled oligonucleotides homologous to the ends of adjacent contigs should hybridize to common DNA restriction fragments, and thus share a similar or identical hybridization pattern or “fingerprint”. Oligonucleotides were labeled using 50 pmoles of each 20 mer and 250 mCi of [&ggr;-32P]ATP and T4 polynucleotide kinase. The labeled oligonucleotides were purified using Sephadex G-25 superfine (Pharmacia) and 107 cpm of each was used in a Southern hybridization analysis of H. influenzae Rd chromosomal DNA digested with one frequent cutters (AseI) and five less frequent cutters (BglII, EcoRI, PstI, XbaI, and PvuII). The DNA from each digest was fractionated on a 0.7% agarose gel and transferred to Nytran Plus nylon membranes (Schleicher & Schuell). Hybridization was carried out for 16 hours at 40°. To remove non-specific signals, each blot was sequentially washed at room temperature with increasingly stringent conditions up to 0.1×SSC+0.5% SDS. Blots were exposed to a PhosphorImager cassette (Molecular Dynamics) for several hours and hybridization patterns were visually compared.

[0215] Adjacent contigs identified in this manner were targeted for specific PCR reactions.

[0216] Peptide links were made by searching each contig end using blastx (Altschul et al., J. Mol. Biol. 215:403 (1990)) against a peptide database. If the ends of two contigs matched the same database sequence in an appropriate manner, then the two contigs were tentatively considered to be adjacent to each other.

[0217] The two lambda libraries constructed from H. influenaze genomic DNA were probed with oligonucleotides designed from the ends of contig groups (Kirkness et al., Genomics 10:985 (1991)). The positive plaques were then used to prepare templates and the sequence was determined from each end of the lambda clone insert. These sequence fragments were searched using grasta against a database of all contigs. Two contigs that matched the sequence from the opposite ends of the same lambda clone were ordered. The lambda clone then provided the template for closure of the sequence gap between the adjacent contigs. The lambda clones were especially valuable for solving repeat structures.

[0218] To confirm the order of contigs found by the other approaches and establish the order of non-ordered contigs, standard and long range (XL) PCR reactions were performed as follows.

[0219] Standard PCR was performed in the following manner. Each reaction contained a 37 &mgr;l cocktail; 16.5 &mgr;l H2O, 3 &mgr;l 25 mM MgCl2, 8 &mgr;l of a dNTP mix (1.25 MM each dNTP), 4.5 &mgr;l 10× PCR core buffer II (Perkin Elmer), 25 ng H. influenzae Rd KW20 genomic DNA. The appropriate two primers (4 &mgr;l, 3.2 pmole/&mgr;l) were added to each reaction. A hot start was performed at 95° for 5 min followed by a 75° hold. During the hold Amplitaq DNA polymerase (Perkin Elmer) 0.3 &mgr;l in 4.3 &mgr;l H2O, 0.5 &mgr;l 10× PCR core buffer II, was added to each reaction. The PCR profile was 25 cycles of 940/45 sec., denature; 55°/1 min., anneal; 72°/3 min, extension. All reactions were performed in a 96 well format on a Perkin Elmer GeneAmp PCR System 9600.

[0220] Long range PCR (XL PCR) was performed as follows: Each reaction contained a 35.2 &mgr;l cocktail; 12.0 &mgr;l H2O, 2.2 &mgr;l mM Mg(OAc)2, 4 &mgr;l of a dNTP mix (200 &mgr;M final concentration), 12.0 &mgr;l 3.3×PCR buffer, 25 ng H. influenzae Rd KW20 genomic DNA. The appropriate two primers (5 &mgr;l, 3.2 pmoles/&mgr;l) was added to each reaction. A hot start was performed at 94° for 1 minute. rTth polymerase, 2.0 &mgr;l (4 U/reaction) in 2.8 &mgr;l 3.3×PCR buffer II was added to each reaction. The PCR profile was 18 cycles of 94°/15 sec., denature; 62°/8 min., anneal and extend followed by 12 cycles 94°/15 sec., denature; 62°/8 min. (increase 15 sec./cycle), anneal and extend; 72°/10 min., final extension. All reactions were performed in a 96 well format on a Perkin Elmer GeneAmp PCR System 9600.

[0221] Although a PCR reaction was performed for essentially every combination of physical gap ends, techniques such as Southern fingerprinting, database matching, and the probing of large insert clones were particularly valuable in ordering contigs adjacent to each other and reducing the number of combinatorial PCR reactions necessary to achieve complete gap closure. Employing these strategies to an even greater extent in future genome projects will increase the overall efficiency of complete genome closure. The number of physical gaps ordered and closed by each of these techniques is summarized in Table 5.

[0222] Sequence information from the ends of 15-20 kb clones is particularly suitable for gap closure, solving repeat structures, and providing general confirmation of the overall genome assembly. We were also concerned that some fragments of the H. influenaze genome would be non-clonable in a high copy plasmid in E. coli. We reasoned that lytic lambda clones would provide the DNA for these segments. Approximately 100 random plaques were picked from the amplified lambda library, templates prepared, and sequence information obtained from each end. These sequences were searched (grasta) against the contigs and linked in the database to their appropriate contig, thus providing a scaffolding of lambda clones contributing additional support to the accuracy of the genome assembly (FIG. 5). In addition to confirmation of the contig structure, the lambda clones provided closure for 23 physical gaps. Approximately 78% of the genome is covered by lambda clones.

[0223] Lambda clones were also useful for solving repeat structures. Repeat structures identified in the genome were small enough to be spanned by a single clone from the random insert library, except for the six ribosomal RNA operons and one repeat (2 copies) which was 5,340 bp in length. Oligonucleotide probes were designed from the unique flanks at the beginning of each repeat and hybridized to the lambda libraries. Positive plaques were identified for each flank and the sequence fragments from the ends of each clone were used to correctly orient the repeats within the genome.

[0224] The ability to distinguish and assemble the six ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons of H. influenaze (16S subunit-23S subunit-5S subunit) was a test of our overall strategy to sequence and assemble a complex genome which might contain a significant number of repeat regions. The high degree of sequence similarity and the length of the six operons caused the assembly process to cluster all the underlying sequences into a few indistinguishable contigs. To determine the correct placement of the operons in the sequence, a pair of unique flanking sequences was required for each. No unique flanking sequences could be found at the left (16S rRNA) ends. This region contains the ribosomal promoter and appeared to be non-clonable in the high copy number pUC18 plasmid. However, unique sequences could be identified at the right (5S) ends. Oligonucleotide primers were designed from these six flanking regions and used to probe the two lambda libraries. For each of the six rRNA operons at least one positive plaque was identified which completely spanned the rRNA operon and contained unique flanking sequence at the 16S and 5S ends. These plaques provided the templates for obtaining the unique sequence for each of the six rRNA operons.

[0225] An additional confirmation of the global structure of the assembled circular genome was obtained by comparing a computer generated restriction map based on the assembled sequence for the enzymes Apal, SmaI, and RsrII with the predicted physical map of Redfield and Lee (Genetic Maps: locus maps of complex genomes, S. J. O'Brien, Ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York, N.Y., 1990, 2110.). The restriction fragments from the sequence-derived map matched those from the physical map in size and relative order (FIG. 5).

[0226] Editing

[0227] Simultaneous with the final gap filling process, each contig was edited visually by reassembling overlapping 10 kb sections of contigs using the AB AutoAssembler™ and the Fast Data Finder™ hardware. AutoAssembler™ provides a graphical interface to electropherogram data for editing. The electropherogram data was used to assign the most likely base at each position. Where a discrepancy could not be resolved or a clear assignment made, the automatic base calls were left unchanged. Individual sequence changes were written to the electropherogram files and a replication protocol (crash) was used to maintain the synchrony of sequence data between the H. influenzae database and the electropherogram files. Following editing, contigs were reassembled with TIGR Assembler prior to annotation.

[0228] Potential frameshifts identified in the course of annotating the genome were saved as reports in the database. These reports include the coordinates in a contig which the alignment software (praze) predicts to be the most likely location of a missing or inserted base and a representation of the sequence alignment containing the frameshift. Apparent frameshifts were used to indicate areas of the sequence which may require further editing. Frameshifts were not corrected in cases where clear electropherogram data disagreed with a frameshift. Frameshift editing was performed with TIGR Editor.

[0229] The rRNA and other repeat regions precluded complete assembly of the circular genome with TIGR Assembler. Final assembly of the genome was accomplished using comb_asm which splices together contigs based on short overlaps.

[0230] Accuracy of the Genome Sequence

[0231] The accuracy of the H. influenaze genome sequence is difficult to quantitate because there is very little previously determined H. influenaze sequence and most of these sequences are from other strains. There are, however, three parameters of accuracy that can be applied to the data. First, the number of apparent frameshifts in predicted H. influenaze genes, based on database similarities, is 148. Some of these apparent frameshifts may be in the database sequences rather than in ours, particularly considering that 49 of the apparent frameshifts are based on matches to hypothetical proteins from other organisms. Second, there are 188 bases in the genome that remain as N ambiguities (1/9,735 bp). Combining these two types of “known” errors, we can calculate a maximum sequence accuracy of 99.98%. The average coverage is 6.5× and less than 1% of the genome is single-fold coverage.

[0232] Identifying Genes

[0233] An attempt was made to predict all of the coding regions of the H. influenzae Rd genome and identify genes, tRNAs and rRNAs, as well as other features of the DNA sequence (e.g., repeats, regulatory sites, replication origin sites, nucleotide composition). A description of some of the readily apparent sequence features is provided below.

[0234] The H. influenaze Rd genome is a circular chromosome of 1,830,121 bp. The overall G/C nucleotide content is approximately 38% (A=31%, C=19%, G=1,9%, T=31%, IUB=0.035%). The G/C content of the genome was examined with several window lengths to look for global structural features. With a window of 5,000 bp, the G/C content is relatively even except for 7 large G/C-rich regions and several A/T-rich regions (FIG. 5). The G/C rich regions correspond to six rRNA operons and the location of a cryptic mu-like prophage. Genes for several proteins with similarity to proteins encoded by bacteriophage mu are located at approximately position 1.56-1.59 Mbp of the genome. This area of the genome has a markedly higher G/C content than average for H. influenaze (˜50% G/C compared to ˜38% for the rest of the genome). No significance has yet been ascertained for the source or importance of the A/T rich regions.

[0235] The minimal origin of replication (oriC) in E. coli is a 245 bp region defined by three copies of a thirteen base pair repeat containing a GATC core sequence at one end and four copies of a nine base pair repeat containing a TTAT core sequence at the other end. The GATC sites are methylation targets and control replication while the TTAT sites provide the binding sites for DnaA, the first step in the replication process (Genes V, B. Lewin Ed. (Oxford University Press, New York, 1994), chap. 18-19). An approximately 281 bp sequence (602,483-602,764) whose limits are defined by these same core sequences appears to define the origin of replication in H. influenaze Rd. These coordinates lie between sets of ribosomal operons rrnF, rrnE, rrnD and rrnA, rrnB, rrnC. These two groups of ribosomal operons are transcribed in opposite directions and the placement of the origin is consistent with their polarity for transcription. Termination of E. coli replication is marked by two 23 bp termination sequences located 100 kb on either side of the midway point at which the two replication forks meet. Two potential termination sequences sharing a 10 bp core sequence with the E. coli termination sequence were identified in H. influenaze at coordinates 1,375,949-1,375,958 and 1,558,759-1,558,768. These two sets of coordinates are offset approximately 100 kb from the point 180° opposite of the proposed origin of H. influenaze replication.

[0236] Six rRNA operons were identified. Each rRNA operon contains three rRNA subunits and a variable spacer region in the order: 16S subunit—spacer region—23S subunit—5S subunit. The subunit lengths are 1539 bp, 2653 bp, and 116 bp, respectively. The G/C content of the three ribosomal subunits (50%) is higher than the genome as a whole. The G/C content of the spacer region (38%) is consistent with the remainder of the genome. The nucleotide sequence of the three rRNA subunits is 100% identical in all six ribosomal operons. The rRNA operons can be grouped into two classes based on the spacer region between the 16S and 23S sequences. The shorter of the two spacer regions is 478 bp in length (rrnB, rrnE, and rrnF) and contains the gene for tRNA Glu. The longer spacer is 723 bp in length (rrna, rrnC, and rrnD) and contains the genes for tRNA lie and tRNA Ala. The two sets of spacer regions are also 100% identical across each group of three operons. tRNA genes are also present at the 16S and 5S ends of two of the rRNA operons. The genes for tRNA Arg, tRNA His, and tRNA Pro are located at the 16S end of rrnE while the genes for tRNA Trp, and tRNA Asp are located at the 5S end of rrnA.

[0237] The predicted coding regions of the H. influenaze genome were initially defined by evaluating their coding potential with the program Genemark (Borodovsky and McIninch, Computers Chem. 17(2):123 (1993)) using codon frequency matrices derived from 122 H. influenaze coding sequences in GenBank. The predicted coding region sequences (plus 300 bp of flanking sequence) were used in searches against a database of non-redundant bacterial proteins (NRBP) created specifically for the annotation. Redundancy was removed from NRBP at two stages. All DNA coding sequences were extracted from GenBank (release 85), and sequences from the same species were searched against each other. Sequences having >97% similarity over regions >100 nucleotides were combined. In addition, the sequences were translated and used in protein comparisons with all sequences in Swiss-Prot (release 30). Sequences belonging to the same species and having >98% similarity over 33 amino acids were combined. NRI P is composed of 21,445 sequences extracted from 23,751 GenBank sequences and 11,183 Swiss-Prot sequences from 1,099 different species.

[0238] A total of 1,749 predicted coding regions were identified. Searches of the H. influenzae predicted coding regions were performed using an algorithm that translates the query DNA sequence in the three plus-strand reading frames for searching against NRBP, identifies the protein sequences that match the query, and aligns the protein-protein matches using praze, a modified Smith-Waterman (Pearson and Lipman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:2444 (1988)) algorithm. In cases where insertion or deletions in the DNA sequence produced a frameshift error, the alignment algorithm started with protein regions of maximum similarity and extended the alignment to the same database match in alternative frames using the 300 bp flanking region. Regions known to contain frameshift errors were saved in the database and evaluated for possible correction. Unidentified predicted coding regions and the remaining intergenic sequences were searched against a dataset of all available peptide sequences from Swiss-Prot, PIR, and GenBank. Identification of operon structures will be facilitated by experimental determination of transcription promoter and termination sites.

[0239] Each putatively identified H. influenaze gene was assigned to one of 102 biological role categories adapted from Riley (Riley, M., Microbiology Reviews 57(4):862 (1993)). Assignments were made by linking the protein sequence of the predicted coding regions with the Swiss-Prot sequences in the Riley database. Of the 1,749 predicted coding regions, 724 have no role assignment. Of these, no database match was found for 384, while 340 matched “hypothetical proteins” in the database. Role assignments were made for 1,025 of the predicted coding regions. A compilation of all the predicted coding regions, their unique identifiers, a three letter gene identifier, percent identity, percent similarity, and amino acid match length are presented in Table 1(a).

[0240] An annotated complete genome map of H. influenaze Rd is presented in FIGS. 6(A)-(AN). The map places each predicted coding region on the H. influenaze chromosome and indicates its direction of transcription.

[0241] A survey of the genes and their chromosomal organization in H. influenaze Rd make possible a description of the metabolic processes H. influenaze requires for survival as a free living organism, the nutritional requirements for its growth in the laboratory, and the characteristics which make it unique from other organisms specifically as it relates to its pathogenicity and virulence. The genome would be expected to have complete complements of certain classes of genes known to be essential for life. For example, there is a one-to-one correspondence of published E. coli ribosomal protein sequences to potential homologs in the H. influenaze database. Likewise, as shown in Table 1(a), an aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase is present in the genome for each amino acid. Finally, the location of tRNA genes was mapped onto the genome. There are 54 identified tRNA genes, including representatives of all 20 amino acids.

[0242] In order to survive as a free living organism, H. influenaze must produce energy in the form of ATP via fermentation and/or electron transport. As a facultative anaerobe, H. influenaze Rd is known to ferment glucose, fructose, galactose, ribose, xylose and fucose (Dorocicz et al., J. Bacteriol. 175:7142 (1993)). The genes identified in Table 1(a) indicate that transport systems are available for the uptake of these sugars via the phosphoenolpyruvate-phosphotransferase system (PTS), and via non-PTS mechanisms. Genes that specify the common phosphate-carriers Enzyme I and Hpr (ptsI and ptsH) of the PTS system were identified as well as the glucose specific crr gene. The ptsH, ptsI, and crr genes constitute the pts operon. We have not however identified the gene encoding membrane-bound glucose specific Enzyme II. The latter enzyme is required for transport of glucose by the PTS system. A complete PTS system for fructose was identified.

[0243] Genes encoding the complete glycolytic pathway and for the production of fermentative end products were identified. Growth utilizing anaerobic respiratory mechanisms were found by identifying genes encoding functional electron transport systems using inorganic electron acceptors such as nitrates, nitrites, and dimethylsulfoxide. Genes encoding three enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle appear to be absent from the genome. Citrate synthase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and acordtase were not found by searching the predicted coding regions or by using the E. coli enzymes as peptide queries against the entire genome in translation. This provides an explanation for the very high level of glutamate (lg/L) which is required in defined culture media (Klein and Luginbuhl, J. Gen. Microbiol. 113:409 (1979)). Glutamate can be directed into the TCA cycle via conversion to alpha-ketoglutarate by glutamate dehydrogenase. In the absence of a complete TCA cycle, glutamate presumably serves as the source of carbon for biosynthesis of amino acids using precursors which branch from the TCA cycle. Functional electron transport systems are available for the production of ATP using oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor.

[0244] Previously unanswered questions regarding pathogenicity and virulence can be addressed by examining certain classes of genes such as adhesions and the lipooligosaccharide biogenesis genes. Moxon and co-workers (Weiser et al., Cell 59:657 (1989)) have obtained evidence that a number of these virulence-related genes contain tandem tetramer repeats which undergo frequent addition and deletion of one or more repeat units during replication such that the reading frame of the gene is changed and its expression thereby altered. It is now possible, using the complete genome sequence, to locate all such tandem repeat tracts (FIG. 5) and to begin to determine their roles in phase variation of such potential virulence genes.

[0245] H. influenzae Rd possesses a highly efficient natural DNA transformation system (Kahn and Smith, J. Membrane Biol. 138:155 (1984). A unique DNA uptake sequence site, 5′ AAGTGCGGT, present in multiple copies in the genome, has been shown to be necessary for efficient DNA uptake. It is now possible to locate all of these sites and completely describe their distribution with respect to genic and intergenic regions. Fifteen genes involved in transformation have already been described and sequenced (Redfield, R., J. Bacteriol. 173:5612 (1991); Chandler, M., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 89:1616 (1992); Barouki and Smith, J. Bacteriol. 163(2):629 (1985); Tomb et al., Gene 104:1 (1991); Tomb, J, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 89:10252 (1992)). Six of the genes, comA to comF, comprise an operon which is under positive control by a 22-bp palindromic competence regulatory element (CRE) about one helix turn upstream of the promoter. The rec-2 transformation gene is also controlled by this element. It is now possible to locate additional copies of CRE in the genome and discover potential transformation genes under CRE control. In addition, it may now be possible to discover other global regulatory elements with an ease not previously possible.

[0246] One well-described gene regulatory system in bacteria is the “two-component” system composed of a sensor molecule that detects some sort of environmental signal and a regulator molecule that is phosphorylated by the activated form of the sensor. The regulator protein is generally a transcription factor which, when activated by the sensor, turns on or off expression of a specific set of genes (for review, see Albright et al., Ann. Rev. Genet. 23:311 (1989); Parkinson and Kofoid, Ann. Rev. Genet. 26:71 (1992)). It has been estimated that E. coli harbors 40 sensor-regulator pairs (Albright et al., Ann. Rev. Genet. 23:311 (1989); Parkinson and Kofoid, Ann. Rev. Genet. 26:71 (1992)). The H. influenaze genome was searched with representative proteins from each family of sensor and regulator proteins using tblastn and tfasta. Four sensor and five regulator proteins were identified with similarity to proteins from other species (Table 6). There appears to be a corresponding sensor for each regulator protein except CpxR. Searches with the CpxA protein from E. coli identified three of the four sensors listed in Table 6, but no additional significant matches were found. It is possible that the level of sequence similarity is low enough to be undetectable with tfasta. No representatives of the NtrC-class of regulators were found. This class of proteins interacts directly with the sigma-54 subunit of RNA polymerase, which is not present in H. influenaze. All of the regulator proteins fall into the OmpR subclass (Albright et al, Ann. Rev. Genet. 23:311 (1989); Parkinson and Kofoid, Ann. Rev. Genet. 26:71 (1992)). The phoBR and basRS genes of H. influenaze are adjacent to one another and presumably form an operon. The nar and arc genes are not located adjacent to one another.

[0247] Some of the most interesting questions that can be answered by a complete genome sequence relate to what genes or pathways are absent. The non-pathogenic H. influenaze Rd strain varies significantly from the pathogenic serotype b strains. Many of the differences between these two strains appear in factors affecting infectivity. For example, the eight genes which make up the fimbrial gene cluster (vanHam et al., Mol. Microbiol. 13:673 (1994)) involved in adhesion of bacteria to host cells are now shown to be absent in the Rd strain. The pepN and purE genes which flank the fimbrial cluster in H. influenaze type b strains are adjacent to one another in the Rd strain (FIG. 7), suggesting that the entire fimbrial duster was excised. On a broader level, we determined which E. coli proteins are not in H. influenzae by taking advantage of a non-redundant set of protein coding genes from E. coli, namely the University of Wisconsin Genome Project contigs in GenBank: 1,216 predicted protein sequences from GenBank accessions D10483, L10328, U00006, U00039, U14003, and U18997 (Yura et al., Nucleic Acids Research 20:3305 (1992); Burland et al., Genomics 16:551 (1993)). The minimum threshold for matches was set so that even weak matches would be scored as positive, thereby giving a minimal estimate of the E. coli genes not present in H. influenaze. tblastn was used to search each of the E. coli proteins against the complete genome. All blast scores >100 were considered matches. Altogether 627 E. coli proteins matched at least one region of the H. influenaze genome and 589 proteins did not. The 589 non-matching proteins were examined and found to contain a disproportionate number of hypothetical proteins from E. coli. Sixty-eight percent of the identified E. coli proteins were matched by an H. influenaze sequence whereas only 38% of the hypothetical proteins were matched. Proteins are annotated as hypothetical based on a lack of matches with any other known protein (Yura et al., Nucleic Acids Research 20:3305 (1992); Burland et al., Genomics 16:551 (1993)). At least two potential explanations can be offered for the over representation of hypothetical proteins among those without matches: some of the hypothetical proteins are not, in fact, translated (at least in the annotated frame), or these are E. coli-specific proteins that are unlikely to be found in any species except those most closely related to E. coli, for example Salmonella typhimurium.

[0248] A total of 384 predicted coding regions did not display significant similarity with a six-frame translation of GenBank release 87. These unidentified coding regions were compared to one another with fasta. Several novel gene families were identified. For example, two predicted coding regions without database matches (HI0591, H10852) share 75% identity over almost their entire lengths (139 and 143 amino acid residues respectively). Their similarity to each other but failure to match any protein available in the current databases suggest that they could represent a novel cellular function.

[0249] Other types of analyses can be applied to the unidentified coding regions, including hydropathy analysis, which indicates the patterns of potential membrane-spanning domains that are often conserved between members of receptor and transporter gene families, even in the absence of significant amino acid identity. Five examples of unidentified predicted coding regions that display potential transmembrane domains with a periodic pattern that is characteristic of membrane-bound channel proteins are shown in FIG. 8. Such information can be used to focus on specific aspects of cellular function that are affected by targeted deletion or mutation of these genes.

[0250] Interest in the medically important aspects of H. influenaze biology has focused particularly on those genes which determine virulence characteristics of the organism. Recently, the catalase gene was characterized and sequenced as a possible virulence-related gene (Bishai et al., J Bacteriol. 176:2914 (1994)). A number of the genes responsible for the capsular polysaccharide have been mapped and sequenced (Kroll et al., Mol. Microbiol. 5(6):1549 (1991)). Several outer membrane protein genes have been identified and sequenced (Langford et al., J. Gen. Microbiol. 138:155 (1992)). The lipooligosaccharide component of the outer membrane and the genes of its synthetic pathway are under intensive study (Weiser et al., J. Bacteriol. 173:3304 (1990)). While a vaccine is available, the study of outer membrane components is motivated to some extent by the need for improved vaccines.

[0251] Data Availability

[0252] The H. influenaze genome sequence has been deposited in the Genome Sequence DataBase (GSDB) with the accession number L42023. The nucleotide sequence and peptide translation of each predicted coding region with identified start and stop codons have also been accessioned by GSDB.

[0253] Production of an Antibody to a Haemophilus influenzae Protein

[0254] Substantially pure protein or polypeptide is isolated from the transfected or transformed cells using any one of the methods known in the art. The protein can also be produced in a recombinant prokaryotic expression system, such as E. coli, or can by chemically synthesized. Concentration of protein in the final preparation is adjusted, for example, by concentration on an Amicon filter device, to the level of a few micrograms/ml. Monoclonal or polyclonal antibody to the protein can then be prepared as follows:

[0255] Monoclonal Antibody Production by Hybridoma Fusion

[0256] Monoclonal antibody to epitopes of any of the peptides identified and isolated as described can be prepared from murine hybridomas according to the classical method of Kohler, G. and Milstein, C., Nature 256:495 (1975) or modifications of the methods thereof. Briefly, a mouse is repetitively inoculated with a few micrograms of the selected protein over a period of a few weeks. The mouse is then sacrificed, and the antibody producing cells of the spleen isolated. The spleen cells are fused by means of polyethylene glycol with mouse myeloma cells, and the excess unfused cells destroyed by growth of the system on selective media comprising aminopterin (HAT media). The successfully fused cells are diluted and aliquots of the dilution placed in wells of a microtiter plate where growth of the culture is continued. Antibody-producing clones are identified by detection of antibody in the supernatant fluid of the wells by immunoassay procedures, such as ELISA, as originally described by Engvall, E., Meth. Enzymol. 70:419 (1980), and modified methods thereof. Selected positive clones can be expanded and their monoclonal antibody product harvested for use. Detailed procedures for monoclonal antibody production are described in Davis, L. et al. Basic Methods in Molecular Biology Elsevier, New York. Section 21-2 (1989).

[0257] Polyclonal Antibody Production by Immunization

[0258] Polyclonal antiserum containing antibodies to heterogenous epitopes of a single protein can be prepared by immunizing suitable animals with the expressed protein described above, which can be unmodified or modified to enhance immunogenicity. Effective polyclonal antibody production is affected by many factors related both to the antigen and the host species. For example, small molecules tend to be less immunogenic than other and may require the use of carriers and adjuvant. Also, host animals vary in response to site of inoculations and dose, with both inadequate or excessive doses of antigen resulting in low titer antisera. Small doses (ng level) of antigen administered at multiple intradermal sites appears to be most reliable. An effective immunization protocol for rabbits can be found in Vaitukaitis, J. et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 33:988-991 (1971).

[0259] Booster injections can be given at regular intervals, and antiserum harvested when antibody titer thereof, as determined semi-quantitatively, for example, by double immunodiffusion in agar against known concentrations of the antigen, begins to fall. See, for example, Ouchterlony, O. et al., Chap. 19 in: Handbook of Experimental Immunology, Wier, D., ed, Blackwell (1973). Plateau concentration of antibody is usually in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/ml of serum (about 12 &mgr;M). Affinity of the antisera for the antigen is determined by preparing competitive binding curves, as described, for example, by Fisher, D., Chap. 42 in: Manual of Clinical Immunology, second edition, Rose and Friedman, eds., Amer. Soc. For Microbiology, Washington, D.C. (1980).

[0260] Antibody preparations prepared according to either protocol are useful in quantitative immunoassays which determine concentrations of antigen-bearing substances in biological samples; they are also used semi-quantitatively or qualitatively to identify the presence of antigen in a biological sample.

[0261] Preparation of PCR Primers and Amplifcation of DNA

[0262] Various fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome, such as those disclosed in Tables 1(a) and 2 can be used, in accordance with the present invention, to prepare PCR primers for a variety of uses. The PCR primers are preferably at least 15 bases, and more preferably at least 18 bases in length. When selecting a primer sequence, it is preferred that the primer pairs have approximately the same G/C ratio, so that melting temperatures are approximately the same. The PCR primers and amplified DNA of this Example find use in the Examples that follow.

[0263] Gene Expression from DNA Sequences Corresponding to ORFs

[0264] A fragment of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome provided in Tables 1(a) or 2 is introduced into an expression vector using conventional technology. (Techniques to transfer cloned sequences into expression vectors that direct protein translation in mammalian, yeast, insect or bacterial expression systems are well known in the art.) Commercially available vectors and expression systems are available from a variety of suppliers including Stratagene (La Jolla, Calif.), Promega (Madison, Wis.), and Invitrogen (San Diego, Calif.). If desired, to enhance expression and facilitate proper protein folding, the codon context and codon pairing of the sequence may be optimized for the particular expression organism, as explained by Hatfield et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,082,767, incorporated herein by this reference.

[0265] The following is provided as one exemplary method to generate polypeptide(s) from cloned ORFs of the Haemophilus genome fragment. Since the ORF lacks a poly A sequence because of the bacterial origin of the ORF, this sequence can be added to the construct by, for example, splicing out the poly A sequence from pSG5 (Stratagene) using BglI and SalI restriction endonuclease enzymes and incorporating it into the mammalian expression vector pXT1 (Stratagene) for use in eukaryotic expression systems. pXT1 contains the LTRs and a portion of the gag gene from Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus. The position of the LTRs in the construct allow efficient stable transfection. The vector includes the Herpes Simplex thymidine kinase promoter and the selectable neomycin gene. The Haemophilus DNA is obtained by PCR from the bacterial vector using oligonucleotide primers complementary to the Haemophilus DNA and containing restriction endonuclease sequences for PstI incorporated into the 5′ primer and BglII at the 5′ end of the corresponding Haemophilus DNA 3′ primer, taking care to ensure that the Haemophilus DNA is positioned such that its followed with the poly A sequence. The purified fragment obtained from the resulting PCR reaction is digested with PstI, blunt ended with an exonuclease, digested with BglII, purified and ligated to pXT1, now containing a poly A sequence and digested BglII.

[0266] The ligated product is transfected into mouse NIH 3T3 cells using Lipofectin (Life Technologies, Inc., Grand Island, N.Y.) under conditions outlined in the product specification. Positive transfectants are selected after growing the transfected cells in 600 ug/ml G418 (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.). The protein is preferably released into the supernatant. However if the protein has membrane binding domains, the protein may additionally be retained within the cell or expression may be restricted to the cell surface.

[0267] Since it may be necessary to purify and locate the transfected product, synthetic 15-mer peptides synthesized from the predicted Haemophilus DNA sequence are injected into mice to generate antibody to the polypeptide encoded by the Haemophilus DNA.

[0268] If antibody production is not possible, the Haemophilus DNA sequence is additionally incorporated into eukaryotic expression vectors and expressed as a chimeric with, for example, 13-globin. Antibody to &bgr;-globin is used to purify the chimeric. Corresponding protease cleavage sites engineered between the &bgr;-globin gene and the Haemophilus DNA are then used to separate the two polypeptide fragments from one another after translation. One useful expression vector for generating &bgr;-globin chimerics is pSG5 (Stratagene). This vector encodes rabbit &bgr;-globin. Intron II of the rabbit &bgr;-globin gene facilitates splicing of the expressed transcript, and the polyadenylation signal incorporated into the construct increases the level of expression. These techniques as described are well known to those skilled in the art of molecular biology. Standard methods are published in methods texts such as Davis et al. and many of the methods are available from the technical assistance representatives from Stratagene, Life Technologies, Inc., or Promega. Polypeptide may additionally be produced from either construct using in vitro translation systems such as In vitro Express™ Translation Kit (Stratagene).

[0269] While the present invention has been described in some detail for purposes of clarity and understanding, one skilled in the art will appreciate that various changes in form and detail can be made without departing from the true scope of the invention.

[0270] All patents, patent applications and publications referred to above are hereby incorporated by reference. 1 TABLE 1(A) ORFs within the H. influenzae Rd genome FROM TO % Iden- % Simi- AA Gene ID Nucleotide Nucleotide Homology Match tity larity Length Amine acid biosynthesis Glutamate family HI0199 2O2598 204044 glulamate dehydrogenase (gdhA) {Escherichia coli} 74.1 84.4 445 HI0857 915793 917833 glutamine synthatase (glnA) {Proteus vulgaris} 70.7 85.9 467 HI1725 1792409 1759521 uridylyl transferase (glnD) {Escherichia coli} 46.6 67.8 854 HI0813 861610 860240 argininosuccinate lyase (arginosuccinase) (asal) (argH) {Escherichia coli} 73.5 84.5 457 HI1733 1799112 1800443 arginincsuccinate synthatase (argG) {Escherichia coli} 78.6 87.5 438 HI0598 618753 617752 ornithine carbomoyltransferase (arcB) {Pseudomonas aeruginosa} 82.3 90.7 334 HI1242 1313013 1311763 gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase (proA) {Escherichia coli} 61.7 79.4 406 HI0902 955518 956621 glutamate 5-kinase (gamma-glutamyl kinase) (proB) {Escherichia coli} 65.7 80.2 363 Aspartate family HI0288 319209 320419 aspartate aminotransferase (aspC) {Bacillus sp.} 31.1 53.8 349 HI1623 1684147 1685334 aspartate aminotransferase (aspC) {Escherichia coli} 62.6 79.0 396 HI0566 582379 583368 asparagine synthetase A (asnA) {Escherichia coli} 53.3 77.0 330 HI0648 690744 689522 aspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (asd) {Escherichia coli} 71.9 84.9 367 HI1311 1385700 1386509 dehydredipicolinate reductase (dapB) {Escherichia coli} 70.3 82.5 269 HI0729 779456 778212 diaminopimelate decarboxylase (dap decarboxylase) (lysA) {Pseudomonas 57.6 78.8 413 aeruginosa} HI0752 810250 811071 diaminopimelate epimerase (dapF) {Escherichia coli} 77.0 85.8 274 HI0256 284972 285855 dihydrodipicolinate synthetase (dapA) {Escherichia coli} 58.2 79.8 292 HI1638 1692968 1694330 lysine-sensitive aspartokinase III (lysC) {Escherichia coli} 55.3 73.2 449 HI0102 109226 108096 succinyl-diaminopimelate desuccinylase (dapE) {Escherichia coli} 61.6 79.7 374 HI1640 1696728 1695820 tetrahydrodipicolinate N-succinyltransferase (dapD) {Actinobacillus 96.7 98.5 273 pleuropneumoniae} HI0089 96280 93826 aspartokinase-homoserine dehydregenase (thrA) {Serratia marcescens} 62.2 77.4 814 HI0088 92820 92879 homeserine kinase (thrB) {Serratia marcescens} 61.8 80.6 306 HI0087 92822 91559 threonine synthase (thrC) {Serratia marcescens} 67.0 80.9 425 HI1044 1107725 1105876 B12-dependent homocysteine-NS-methyltetrahydrofolate transmethylase 54.2 70.4 1217 (metH) {Escherichia coli} HI0122 137932 136745 beta-cystathionase (melC) {Escherichia coli} 65.4 84.1 390 HI0086 90743 89601 cystathionine gamma-synthase (mrtB) (Escherichia coli} 41.9 62.2 374 HI1266 1339983 1341056 homoserine acetyltransferase (met2) {Saccharomyces cerevisiae} 38.1 57.1 387 HI1708 1772488 1771221 tetrahydropteroyltriglutamate metE) {Escherichia coli} 52.4 68.0 747 Serine family HI0891 942266 943628 serine hydroxymethyltransferase (serine methylase) (glyA) {Actinobacillus 85.7 93.6 419 actinomycetemcomitans} HI0467 486594 487523 phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (serA) {Escherichia coli} 71.1 83.9 408 HI1170 1238587 1237502 phosphoserine aminotransferase (serC) {Escherichia coli} 53.4 72.3 358 HI1035 1097572 1098514 phosphoserine phosphatase (o-phosphoserine phosphohydrolase) (serB) 52.3 69.5 303 {Escherichia coli} HI1105 1165130 1166077 cysteine synthetase (cysK) {Escherichia coli} 70.0 83.9 309 HI0608 636187 636987 serine acetyltransferase (cysE) {Escherichia coli} 73.0 88.3 256 Aromatic amino acid family HI0972 1026936 1027382 2-dehydroquinase (aroO) {Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae} 67.1 82.5 143 HI0209 222169 222254 3-dehydroquinate synthase (aroB) {Escherichia coli} 62.1 76.7 356 HI0197 211424 212494 chorismate synthase (aroC) {Escherichia coli} 77.3 88.4 350 HI0609 637000 637812 dehydroquinasa shikimate dehydrogenase {Nicotiana tabacum} 30.0 51.5 242 HI1595 1656463 1657758 enolpyruvylshikimatephosphatesynthase (aroA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 97.7 98.4 432 HI0657 698929 698124 shikimate 5-dehydrogenase (aroE) {Escherichia coli} 49.1 70.1 270 HI0208 221607 222146 shikimic acid kinase I (aroK) {Escherichia coli} 75.0 87.5 104 HI1148 1213767 1214921 chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydralase pheA polypeptide (pheA) 54.3 74.7 375 {Escherichia coli} HI1553 1618339 1617254 DAHP synthetase (phenylalanine repressible) (aroG) {Escherichia coli} 72.0 83.8 345 HI1293 1370448 1371578 chorismate mutase (tyrA) {Erwinia herbicola} 58.6 76.8 366 HI1392 1481917 1483470 anthranilate synthase component I (trpE) {Escherichia coli} 52.9 73.2 494 HI1393 1483718 1485554 anthranilate synthase component II (trpD) {Escherichia coli} 56.6 74.2 452 HI1174 1240757 1241335 anthranilate synthase glutamine amidotransferase (trpG) {Acinetobacter 34.0 59.0 191 calcoaceticus} HI1437 1519794 1520597 tryptophan synthase alpha chain (trpA) {Salmonella typhimurium} 57.8 72.8 267 HI1436 1518601 1519791 tryptophan synthase, beta chain (trpB) {Escherichia coli} 82.4 90.3 391 HI0474 494758 495354 amidotransferase (hisH) {Escherichia coli} 55.9 70.3 195 HI0470 490033 490941 ATP phosphoribosyltransferase (hisG) {Escherichia coli} 72.2 82.0 295 HI0476 496124 496897 hisF cyclase (hisF) {Escherichia coli} 82.0 91.0 256 HI0472 492389 493489 histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase (hisC) {Escherichia coli} 60.1 77.5 351 HI1169 1237411 1236314 histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase (hisH) {Bacillus subtllis} 38.7 61.0 354 HI0473 493604 494689 imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (hisS) {Escherichia coli) 65.0 80.5 353 HI0477 496900 497562 phosphoribosyl-AMP cyclohydrolase (hisIE) {Escherichia coli} 60.7 77.0 195 HI0475 495393 496139 phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide isomerase 62.9 77.1 245 (hisA) {Escherichia coli} Pyruvate family HI1581 1642613 1643692 alanine racemase, biosynthetic (alr) {Escherichia coli} 56.3 74.9 358 Branched chain family HI0739 791174 791968 acetohydroxy acid synthase II (ilvG) {Escherichia coli} 63.6 78.5 386 HI1591 1652923 1651205 acetolactate synthase III large chain (ilvI) {Escherichia coli} 69.1 83.9 527 HI1590 1651202 1650714 acetolactate synthase III small chain (ilvH) {Escherichia coli} 65.6 85.0 160 HI1196 1259031 1258003 branched-chain-amino-acid transaminase {Salmonella typhimurium} 32.9 49.8 298 HI0740 791969 793960 dihydroxyacid dehydrase (ilvD) {Escherichia coli} 77.9 89.5 614 HI0684 723320 724795 ketol-acid reductoisomerase (ilvC) {Escherichia coli} 81.7 89.6 491 HI0991 1047074 1047673 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase (isopropylmalate isomerase) (leuD) 71.1 86.3 197 {Salmonella typhimurium} HI0989 1044390 1045463 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (beta-IPM dehydrogenase) (leuB) 68.0 80.1 353 {Salmonella typhimurium} HI0985 1040319 1039678 leuA protein (leuA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.5 100.0 193 Biosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, carriers Biotin HI1560 1625092 1623803 7,8-diamino-pelargonic acid aminotransferase (bioA) {Escherichia coli} 58.0 74.1 420 HI1559 1623791 1622652 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid synthetase (bioF) {Bacillus sphaericus} 33.5 56.3 370 HI1557 1622004 1621225 biotin biosynthesis: reaction prior to pimeloyl CoA (bioC) {Escherichia coli} 28.6 46.8 151 HI0645 687346 684872 biotin sulfoxide reductase (BDS reductase) (bisC) {Escherichia coli} 54.0 71.8 734 HI1024 1085538 1086535 biotin synthetase (bioB) {Escherichia coli} 59.6 77.5 307 HI1556 1621212 1620640 dethiobiotin synthase (bioD) {Bacillus sphaericus} 42.1 59.6 175 HI1449 1532932 1532207 dethiobiotin synthetase (bioD) {Escherichia coli} 41.3 62.4 217 Folic acid HI1448 1531237 1532112 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (metF) {Escherichia coli} 72.8 83.4 290 HI0611 640325 639480 5,10-methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (folD) {Escherichia coli} 67.6 82.0 278 HI0064 67257 67760 7,8-dihydro-6-hydroxymethylpterin-pyrophosphokinase (folK) {Escherichia 56.3 77.8 158 coli} HI0459 478432 477392 aminodeoxychorismate lyase (pabC) {Escherichia coli} 40.1 66.5 243 HI1635 1691986 1691351 dedA protein (dadA) {Escherichia coli} 30.4 55.1 158 HI0901 955417 954938 dehydrofolate reductase, type I (folA) {Escherichia coli} 53.2 68.4 158 HI1339 1412130 1412954 dihydropteroate synthase (folP) {Escherichia coli} 54.5 70.9 275 HI1469 1547395 1548370 dihydropteroate synthase (folP) {Escherichia coli} 54.5 70.9 275 HI1264 1337544 1338854 folylpolyglutamate synthase (folC) {Escherichia coli} 51.7 68.4 409 HI1451 1534018 1533365 GTP cyclchydrolase I (folE) {Escherichia coli} 63.9 79.0 219 HI1173 1240715 1239732 p-aminobenzoate synthetase (pabB) {Escherichia coli} 31.0 53.6 257 Lipoate HI0026 28610 27651 lipoate biosynthesis protein A (lipA) {Escherichia coli} 73.8 84.1 321 HI0027 29302 28667 lipoate biosynthesis protein B (lipB) {Escherichia coli} 66.7 84.2 181 Molybdopterin HI1681 1743523 1743044 moaC protein (moaC) {Escherichia coli} 79.1 89.2 157 HI1682 1744628 1743618 molybdenum cofacter biosynthesis pretein A (moaA) {Escherichia coli} 61.8 78.3 327 HI1373 1461582 1461376 molybdenum-pterin binding protein (mopl) {Clostridium pasteurianum} 51.5 74.2 66 HI1680 1743078 1742797 molybdopterin (MPT) converting factor, subunit 1 (moaD) {Escherichia coli} 59.3 79.0 81 HI1452 1534156 1535367 molybdopterin biosynthesis pretein (chIE) {Escherichia coli} 56.4 72.5 403 HI0118 132351 133133 molybdopterin biosynthesis protein (chIN) {Escherichia coli} 27.9 52.9 135 HI1453 1535374 1536102 molybdopterin biosynthesis protein (chIN) {Escherichia coli} 63.9 78.4 241 HI1679 1742793 1742344 molybdopterin converting factor, subunit 2 (moaE) {Escherichia coli} 58.0 76.0 150 HI0846 892779 892204 molybdopterin-guanine dinucleotide (mob) {Escherichia coli} 39.4 61.7 187 Panthothenate HI0633 670462 669530 antothenate kinase (coaA) {Escherichia coli} 64.1 78.2 314 Pyridoxine HI0865 913165 913851 pyridoxamine phosphate oxidase (pdxH) {Escherichia coli} 46.0 65.3 213 Riboflavin HI0766 827249 827893 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase (ribB) {Escherichia coli} 69.6 82.7 213 HI0213 225991 226662 GTP cyclohydrolase II (ribA) {Escherichia coli} 68.0 81.4 193 HI0946 1002768 1003883 riboflavin biosynthesis protein RIBG (ribD) {Escherichia coli} 57.6 76.5 361 HI1619 1678899 1679510 riboflavin synthase alha chain (ribC) {Escherichia coli} 65.5 82.3 203 HI1306 1382553 1383071 riboflavin synthase beta chain (ribE) {Escherichia coli} 76.3 89.7 156 Thioredoxin, glutaredoxin, glutathione HI0162 177496 176129 glutathinone reductase (gor) {Escherichia coli} 74.2 85.0 450 HI1118 1181697 1181197 thioredoxin (trxA) (Anabaena sp.) 36.6 58.5 82 HI1162 1228652 1228002 thioredoxin (trxA) (Anabaena sp.) 33.3 61.5 39 HI0084 88470 88150 thioredoxin m (trxM) {Anacystis nidulans} 53.3 79.4 107 Menaquinone, ubiquinone HI0285 317765 316062 2-succinyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-carboxylate synthase (menD) 46.8 64.4 551 {Escherichia coli} HI0971 1025835 1026875 4-(2′-carboxyphenyl)-4-oxybutyric acid synthase (menC) {Escherichia coli} 57.3 74.2 312 HI1192 1256548 1255916 coenzyme PQQ synthesis protein III (pqqIII) {Acinetobacter calcoaceticus} 25.4 48.6 211 HI0970 1024963 1025817 DHNA synthase(menB) {Escherichia coli} 86.7 95.1 285 HI1442 1525823 1526707 famesyldiphosphate synthase (ispA) {Escherichia coli} 53.6 71.2 297 HI0195 206694 208049 o-succinylbenzoate-CoA synthase (menE) {Escherichia coli} 46.0 66.8 426 Heme, porphyrin HI1163 1229908 1228940 ferrochelatase (visA) {Escherichia coli} 51.6 69.4 315 HI0113 119848 122079 heme utilization protein (hxuC) {Haemophilus infuenzae} 26.4 46.1 695 HI0265 293930 295624 heme-hemopexin utilization (hxuB) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.1 98.9 565 HI0604 631034 629751 hemY protein (hemY) {Escherichia coli}38.9 64.4 355 HI0465 484621 485769 oxygen-independent coproporphynnogen III oxidase (hemN) {Salmonella 31.5 52.3 241 typhimurium} HI1204 1267418 1266477 protoporphyrinogen oxidase (hemG) {Escherichia coli} 36.1 56.8 153 HI1565 1629849 1628974 protoporphyrinogen oxidase (hemG) {Escherichia coli} 59.1 72.6 203 HI0605 631035 632562 uroporphyrinogen III methylase (hemX) {Escherichia coli} 39.9 60.3 358 Cell envelope Membranes, lipoproleins, porins HI1585 1647711 1647247 15 kd peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (lpp) {Haemophilus influenzae} 94.8 95.5 154 HI0622 653682 652864 28 kDa membrane protein (hlpA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.6 100.0 273 HI0304 335684 337249 apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase (cute) {Escherichia coli} 45.2 64.1 497 HI0362 384880 384035 hydrophobic membrane protein {Streptococcus gordonii} 37.2 66.5 268 HI0409 428260 427478 hydrophobic membrane protein {Streptococcus gordonii} 34.4 61.3 254 HI1573 1634553 1636106 iron-regulated outer membrane protein A (iroA) {Neissena meningitidis} 28.9 50.9 398 HI0695 736825 737646 lipoprotein (hel) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.6 99.6 274 HI0707 749215 750429 lipoprotein (nlpD) {Escherichia coli} 48.6 64.8 364 HI0705 748419 748994 lipoprotein B (lppB) {Haemophilus somnus} 72.3 89.5 191 HI0896 946675 947916 membrane fusion protein (mtrC) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 30.9 53.6 337 HI0403 421547 422923 outer membrane protein P1 (ompP1) {Haemophilus influenzae} 93.0 97.2 459 HI0140 153446 154522 outer membrane protein P2 (ompP2) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.7 97.5 361 HI1167 1234699 1235757 outer membrane protein P5 (ompA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 94.1 95.8 353 HI0906 958098 958901 prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (lgt) {Escherichia coli} 62.8 80.1 285 HI0030 31698 30838 rare lipoprotein A (rlpA) {Escherichia coli} 34.5 57.8 288 HI0924 979182 979727 rare lipoprotein B (rlpB) {Escherichia coli} 33.5 62.1 163 Surface polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides & antigens HI1563 1628153 1627302 2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphooctonate aldolase (kdsA) {Escherichia coli} 81.3 91.5 283 HI0654 696743 695463 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonic-acid transferase (kdtA) {Escherichia coli} 50.7 69.9 420 HI1108 1169176 1168139 AOP-heptose-lps heptosyltransferase II (rfaF) {Escherichia coli} 63.6 78.9 345 HI1117 1181141 1180218 ADP-L-glycero-D-mannoheptose-6-epimerase (rfaD) {Escherichia coli} 78.2 87.7 308 HI0058 59659 58898 CTP:CMP-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-cytidylyl-transferase (kdsB) 65.0 81.7 245 {Escherichia coli} HI0917 970233 969211 firA protein (firA) {Pasteurella multocida} 84.9 91.1 338 HI0870 919974 920723 glycosyl tranaferase (lgtD) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 30.3 55.3 200 HI1584 1646090 1647058 glycosyl transferase (lgtD) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 47.3 64.0 328 HI0653 695463 694996 KDTB protein (kdtB) {Escherichia coli} 52.3 75.8 153 HI1684 1746281 1747291 kpsF protein (kpsF) {Escherichia coli} 49.3 70.6 294 HI1543 1607986 1608967 lic-1 operon protein (licA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.1 100.0 321 HI1544 1608970 1609885 lic-1 operon protein (licB) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.0 99.3 303 HI1545 1609845 1610543 lic-1 operon protein (licC) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.5 99.5 198 HI1546 1610546 1611340 lic-1 operon protein (licD) {Haemophilus influenzae} 88.7 94.0 268 HI1062 1125450 1124254 lipid A disaccharide synthetase (lpxB) {Escherichia coli} 63.2 77.3 382 HI0552 571001 570096 lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis protein {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.3 99.0 298 HI0767 827911 828756 lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis protein {Haemophilus influenzae} 36.4 59.5 267 HI0869 918779 919990 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_1) {Haemophilus influenzae} 60.5 82.5 400 HI1706 1770127 1768916 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_1) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.3 100.0 401 HI1705 1768916 1768005 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_2) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.4 98.7 304 HI1704 1768000 1767322 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_3) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.0 97.4 226 HI1703 1766957 1766157 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_4) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.1 98.4 257 HI1702 1786142 1765261 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_5) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.9 98.3 294 HI1701 1765256 1764456 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_6) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.9 99.3 267 HI1700 1763577 1764341 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_7) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.4 98.4 255 HI1699 1763439 1762678 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_8) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.6 99.0 209 HI0263 290317 291357 opsX locus protein (opsX) {Xanthomonas campestris} 35.2 56.7 261 HI1722 1788547 1787483 rfe (CGSC No 294) protein {Escherichia coli} 59.0 77.2 344 HI1147 1212723 1213637 UDP-3-0-acyl N-acetylglcosamine deacetylase (envA) {Escherichia coli} 77.3 88.2 304 HI1063 1126278 1125493 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acetyltransferase (lpxA) {Escherichia coli} 66.0 79.4 262 HI0875 925083 926096 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine epimerase (rtfE) {Escherichia coli} 65.5 79.5 336 HI0874 923609 925021 undecaprenyl-phosphate galactosephosphotransferase (rtbP) {Salmonella 57.9 75.1 465 typhimurium} Surface structures HI1738 1808251 1804281 adhesin (aidA-I) {Escherichia coli} 29.3 45.8 1196 HI0119 133314 134324 adhesin B precursor (timA) {Streptococcus parasanguis} 24.5 48.3 309 HI0364 386685 385607 adhesin B precursor (timA) {Streptococcus parasanguis} 34.6 61.6 302 HI0332 356770 358062 cell envelope protein (oapA) {Haemophilus influenaze} 99.8 100.0 431 HI0713 757120 757425 flagellar switch protein (fliM) {Salmonella typhimurium} 34.1 61.0 41 HI1464 1542848 1542296 invasin precursor (outer membrane adhesin) (yopA) {Yersinia enterocolitica} 38.5 62.1 291 HI0333 358125 358526 opacity associated protein (oapB) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.2 99.2 132 HI0416 436627 436836 opacity protein (opa66) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 74.5 90.9 55 HI1177 1243585 1243947 opacity protein (opa66) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 37.7 59.0 181 HI1461 1540805 1540272 opacity protein (opaD) {Neisseria meningitidis} 34.5 55.8 230 HI0300 333052 331661 pilin biogenesis protein (pilB) {Pseudomonas aeruginosa} 44.1 64.8 485 HI0919 973373 970950 protective surface antigen D15 {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.6 99.5 797 Murein sacculus, peptidoglycan HI1674 1737564 1735481 carboxy-terminal protease, penicillin-binding protein 3 (prc) {Escherichia 52.3 69.5 660 coli} HI1143 1208355 1209272 D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (ddIB) {Escherichia coli} 59.9 75.8 303 HI1333 1408286 1406850 D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase (dacB) {Escherichia coli} 43.9 68.2 454 HI0066 68323 69618 N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (amiB) {Escherichia coli} 59.5 77.0 221 HI0383 401990 401532 PC protein (15kd peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane lipoprotein) 100.0 100.0 153 (pal) {Haemophilus influenzae} HI1731 1795566 1797908 penicillin-binding protein 1B (ponB) {Escherichia coli} 47.0 67.5 767 HI0032 34810 32858 penicillin-binding protein 2 (pbp2) {Escherichia coli} 58.8 73.8 609 HI0029 30819 29641 penicillin-binding protein 5 (dacA) {Escherichia coli} 54.8 68.4 362 HI0198 212582 213439 penicillin-insensitive murein endopeptidase (mepA) {Escherichia coli} 49.3 66.7 269 HI1138 1201927 1203006 phospho-N-acetylmuramoyl-pentapeptide-transferas E (mraY) {Escherichia 76.7 88.9 360 coli} HI0038 40689 41741 rod shape-determining protein (mreC) {Escherichia coli} 50.3 74.5 293 HI0031 32865 31753 rod shape-determining protein (mreB) {Escherichia coli} 63.1 80.7 358 HI0037 39473 40606 rod shape-determining protein (mreB) {Escherichia coli} 79.6 89.9 347 HI0039 41744 42229 rod shape-determining protein (mreD) {Escherichia coli} 40.6 71.6 154 HI0831 878792 880570 soluble lytic murein transglycosylase (slt) {Escherichia coli} 40.4 59.3 378 HI1141 1205663 1206715 transterase, peptidoglycan synthesis (murG) {Escherichia coli} 61.7 76.0 350 HI1137 1200560 1201930 UDP-mumac-pentapeptide synthetase (murE) {Escherichia coli} 51.4 68.2 452 HI1136 1199080 1200543 UDP-MurNac-tripeptide synthetase (murE) {Escherichia coli} 55.7 72.6 463 HI0270 301245 302267 UDP-N-acetylenolpynivoylglucosamine reductase (murB) {Escherichia coli} 57.6 75.6 340 HI1083 1148434 1147163 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (murZ) {Escherichia coli} 72.4 84.5 419 HI1142 1206856 1208280 UDP-N-acetylmuramate-alanine ligase (murC) {Escherichia coli} 68.2 81.8 470 HI1139 1203132 1204442 UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanine-D-glutamate ligase (murD) {Escherichia coli} 61.0 73.7 437 HI1499 1569479 1569826 N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (Bacteriophage T3) 42.9 62.2 97 Central intermediary metabolism Phosphorus compounds HI0697 739608 738640 exopolyphosphatase (ppx) {Escherichia coli} 55.2 76.7 318 HI0124 139861 139334 inorganic pyrophosphatase (ppa) {Escherichia coli} 36.3 50.3 157 HI0647 689574 688637 lysophospholipase L2 (pldB) {Escherichia coli} 31.2 53.1 317 Sulfur metabolism HI1374 1462019 1461693 desultoviridin gamma subunit (dsvC) (Desulfovibrio vulgaris} 36.0 58.0 99 HI0807 854438 853741 putative arylsulfatase regulatory protein (aslB) {Escherichia coli} 47.4 67.0 381 HI0561 578539 577856 sulfite synthesis pathway protein (cysQ) {Escherichia coli} 35.9 56.0 205 Polyamine biosynthesis HI0099 106307 1107374 nucleotide binding protein (potG) {Escherichia coli} 42.6 66.9 340 HI0593 614187 1612028 omithine decarboxylase (speF) {Escherichia coli} 66.4 80.2 717 Polysaccharides - (cytoplasmic) HI1360 1436170 1438359 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme (glgB) {Escherichia coli} 64.5 80.1 723 HI1362 1440427 1441758 ADP-glucose synthetase (glgC) {Escherichia coli} 55.0 74.3 407 HI1364 1443545 1446007 alpha-glucan phosphorylase (glgP) {Escherichia coli} 61.1 79.1 809 HI1361 1438458 1440434 glycogen operon protein (glgX) {Escherichia coli} 54.3 67.8 501 HI1363 1441869 1443296 glycogen synthase (glgA) {Escherichia coli} 56.2 71.2 475 Degradation of polysaccharides HI1359 1434061 1436157 amylomaltase (malQ) {Escherichia coli} 40.9 62.0 615 HI1420 1507662 1507063 endochitinase {Oryza sativa} 38.9 50.9 106 Amino sugars HI0431 452989 451160 glutamine amidotransferase (glmS) {Escherichia coli} 72.1 84.3 609 HI0141 155859 154717 N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate deacetylase (nagA) {Escherichia coli} 54.5 72.1 376 HI0142 156944 156135 nagB protein (nagB) {Escherichia coli} 74.2 88.1 260 Other HI0048 49257 48403 7-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hdhA) {Escherichia coli} 32.4 55.1 244 HI1207 1271536 1270334 acetate kinase (ackA) {Escherichia coli} 69.1 83.9 396 HI0951 1009728 1008367 GABA transaminase (gabT) {Escherichia coli} 34.4 55.8 420 HI0111 118858 119484 glutathione transferase (bphH) {Pseudomonas sp.} 37.6 57.4 200 HI0693 734488 735996 glycerol kinase (glpK) {Escherichia coli} 76.9 89.2 502 HI0586 606429 605161 hippuricase (hipO) {Campylobacter jejuni} 27.8 49.6 376 HI0543 564874 564575 urease (ureA) {Helicobacter heilmannii} 62.4 76.2 101 HI0539 561668 561087 urease accessory protein (UreF) {Bacillus sp.} 31.8 54.9 194 HI0541 564179 562464 urease alpha subunit (urea amidohydrolase) (ureC) {Bacillus sp.} 67.3 62.1 569 HI0540 562333 561779 urease protein (ureE) {Helicobacter pylori} 31.0 56.8 155 HI0538 560981 560307 urease protein (ureG) {Helicobacter pylori} 70.7 86.9 198 HI0537 560229 559447 urease protein (ureH) {Helicobacter pylori} 31.5 53.9 213 HI0542 564180 564574 urease subunit B (ureB) {Escherichia coli} 61.8 77.5 103 Energy metabolism Amino acids, amines HI0536 559266 557842 aspartase (aspA) {Escherichia coli} 78.2 89.1 468 HI0597 617739 616810 carbamate kinase (arcC) {Pseudomonas aeruginosa} 78.3 87.7 309 HI0747 802651 803697 L-asparaginase II (ansB) {Escherichia coli} 70.5 81.2 329 HI0290 323270 321907 L-serine deaminase (sdaA) {Escherichia coli} 68.6 83.3 454 Sugars HI0820 869307 868288 aldose 1-epimerase precursor (mutarotase) (mro) {Acinetobacter 36.8 54.7 326 calcoaceticus} HI0055 55016 56197 D-mannonate hydrolase (uxuA) {Escherichia coli} 72.8 85.8 394 HI1119 1181808 1182476 deoxyribose aldolase (deoC) {Mycoplasma hominis} 49.0 68.5 200 HI0615 644708 643299 fucokinase (fucK) {Escherichia coli} 41.1 64.5 459 HI0613 642828 642181 fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (fucA) {Escherichia coli} 64.7 81.4 215 HI1014 1075981 1076610 fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (fucA) {Escherichia coli} 32.9 51.8 163 HI0821 870510 869320 galactokinase (galK) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.4 99.0 384 HI0145 159883 158984 glucose kinase (glk) {Streptomyces coelicolor} 33.6 53.2 303 HI0616 646595 644784 L-fucose isomerase (fucl) {Escherichia coli} 69.5 84.5 583 HI1027 1090247 1089519 L-ribulose-phosphate 4-epimerase (araD) {Escherichia coli} 72.3 81.8 231 HI1111 1173107 1171938 mal inducer biosynthesis blocker (malY) {Escherichia coli} 28.1 51.6 375 HI0143 158111 157233 N-acetylneuraminate lyase (nanA) {Escherichia coli} 36.2 61.4 291 HI0507 521330 522247 ribokinase (rbsK) {Escherichia coli} 56.0 74.8 302 HI1115 1177307 1178623 xylose isomerase (xylA) {Escherichia coli} 71.3 87.2 439 HI1116 1178629 1180161 xylulose kinase (xylulokinase) {Escherichia coli} 33.1 50.0 479 Glycolysis HI0449 470280 469342 1-phosphofructokinase (fruK) {Escherichia coli} 55.4 74.1 304 HI0984 1039579 1038617 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA) {Escherichia coli} 74.4 84.4 319 HI0934 990636 989329 enolase (eno) {Bacillus subtilis} 65.9 78.5 413 HI0526 547668 546592 fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (fba) {Escherichia coli} 71.3 85.8 359 HI1582 1643750 1645438 glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (pgi) {Escherichia coli} 76.9 88.7 548 HI0001 1 600 glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdH) {Escherichia coli} 85.8 90.3 133 HI0527 548939 547782 phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk) {Escherichia coli} 81.1 90.7 387 HI0759 820852 821533 phosphoglyceromutase (gpmA) {Zymomonas mobilis} 58.9 74.6 222 HI1579 1639619 1641052 pyruvate kinase type II (pykA) {Escherichia coli} 77.2 87.5 480 HI0680 719664 720452 triosephosphate isomerase (tpiA) {Escherichia coli} 74.4 80.7 253 Pyruvate dehydrogenase HI1235 1303195 1301495 dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (aceF) {Escherichia coli} 72.8 82.4 526 HI0194 206108 205248 dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (acoC) {Pseudomonas putida} 27.8 49.1 235 HI1234 1301378 1299945 lipoamide dehydrogenase (lpdA) {Escherichia coli} 81.5 91.6 474 HI1236 1305918 1303261 pyruvate dehydrogenase (aceE) {Escherichia coli} 68.6 84.0 886 TCA cycle HI1668 1731748 1728899 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (sucA) {Escherichia coli} 69.0 80.7 930 HI0025 27397 26393 acetate:SH-citrate lyase ligase (AMP) {Klebsiella pneumoniae} 48.9 68.4 321 HI0022 25179 23680 citrate lyase alpha chain (acyl lyase subunit) (citF) {Klebsiella pneumoniae} 72.1 86.1 469 HI0023 26068 25457 catrate lyase beta chain (acyl lyase subunit) {Klebsiella pneumoniae} 62.3 81.9 203 HI0024 26352 26068 citrate lyase gamma chain (acyl lyase subunit) (citD) {Klebsiella 52.1 71.9 97 pneumoniae} HI1667 1728793 1727567 dihydrolipoamide succinyltransferase (sucB) {Escherichia coli} 73.6 84.5 403 HI1403 1493925 1495316 fumarate hydratase class II (fumarase) (fumC) {Escherichia coli} 61.8 74.2 460 HI1213 1275907 1276839 malate dehydrogenase (mdh) {Escherichia coli} 78.5 85.1 303 HI1248 1317431 1319698 malic acid enzyme {Bacillus stearothermophilus} 49.5 68.3 376 HI1200 1262687 1263565 succinyl-CoA synthetase alpha-subunit (sucD) {Escherichia coli} 83.4 91.7 289 HI1199 1261518 1262684 succinyl-CoA synthetase beta-subunit (sucC) {Escherichia coli} 64.7 80.2 388 Pentose phosphate pathway HI0555 574159 572708 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, decarboxylating (gnd) {Echerichia 54.0 71.1 464 coli} HI0560 577777 576296 glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD) {Synechococcus sp.} 46.2 65.3 483 HI1025 1088660 1086666 transketolase 1 (TK 1) (tktA) {Escherichia coli} 77.1 87.5 664 Entner-Doudoroff HI0047 48381 47746 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate aldolase (eda) {Escherichia coli} 37.3 63.2 193 HI0049 50201 49260 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconate kinase (kdgK) {Erwinia chrysanthemi} 44.2 64.5 300 Aerobic HI1655 1715678 1713987 D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld) {Escherichia coli} 59.5 77.7 560 HI1166 1234330 1231250 D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld) {Saccharomyces cerevisiae} 27.6 47.7 427 HI0607 635168 636172 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpsA) {Escherichia coli} 66.6 81.5 335 HI0749 805382 806713 NADH dehydrogenase (ndh) {Escherichia coli} 57.8 75.4 430 Anaerobic HI1049 1112944 1110527 anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase A (dmsA) {Escherichia coli} 74.0 86.3 765 HI1048 1110513 1109899 anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase B (dmsB) {Escherichia coli} 72.1 84.8 204 HI1047 1109894 1109058 anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase C (dmsC) {Escherichia coli} 41.0 65.0 287 HI0646 688485 687382 cytochrome C-type protein (torC) {Escherichia coli} 37.4 54.7 365 HI0350 374535 375134 denitrification system component (nirT) {Pseudomonas siutzeri} 51.7 71.6 176 HI0009 9878 10783 fdhE protein (fdhE) {Escherichia coli} 50.8 71.6 307 HI0006 5067 8156 formate dehydrogenase, nitrate-inducible major subunit (fdnG) {Escherichia 64.4 79.2 1016 coli} HI0005 4802 3993 formate dehydrogenase-N affector (fdhD) {Escherichia coli} 57.7 71.0 249 HI0008 9035 9805 formate dehydrogenase-O gamma subunit (fdol) {Escherichia coli} 52.8 72.1 195 HI0007 8161 9096 formate dehydrogenase-O beta subunit (fdoH) {Escherichia coli} 72.2 85.6 297 HI1071 1133439 1131826 formate-dependent nitrite reductase (cytochrome C552) (nrfA) 56.7 75.3 450 {Escherichia coli} HI1070 1131779 1131102 formate-dependent nitrite reductase (nrfB) {Escherichia coli} 50.0 66.9 134 HI1069 1131102 1130428 female-dependent nitrite reductase protein Fe—S centers (nrfC) 64.2 81.2 217 {Escherichia coli} HI1068 1130428 1129466 formate-dependent nitrite reductase transmembrane protein (nrfD) 48.2 68.4 312 {Escherichia coli} HI0835 882094 882529 fumarate reductase (frdC) {Escherichia coli} 49.2 72.3 129 HI0834 882093 881752 fumarate reductase 13 kDa hydrophobic protein (frdD) {Escherichia coli} 53.0 76.5 119 HI0837 885089 883293 fumarate reductase, flavoprotein subunit (frdA) {Escherichia coli} 75.4 67.2 602 HI0836 883357 882530 fumarate reductase, iron-sulfur protein (frdB) {Escherichia coli} 75.5 85.3 244 HI0681 720855 720541 glpE protein (glpE) {Escherichia coli} 43.3 63.5 103 HI0620 651184 651759 glpG protein (glpG) {Eschericia coli} 39.1 64.8 178 HI0687 729180 727492 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, subunit A (glpA) {Escherichia coli} 69.9 82.7 531 HI0686 727529 726204 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, subunit B (glpB) {Escherichia coli} 42.3 60.3 414 HI0685 726189 724912 glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, subunit C (glpC) {Escherichia coli} 58.8 76.0 393 HI1395 1487087 1487358 hydrogenase isoenzymes formation protein (hypC) {Escherichia coli} 63.2 81.6 76 Electron transport HI0887 936816 938552 C-type cytochrome biogenesis protein (copper tolerance) (cycZ) 48.8 67.7 557 {Escherichia coli} HI1078 1141318 1139756 cytochrome oxidase d subunit I (cydA) {Escherichia coli} 64.3 82.4 515 HI1077 1139738 1138605 cytochrome oxidase d subunit II (cydB) {Escherichia coli} 60.9 78.4 379 HI0529 549872 550341 ferredoxin (fdx) {Chromatium vinosum} 59.5 77.2 78 HI0374 394564 394226 ferredoxin (fdx) {Escherichia coli} 64.5 83.6 110 HI0192 205148 204627 flavodoxin (fldA) {Escherichia coli} 76.9 87.3 173 HI1365 1446272 1447807 NAD(P) transhydrogenase subunit alpha (pntA) {Escherichia coli} 73.7 84.1 509 HI1366 1447821 1449242 NAD(P) transhydrogenase subunit beta (pntB) {Escherichia coli} 80.5 87.7 462 HI1281 1355273 1354614 NAD(P)H-flavin oxidoreductase {Vibrio fischeri} 33.3 54.8 211 Fermentation HI0501 514365 515657 aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldH) {Escherichia coli} 41.2 61.8 236 HI0776 636764 836114 butyrate-acetoacetate coa-transferase subunit A (ctfA) {Clostridium 53.3 75.2 214 acetobutylicum} HI0186 200017 198884 glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (gd-faldH) {Paracoccus 58.5 77.6 375 denitrificans} HI1308 1383529 1384563 hydrogenase gene region (hypE) {Alcaligenes eutrophus} 28.1 48.2 237 HI1642 1698196 1700833 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (ppc) {Escherichia coli} 64.8 80.0 883 HI0181 193936 191621 pyruvate formate-lyase (pfl) {Escherichia coli} 86.1 92.9 760 HI0180 191487 190750 pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme (act) {Escherichia coli} 74.0 85.4 246 HI1435 1517826 1518581 short chain alcohol dehydrogenase (ORFB) {Dichelobacter nodosus} 51.9 69.2 104 Gluconeogenesis HI1651 1709919 1710917 fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (fbp) {Escherichia coli} 70.5 84.0 331 HI0811 8590381 857425 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pckA) {Escherichia coli} 71.7 83.0 444 ATP-proton motive force interconversion HI0486 504824 504573 ATP synthase C chain (atpE) {Vibrio alginolyticus} 62.7 81.9 83 HI0487 505668 504883 ATP synthase F0 subunit a (atpB) {Escherichia coli} 58.2 78.1 261 HI0485 504520 504053 ATP synthase F0 subunit b (atpF) {Escherichia coli} 63.5 79.5 156 HI0483 503491 501953 ATP synthase F1 alpha subunit (alpA) {Escherichia coli} 86.5 94.7 513 HI0481 501081 499678 ATP synthase F1 beta subunit (atpD) {Escherichia coli} 89.3 96.1 460 HI0484 504037 503507 ATP synthase F1 delta subunit (atpH) {Escherichia coli} 58.0 78.4 176 HI0480 499645 499220 ATP synthase F1 epsilon subunit (atpC) {Escherichia coli} 59.6 75.7 136 HI0482 501934 501068 ATP synthase F1 gamma subunit (atpG) {Escherichia coli} 65.3 83.0 287 HI1277 1349508 1350221 ATP synthase subunit 3 region protein (atp) {Rhodopseudomonas blastica} 31.9 50.0 237 Fatty acid/phospholipid metabolism HI077 3834230 832896 acetyl coenzyme A acetyltransferase (thiolase) (fadA) {Clostridium 63.0 80.4 391 acetobutylicum} HI0428 448891 448169 fadR protein involved in fatty acid metabolism (fadR) {Escherichia coli} 47.4 68.4 234 HI1064 1126738 1126295 (3R)-hydroxymyristol acyl carrier protein dehydrase (fabZ) {Escherichia coli} 68.1 85.1 141 HI0156 171552 170827 3-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (fabG) {Escherichia coli} 73.4 88.4 241 HI0408 427385 426441 acetyl-CoA carboxylase (accA) {Escherichia coli} 75.3 88.3 318 HI0155 170568 170341 acyl carrier protein (acpP) {Escherichia coli} 82.7 90.7 75 HI0076 82175 83032 acyl-CoA thioesterase II (tesB) {Escherichia coli} 52.3 73.1 283 HI1539 1605754 1604537 beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase I (fabB) {Escherichia coli} 72.8 83.7 403 HI0158 174085 173138 beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (fabH) {Escherichia coli} 65.9 79.8 317 HI0973 1027538 1028002 biotin carboxyl carrier protein (accB) {Escherichia coli} 71.2 82.7 156 HI0974 1028180 1029523 biotin carboxylase (accC) {Escherichia coli} 81.5 91.3 448 HI1328 1404041 1404571 D-3-hydroxydecanoyl-(acyl carrier-protein) dehydratase (fabA) {Escherichia 79.2 91.7 168 coli} HI0337 362881 363234 diacylglycerol kinase (dgkA) {Escherichia coli} 50.9 71.8 110 HI0002 601 2421 long chain fatty acid coA ligase {Homo sapiens} 29.5 52.8 575 HI0157 172507 171572 malonyl coenzyme A-acyl carrier protein transacylase (fabD) {Escherichia 71.0 81.6 309 coli} HI1740 1811556 1810672 short chain alcohol dehydrogenase homolog (envM) {Escherichia coli} 75.3 84.9 259 HI1438 1521691 1520741 USG-1 protein (usg) {Escherichia coli} 32.7 53.9 334 HI0736 788371 787652 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (plsC) {Escherichia coli} 62.2 78.2 238 HI0291 975561 974698 CDP-diglyceride synthetase (cdsA) {Escherichia coli} 48.4 66.5 246 HI0750 809228 806799 glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (pIsB) {Escherichia coli} 57.3 75.7 804 HI0212 225946 225224 phosphatidylglycerophosphate phosphetase B (pgpB) {Escherichia coli} 35.7 60.3 220 HI0123 138207 138761 phosphatidylglycerophosphate synthase (pgsA) {Escherichia coli} 66.5 83.0 182 HI0161 175145 176014 phosphatidylserine decarboxylase proenzyme (psd) {Escherichia coli} 57.6 75.5 280 HI0427 446754 448118 phosphatidylserine synthase (pssA) {Escherichia coli} 49.2 70.8 452 HI0691 732349 733440 protein D (hpd) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.4 99.2 364 Purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides and nucleotides Purine ribonucleotide biosynthesis HI1622 1682920 1684005 5′-phosphonribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazole carboxylase II (purK) {Escherichia 50.8 71.9 351 coli} HI1434 1517646 1516615 5′-phosphoribosyl-5-aminoimidazole synthetase (purM) {Escherichia coli} 76.5 86.7 344 HI1749 1829283 1828660 5′guanylate kinase (gmk) {Escherichia coli} 64.7 81.6 206 HI0351 375941 375300 adenylate kinase (ATP-AMP tranaphosphorylase) (adk) {Haemophilus 99.5 99.5 214 influenzae} HI0641 679574 681094 adenylosuccinate lyase (purB) {Escherichia coli} 76.5 87.9 456 HI1639 1694462 1695757 adenylosuccinate synthetase (purA) {Escherichia coli} 75.7 87.3 432 HI1210 1272783 1274297 amidophosphoribosyltransferase (purF) {Escherichia coli} 89.1 84.0 504 HI0754 812369 816328 formylglycineamide ribonucleotide synthetase (purL) {Escherichia coli} 69.7 82.0 1290 Hl1594 1655627 1656460 formylitetrahydrofolate hydrolase (purU) {Escherichia coli} 72.6 85.2 277 HI0223 250532 252100 guaA protein (guaA) {Escherichia coli} 78.1 87.6 525 HO0222 248355 249818 inosine-5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (guaB) {Acinetobacter 62.7 80.9 487 calcoaceticus} HI0878 928811 929233 nucleoside diphosphate kinase (ndk) {Escherichia coli} 63.0 73.9 138 HI0890 940953 942239 phosphonbosylamine-glycine ligase (purD) {Escherichia coli} 75.2 84.5 427 HI1621 1682355 1682847 phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase catalytic subunit (purE) 94.4 96.9 161 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0889 939259 940854 phosphoribosylaminoimidazoledecarboxamide formyltransferase (purH) 77.2 86.5 525 {Escherichia coli} HI1433 1516557 1515922 phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase (purN) {Escherichia coli} 51.9 71.4 210 HI1615 1674317 1675261 phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (prsA) {Salmonella typhimurium} 84.1 91.1 314 HI1732 1798036 1798953 SAICAR synthetase (purC) {Streptococcus pneumoniae} 29.8 54.8 204 Pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosyn HI1406 1497997 1496981 dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (dihydroorotate oxidase) (pyrD) {Escherichia 60.7 77.4 334 coli} HI0274 305799 305161 orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (pyrE) {Escherichia coli} 69.0 83.6 213 HI1228 1293965 1294282 pyrF operon encoding orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase 77.1 87.6 105 {Escherichia coli} HI1227 1293266 1293955 pyrF protein (pyrF) {Escherichia coli} 62.3 79.4 228 HI0461 480053 479517 uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (pyrR) {Bacillus caldolyticus} 52.2 73.9 179 2′-deoxyribonuclectide metabolism HI0075 79934 82054 anaerobic ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (nrdD) {Escherichia coli} 77.4 88.2 702 HI0133 146656 147240 deoxycytidine triphosphate deaminase (dcd) {Escherichia coli} 75.6 86.5 193 HI0956 1012787 1013239 deoxyuridinetriphosphatase (dut) {Escherichia coli} 75.5 90.7 151 HI1538 1604204 1604464 glutaredoxin (grx) {Escherichia coli} 69.9 79.5 83 HI1666 1726318 1727445 nrdB protein (nrdB) {Escherichia coli} 85.4 92.6 376 HI1665 1723831 1726173 ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 1 alpha chain (nrdA) {Eschericia coli} 83.4 92.2 761 HI1161 1227925 1226972 thioredoxin reductase (trxB) {Escherichia coli} 75.9 85.8 316 HI0907 958914 959762 thymidylate synthetase (thyA) {Escherichia coli} 35.3 55.0 264 Salvage of nucleosides and nuclectides HI0585 605064 603094 2′,3′-cyclic-nucleotide-2′-phosphodiesterase (cpdB) {Escherichia coli} 62.4 77.7 641 HI1233 1299794 1299255 adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (apt) {Escherichia coli} 66.1 83.1 177 HI0553 571120 571943 adenosine-tetraphosphatase (apaH) {Escherichia coli} 52.4 73.1 271 HI1353 1426390 1427265 cytidine deaminase (cytidine aminohydrolase) (cda) {Escherichia coli} 50.0 63.4 253 HI1222 1288579 1289628 cytidylate kinase (cmk) {Escherichia coli} 64.5 79.3 217 HI1652 1711636 1710842 cytidylate kinase (cmk) {Escherichia coli} 63.5 76.8 202 HI0520 540879 540166 purine-nucleoside phosphorylase (deoD) {Escherichia coli} 84.3 90.2 235 HI0531 552177 551599 thymidine kinase (tdk) {Escherichia coli} 68.6 82.4 188 HI1231 1297050 1296427 uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (upp) {Escherichia coli} 83.2 93.8 208 HI0282 312879 313655 uridine phosphorylase (udp) {Escherichia coli} 72.0 84.8 250 HI0676 716559 716095 xanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase gpt (xgprt) {Escherichia coli} 72.1 87.7 152 HI0694 736541 736077 xanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (xgprt) {Salmonella 74.0 87.7 152 typhimurium} HI1280 1353404 1354561 putative ATPase (mrp) {Escherichia coli} 66.0 79.0 353 Sugar-nucleotide biosynthesis, conversions HI0207 219511 221319 5′-nucleotidase (ushA) {Homo sapiens} 34.5 54.8 487 HI1282 1355378 1356061 CMP-NeuNAc synthetase (siaB) {Neisseria meningitidis} 47.1 64.3 221 HI0822 871597 870551 galactose-1-phosphate undylyltransferase (galT) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.1 100.0 349 HI0814 662632 861748 glucosephosphate uridylyltransferase (galU) {Escherichia coli} 74.0 86.1 287 HI0353 378461 377448 udp-glucose 4-epimerase (galactowaldenase) (galE) {Haemophilus 99.1 99.1 338 influenzae} HI0644 682446 683813 UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (glmU) {Escherichia coli} 68.6 83.1 456 Nucleotide and nucleoside interconversions HI1302 1376759 1378139 deoxyguanosine triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dgt) {Escherichia coli} 38.2 57.6 469 HI1079 1141970 1143603 pyrG protein (pyrG) {Escherichia coli} 80.4 90.5 545 HI0132 146006 146644 uridine kinase (uridine monophosphokinase) (udk) {Escherichia coli} 67.8 84.7 202 Regulatory functions HI0606 632563 635091 adenylate cyclase (cyaA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 100.0 100.0 843 HI0886 936624 935917 aerobic respiration control protein ARCA (DYE resistance protein) (arcA) 77.2 87.8 237 {Escherichia coli} HI0221 238723 248354 aerobic respiration control sensor protein (arcB) {Escherichia coli} 45.7 70.4 768 HI1054 1117872 1116979 araC-like transcription regulator {Streptomyces lividans} 25.7 47.7 303 HI1212 1275700 1275248 arginine repressor protein (argR) {Escherichia coli} 69.1 81.2 149 HI0237 265657 265310 arsC protein (arsC) (Plasmid R773) 38.3 56.5 11.4 HI0464 482094 484502 ATP-dependent proteinase (Ion) {Escherichia coli} 74.5 87.9 769 HI0336 360636 362863 ATP:GTP 3′-pyrophosphotransferase (relA) {Escherichia coli} 62.9 80.5 741 HI1130 1193658 1195126 carbon starvation protein (catA) {Escherichia coli} 32.1 53.5 499 HI0815 862645 862657 carbon storage regulator (csrA) {Escherichia coli} 68.4 91.2 57 HI0806 653619 853063 cyclic AMP receptor protein (crp) {Haemophilus influenzae} 27.2 46.7 174 HI0959 1014161 1014832 cyclic AMP receptor protein (crp) {Haemophilus influenzae} 100.0 100.0 224 HI1203 1265444 1266412 cys regulon transcriptional activator (cysB) {Escherichia coli} 63.3 79.3 324 HI0191 204595 204158 ferric uptake regulation protein (fur) {Escherichia coli} 61.4 75.0 139 HI1457 1537858 1537391 fimbrial transcription regulation repressor (pilB) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 32.3 53.2 124 HI1459 1539614 1538556 fimbrial transcription regulation repressor (pilB) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 59.0 72.6 325 HI1263 1336661 1337548 folylpolyglutamate-dihydrofolate synthetase expression regulator (accD) 69.5 82.5 290 {Escherichia coli} HI1430 1512975 1513745 fumarate (and nitrate) reduction regulatory protein (fnr) {Escherichia coli} 78.8 88.8 240 HI0823 871805 872800 galactose operon repressor (galS) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.1 99.4 332 HI0756 817661 818569 glucokinase regulator {Rattus norvegicus} 31.8 56.1 512 HI0621 651792 652556 glycerol-3-phosphate regulon repressor (glpR) {Escherichia coli} 61.5 77.4 252 HI1011 11073676 1073047 glycerol-3-phosphate regulon repressor (glpR) {Escherichia coli} 28.6 50.3 198 HI1197 1259493 1260395 glycine cleavage system transcriptional activator (gcvA) {Escherichia coli} 51.7 69.1 298 HI0013 13742 12837 GTP-binding protein (era) {Escherichia coli} 77.9 87.0 299 HI0879 930478 929309 GTP-binding protein (obg) {Bacillus subtilis} 47.7 70.9 332 HI0573 592001 591099 hydrogen peroxide-inducible activator (oxyR) {Escherichia coli} 71.1 85.9 298 HI0617 647526 646780 L-fucose operon activator (tucR) {Escherichia coli} 35.1 56.1 229 HI0401 420131 420952 lacZ expression regulator (icc) {Escherichia coli} 52.9 71.3 261 HI0225 253133 253636 leucine responsive regulatory protein (lrp) {Escherichia coli} 29.6 52.6 152 HI1602 1663150 1662653 leucine responsive regulatory protein (lrp) {Escherichia coli} 77.2 86.7 158 HI0751 809477 810103 LEXA repressor (lexA) {Escherichia coli} 68.1 85.3 202 HI1465 1542848 1542810 lipooligosaccharide protein (lex2A) {Haemophilus influenzae} 44.4 66.7 9 HI1466 1542849 1543428 lipooligosaccharide protein (lex2A) {Haemophilus influenzae} 50.0 66.7 48 HI0296 328190 327876 meIF aporepressor (metJ) {Escherichia coli} 81.9 93.3 105 HI14781 558154 1557312 molybdenum transport system alternative nitrogenase regulator (modD) 31.8 51.7 259 {Rhodobacter capsulalus} HI0200 214274 215227 msbB protein (msbB) {Escherichia coli} 45.3 67.0 301 HI0411 429238 430662 msbB protein (msbB) {Escherichia coli} 50.9 69.3 284 HI0712 756824 757117 negative regulator of translation (relB) {Escherichia coli} 28.3 48.3 60 HI0631 667822 668406 negative rpo regulalor (mclA) {Escherichia coli} 40.1 62.9 199 HI0269 299532 301232 nitrate sensor protein (narQ) {Escherichia coli} 38.6 63.0 555 HI0728 778003 777380 nitrate/nitrite response regulator protein (narP) {Escherichia coli} 59.6 79.3 205 HI0339 363915 364250 nitrogen regulatory protein P-II (glnB) {Escherichia coli} 77.7 93.8 112 HI1747 1828067 1826037 penta-phosphate guanosine-3′-pyrophosphohydrolase (spoT) {Escherichia 58.8 76.6 675 coli} HI1381 1475017 1473741 phosphate regulon sensor protein (phoR) {Escherichia coli} 41.8 66.8 335 HI1382 1475709 1475017 phosphate regulon transcriptional regulatory protein (phoB) {Escherichia 52.9 71.8 227 coli} HI0765 827030 825768 probable nadAB transcriptional regulator (nadR) {Escherichia coli} 54.6 75.1 349 HI1641 1697003 1698115 purine nucleotide synthesis repressor protein (purR) {Escherichia coli} 55.9 74.5 328 HI0164 178405 178713 putative murein gene regulator (bolA) {Escherichia coli} 47.1 65.7 102 HI0508 522278 523273 rbs repressor (rbsR) {Escherichia coli} 48.8 71.0 329 HI0565 582225 581776 regulatory protein (asnG) {Escherichia coli} 68.0 81.0 147 HI1617 1677452 1676583 regulatory protein sfs1 involved in maltose metabolism (sfsA) {Escherichia 54.3 71.2 218 coli} HI0895 946128 946688 repressor for cytochrome P450 (Bm3R1) {Bacillus megaterium} 23.3 50.6 182 HI0271 302396 303238 RNA polymerase sigma-32 factor (heal shock regulatory protein F334) 70.8 86.8 281 (rpoH) {Escherichia coli} HI0535 555646 557532 RNA polymerase sigma-70 factor (rpoD) {Escherichia coli} 68.9 80.8 608 HI0630 667228 667794 RNA polymerase sigma-E factor (rpoE) {Escherichia coli} 73.0 87.8 189 HI1713 1781137 1779785 sensor protein for basR (basS) {Escherichia coli} 30.0 55.7 253 HI1444 1529117 1528668 stringent starvation protein (sspB) {Escherichia coli} 63.2 81.1 106 HI1445 1529755 1529120 stringent starvation protein A (sspA) {Haemophilus somnus} 76.9 87.3 212 HI1745 1815630 1814704 trans-activator of metE and metH (metR) {Escherichia coli} 39.5 60.8 294 HI0360 382477 383121 transcription activator (tenA) {Bacillus subtilis} 27.8 48.3 208 HI0683 722643 721768 transcriptional activator protein (ilvY) {Escherichia coli} 47.4 70.3 293 HI1714 1781799 1781137 transcriptional regulatory protein (basR) {Escherichia coli} 43.5 59.7 216 HI0412 430780 431733 transcriptional regulatory protein (tyrR) {Escherichia coli} 48.2 66.8 306 HI0832 880611 880913 tryptophan repressor (trpR) {Enterobacter aerogenes} 39.8 67.0 88 HI0054 54188 54985 uxu operon regulator (uxuR) {Escherichia coli} 50.0 72.1 246 HI1109 1170415 1169255 xylose operon regluatory protein (xylR) {Escherichia coli} 57.3 75.3 384 Replication DNA - replication, restr/modification, recombination HI0761 822003 823136 A/G-specstic adenine glycosylase (mutY) {Escherichia coli} 61.6 75.1 341 HI0995 1056674 1055313 chromosomal replication initiator protein (dnaA) {Escherichia coli} 61.7 79.7 464 HI1229 1294415 1294317 chromosomal replication initiator protein (dnaA) {Escherichia coli} 50.0 75.0 12 HI0316 345720 345151 crossover junction endodeoxyribonuclease (ruvC) {Escherichia coli} 78.5 88.3 163 HI0955 1011537 1012736 dfp protein (dfp) {Escherichia coli} 61.1 76.8 402 HI0210 223259 224116 DNA adenine methylase (dam) {Escherichia coli} 55.4 71.4 266 HI1267 1343755 1341116 DNA gyrase, subunit A (gyrA) {Escherichia coli} 70.6 84.9 859 HI0569 587397 584980 DNA gyrase, subunit B (gyrB) {Escherichia coli} 74.7 85.9 803 HI1191 1255302 1253122 DNA helicase II (uvrD) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.8 97.5 727 HI1102 1162989 1160953 DNA ligase (lig) {Escherichia coli} 63.7 79.9 666 HI0405 423539 424207 DNA mismatch protein (mutH) {Escherichia coli} 60.4 80.7 212 HI0709 750565 753147 DNA mismatch repair protein (mutS) {Escherichia coli} 71.0 84.0 853 HI0067 69622 71508 DNA mismatch repair protein MUTL (mulL) {Escherichia coli} 50.2 67.3 612 HI0858 904919 902130 DNA polymerase I (polA) {Escherichia coli} 63.1 77.0 928 HI0994 1055297 1054200 DNA polymerase III beta-subunit (dnaN) {Escherichia coli} 62.6 80.3 366 HI0457 476761 475763 DNA polymerase III delta prime subunit (holB) {Escherichia coli} 35.3 57.4 316 HI0925 979730 980761 DNA polymerase III delta subunit (holA) {Escherichia coli} 45.2 62.0 332 HI0138 152669 151902 DNA polymerase III epsilon subunit (dnaQ) {Escherichia coli} 61.3 76.5 236 HI0741 799019 795544 DNA polymerase III, alpha chain (dnaE) {Escherichia coli) 71.9 85.7 1159 HI1402 1493690 1493259 DNA polymerase III, chi subunit (holC) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.9 98.9 88 HI0011 11672 11271 DNA polymerase III, psi subunit (holD) {Escherichia coli} 34.4 73.8 571 HI0534 553659 555645 DNA primase (dnaG) {Escherichia coli} 56.5 73.8 571 HI1746 1826037 1823959 DNA recombinase (recG) {Escherichia coli} 66.5 80.1 693 HI0070 77166 75493 DNA repair protein (recN) {Escherichia coli} 48.6 67.3 533 HI0659 699507 700058 DNA topoisomerase I (topA) {Bacillus subtilis} 34.2 55.0 110 HI0656 698124 697570 DNA-3-methyladenine glycosidase I (tagl) {Escherichia coli} 62.6 76.0 179 HI0730 779457 781969 DNA-dependent ATPase, DNA helicase (recQ) {Escherichia coli} 62.9 77.6 589 HI0568 584860 584159 dod protein (dod) {Serratia marcescens} 81.4 93.3 210 HI0062 65230 65664 dosage-dependent dnaK suppressor protein (dksA) {Escherichia coli} 73.9 83.8 142 HI0948 1005798 1004986 formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (fpg) {Escherichia coli} 57.6 74.7 269 HI0584 602405 600519 glucose inhibited division protein (gidA) {Escherichia coli} 76.1 87.3 627 HI0488 506816 506208 glucose inhibited division protein (gidB) {Escherichia coli} 64.0 78.0 200 HI0982 1037496 1037792 Hin recombinational enhancer binding protein (fis) {Escherichia coli} 81.6 92.9 97 HI0514 528338 527565 HincII endonuclease (HincII) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.4 98.4 258 HI1397 1491189 1490263 HindIII modification methyltransferase (hindIIIM) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.4 99.4 309 HI1398 1492072 1491173 HindIII restriction endonuclease (hindIlIR) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.7 99.7 300 HI0315 345085 344474 holliday junction DNA helicase (ruvA) {Escherichia coli} 58.8 79.9 203 HI0314 344463 343459 holliday junction DNA helicase (ruvB) {Escherichia coli} 80.9 90.0 330 HI0678 719064 718180 integrase/recombinase protein (xerC) {Escherichia coli} 58.0 74.4 293 HI1316 1391102 1391389 integration host factor alpha-subunit (himA) {Escherichia coli}) 63.8 83.0 94 HI1224 1291400 1291681 integration host factor beta-subunit (IHF-beta) (himD) {Escherichia coli} 56.5 77.2 92 HI0404 422970 423539 methylated-DNA--protein-cysteine methyltransferase (dat1) {Bacillus 40.1 61.7 163 subtilis} HI0671 713369 713806 mioC protein (mioC) {Escherichia coli} 53.5 71.5 144 HI1043 1104813 1105724 modification methylase HgiDI (MHgiDI) {Herpetosiphon aurantiacus} 56.4 70.5 297 HI0515 529891 528338 modification methylase HincII (hincIIM) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.2 98.6 502 HI0912 963611 964312 mutator mutT (AT-GC transversion) {Escherichia coli} 48.8 72.0 125 HI0193 206098 206688 negative modulator of initiation of replication (seqA) {Escherichia coli} 53.1 71.8 177 HI0548 568202 567879 primosomal protein n precursor (priB) {Escherichia coli} 57.4 75.2 101 HI0341 367532 365343 primosomal protein replication factor (priA) {Escherichia coli} 52.3 70.2 729 HI0389 406402 408321 probable ATP-dependent helicase (dinG) {Escherichia coli} 32.2 51.1 680 HI0993 1054243 1053119 recF protein (recF) {Escherichia coli} 57.0 75.8 356 HI0334 358532 359239 recD protein (recD) {Escherichia coli} 64.6 76.5 226 HI0602 621957 820896 recombinase (recA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 100.0 100.0 354 HI0061 64971 62573 recombination protein (rec2) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.9 99.9 800 HI0445 464118 464717 recR protein (recR) {Escherichia coli} 74.9 88.4 199 HI0601 620735 620358 regulatory protein (recX) {Pseudomonas fluorescens} 28.6 50.4 117 HI0651 694862 692768 rep helicase (rep) {Escherichia coli} 66.9 82.7 669 HI1232 1299240 1297177 replication protein (dnaX) {Escherichia coli} 52.9 69.8 643 HI1580 1641089 1642600 replicative DNA helicase (dnaB) {Escherichia coli} 68.6 82.8 462 HI1042 1103812 1104813 restriction enzyme (hgiDIR) {Herpetosiphon giganteus} 44.2 63.9 350 HI1175 1241423 1242574 S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 (metX) {Escherichia coli} 82.3 91.7 383 HI1429 1512463 1511552 shufflon-specific DNA recombinase (rci) {Escherichia coli} 31.1 55.5 259 HI0251 281830 282333 single-stranded DNA binding protein (ssb) {Haemophilus influenzae} 95.8 98.2 168 HI1578 1639113 1638016 site-specific recombinase (rcb) {Escherichia coli} 36.3 57.0 265 HI1368 1450325 1452928 topoisomerase I (topA) {Escherichia coli} 72.0 84.3 865 HI0446 464736 466688 topoisomerase III (topB) {Escherichia coli} 65.9 79.4 645 HI1535 1599641 1601881 topoisomerase IV subunit A (parC) {Escherichia coli} 71.4 85.4 727 HI1534 1597676 1599571 topoisomerase IV subunit B (parE) {Escherichia coli} 76.5 88.6 630 HI1261 1331575 1335011 transcription-repair coupling factor (trcF) (mfd) {Escherichia coli} 64.3 82.7 1134 HI0217 232884 234038 type I restriction enzyme ecokI specificity protein (hsdS) {Escherichia coli} 36.1 58.6 394 HI0216 231281 232797 type I restriction enzyme ECOR124/3 I M protein (hsdM) {Escherichia coli} 81.2 89.3 512 HI1290 1368549 1367223 type I restriction enzyme ECDR124/3 I M protein (hsdM) {Escherichia coli} 30.4 53.7 332 HI1288 1365756 1362592 type I restriction enzyme ECOR124/3 R protein (hsdR) {Escherichia coli} 30.4 52.7 991 HI1059 1123091 1121205 type III restriction-modification ECOP15 enzyme (mod) {Escherichia coli} 36.5 55.5 384 HI0018 18087 18743 uracil DNA glycosylase (ung) {Escherichia coli} 70.2 79.5 215 HI0311 342051 342941 xprB protein (xerD) {Escherichia coli} 68.9 84.8 296 Degradation of DNA HI1695 1758680 1759312 endonuclease III (nth) {Escherichia coli} 83.4 91.9 211 HI0250 278528 281829 excinuclease ABC subunit A (uvrA) {Escherichia coli} 81.2 91.0 940 HI1250 1323924 1321888 excinuclease ABC subunit B (uvrB) {Escherichia coli} 78.0 87.7 669 HI0057 58893 57067 excinuclease ABC subunit C (uvrC) {Escherichia coli} 65.9 80.0 588 HI1380 1471626 1473044 exodeoxyribonuctease I (sbcB) {Escherichia coli} 57.5 74.9 462 HI1324 1395898 1399530 exodeoxyriborluclesse V (recB) {Escherichia coli} 37.1 58.2 1165 HI0944 998895 1002257 exodeoxyribonuctease V (recC) {Escherichia coli} 40.1 61.2 1114 HI1325 1399533 1401452 exodeoxyribonuclease V (recD) {Escherichia coli} 40.0 59.3 570 HI0041 43872 43072 exonuclease III (xthA) {Eschenchia coli} 71.9 83.9 267 HI0399 417972 419288 exonuclease VII, large subunit (xseA) {Escherichia coli} 57.8 74.4 437 HI1217 1280795 1282519 single-stranded-DNA-Specific exonuclease (recJ) {Escherichia coli} 59.2 77.3 554 Transcription RNA synthesis, modification and DNA transcription HI0618 647724 650492 ATP-dependent helicase HEPA (hepA) {Escherichia coli} 53.6 73.6 968 HI0424 444751 443435 ATP-dependent RNA helicase (smB) {Escherichia coli} 39.8 60.9 448 HI0232 260978 262816 ATP-dependent RNA helicase DEAD (deaD) {Escherichia coli} 64.0 78.6 613 HI0804 851485 852468 DNA-directed RNA polymerase alpha chain (rpoA) {Escherichia coli} 91.8 97.0 329 HI0517 534212 538870 DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoB) {Salmonella typhimurium} 83.3 91.9 1342 HI0516 534211 529967 DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC) {Escherichia coli} 83.0 90.7 1399 HI1307 1383078 1383509 N utilization substance protein B (nusB) {Escherichia coli} 54.9 71.4 133 HI0063 65915 67269 plasmid copy number control protein (pcnB) {Escherichia coli} 55.7 73.4 404 HI0230 257702 259828 polynuctectide phosphorylase (pnp) {Escherichia coli} 74.2 86.7 708 HI0894 944630 945883 putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase (rhIB) {Escherichia coli} 73.9 84.1 410 HI1748 1828594 1828331 RNA polymerase omega subunit (rpoZ) {Escherichia coli} 64.8 76.1 88 HI1463 1542205 1541624 sigma factor (algU) {Pseudomonas aeruginosa} 27.6 48.8 168 HI0719 764847 765401 transcription antitemination protein (nusG) {Escherichia coli} 73.7 84.4 179 HI0571 589932 590405 transcription elongation factor (greB) {Escherichia coli} 61.5 79.5 156 HI1286 1358486 1360006 transcription factor (nusA) {Salmonella typhimurium} 70.8 84.1 499 HI0297 328437 329696 transcription termination factor rho (rho) {Escherichia coli} 87.4 95.2 419 Degradation of RNA HI0219 234848 237923 anticodon nuclease masking-agent (prD) {Escherichia coli} 72.9 85.6 291 HI1739 1810586 1808610 exoribonuclease II (RNasell) {Escherichia coli} 50.8 66.0 588 HI0392 411354 412550 ribonuclease D (md) {Escherichia coli} 41.3 65.5 365 HI0415 433540 436392 ribonuclease E (me) {Escherichia coli} 60.3 72.3 1058 HI0139 152730 153191 ribonuclease H (mh) {Escherichia coli} 64.9 76.0 154 HI1061 124258 1123668 ribonuclease HII (EC 31264) (RNASE HII) {Escherichia coli} 73.7 82.8 185 HI0014 14422 13742 ribonuclease III (mc) {Escherichia coli} 65.3 80.2 221 HI0275 306539 305826 ribonuclease PH (rph) {Escherichia coli} 78.9 87.8 237 HI1001 1063336 1063743 RNase P (mpA) {Escherichia coli} 69.7 80.7 119 HI0326 351726 352412 RNase T (mt) {Escherichia coli} 65.7 80.9 204 Translation Ribosomal proteins - synthesis, modification HI0518 539557 538871 ribosomal protein L1 (rpL1) {Escherichia coli} 85.6 93.4 229 HI0642 681369 681857 ribosomal protein L10 (rpL10) {Salmonella typhimurium} 80.5 89.0 165 HI0519 539990 539565 ribosomal protein L11 (rpL11) {Escherichia coli} 86.6 94.4 142 HI0980 1035484 1036371 ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferase (prmA) {Escherichia coli} 69.2 83.2 291 HI1447 1530773 1530348 ribosomal protein L13 (rpL13) {Haemophilus somnus} 94.4 95.8 142 HI0790 844379 844747 ribosomal protein L14 (rpL14) {Escherichia coli} 94.3 98.4 123 HI0799 847996 848427 ribosomal protein L15 (rpL15) {Escherichia coli} 82.6 91.0 144 HI0786 842244 842651 ribosomal protein L16 (rpL16) {Escherichia coli} 89.7 95.6 136 HI0805 852512 852895 ribosomal protein L17 (rp10) {Escherichia coli} 89.8 92.1 127 HI0796 846938 847288 ribosomal protein L18 (rpL18) {Escherichia coli} 84.6 91.5 117 HI0202 216787 216440 ribosomal protein L19 (rpL19) {Escherichia coli} 89.5 98.2 114 HI0782 840039 840857 ribosomal protein L2 (rpL2) {Escherichia coli} 85.7 93.4 2.73 HI1323 1395432 1395782 ribosomal protein L20 (rpL20) {Escherichia coli} 94.0 96.6 117 HI0882 932097 931789 ribosomal protein L21 (rpL21) {Escherichia coli} 79.6 86.4 103 HI0784 841173 841502 ribosomal protein L22 (rpL22) {Escherichia coli} 91.8 97.3 110 HI0781 839722 840018 ribosomal protein L23 (rpL23) {Escherichia coli} 71.7 82.8 99 HI0791 844761 845069 ribosomal protein L24 (rpL24) {Escherichia coli} 76.7 86.4 103 HI1636 1692153 1692437 ribosomal protein L25 (rpL25) {Escherichia coli} 61.9 77.4 84 HI0881 931428 931788 ribosomal protein L27 (rpL27) {Escherichia coli} 87.1 90.6 85 HI0953 1010494 1010261 ribosomal protein L28 (rpL28) {Escherichia coli} 85.7 94.8 77 HI0787 842654 842842 ribosomal protein L29 (rpL29) {Escherichia coli} 75.8 87.1 62 HI0779 838481 839104 ribosomal protein L3 (rpL3) {Escherichia coli} 85.2 92.3 209 HI0798 847813 847989 ribosomal protein L30 (rpL30) {Escherichia coli} 79.7 86.4 59 HI0760 821826 821617 ribosomal protein L31 (rpL31) {Escherichia coli} 71.4 85.7 70 HI0159 174441 174274 ribosomal protein L32 (rpL32) {Escherichia coli} 77.2 86.0 57 HI0952 1010246 1010079 ribosomal protein L33 (rpL33) {Escherichia coli} 81.5 90.7 54 HI1000 1063233 1063364 ribosomal protein L34 (rpL34) {Escherichia coli} 86.4 93.2 44 HI1322 1395096 1395269 ribosomal protein L35 (rpL35) {Escherichia coli} 75.0 90.6 32 HI0780 839123 839722 ribosomal protein L4 (rpL4) {Escherichia coli} 83.6 93.0 201 HI0792 845090 845626 ribosomal protein L5 (rpL5) {Escherichia coli} 90.5 96.1 179 HI0795 846391 846921 ribosomal protein L6 (rpL6) {Escherichia coli} 75.1 90.4 177 HI0643 681915 682283 ribosomal protein L7/L12 (rpL7/L12) {Escherichia coli} 82.0 91.8 121 HI0546 567619 567173 ribosomal protein L9 (rpL9) {Escherichia coli} 72.5 85.9 149 HI1223 1289629 1291274 ribosomal protein S1 (rpS1) {Escherichia coli} 79.3 88.7 557 HI0778 838108 838461 ribosomal protein S10 (rpS10) {Escherichia coli} 98.1 99.0 103 HI0802 850416 850802 ribosomal protein S11 (rpS11) {Escherichia coli} 92.2 96.1 129 HI0801 850045 850397 ribosomal protein S13 (rpS13) {Escherichia coli} 86.4 93.2 118 HI0793 845641 845943 ribosomal protein S14 (rpS14) {Escherichia coli} 89.9 94.9 99 HI1331 1405806 1406072 ribosomal protein S15 (rpS15) {Escherichia coli} 80.9 86.5 89 HI1473 1554091 1553825 ribosomal protein S15 (rpS16) {Escherichia coli} 80.9 86.5 89 HI0205 218422 218177 ribosomal protein S16 (rpS16) {Escherichia coli} 70.7 85.4 82 HI0788 842845 843099 ribosomal protein S17 (rpS17) {Escherichia coli} 70.7 85.4 82 HI0547 567863 567639 ribosomal protein S18 (rpS18) {Escherichia coli} 85.7 94.0 84 HI0783 840886 841158 ribosomal protein S19 (rpS19) {Escherichia coli} 92.0 94.7 75 HI0915 967289 968041 ribosomal protein S2 (rpS2) {Escherichia coli} 82.2 89.2 241 HI0533 553446 553658 ribosomal protein S21 (rpS21) {Escherichia coli} 83.1 87.3 71 HI0785 841523 842227 ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) {Escherichia coli} 87.2 93.2 233 HI0803 850833 851450 ribosomal protein S4 (rpS4) {Escherichia coli} 89.3 94.7 206 HI0797 847306 847803 ribosomal protein S5 (rpS5) {Escherichia coli} 92.8 95.8 166 HI0549 568566 568192 ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) {Escherichia coli} 76.8 87.2 125 HI1537 1604087 1603182 ribosomal protein S6 modification protein (rimK) {Escherichia coli} 45.3 69.0 272 HI0582 599803 599336 ribosomol protein S7 (rpS7) {Escherichia coli} 89.7 94.2 155 HI0794 845983 846372 ribosomal protein S8 (rpS8) {Escherichia coli} 86.2 90.8 130 HI1446 1530328 1529939 ribosomal protein S9 (rpS9) {Haemophilus somnus} 94.6 98.5 130 HI0010 11292 10828 ribosomal-protein-alanine acetyltransferase (riml) {Escherichia coli} 55.9 73.1 144 HI0583 600334 599963 streptomycin resistance protein (strA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 100.0 100.0 124 Amino acyl tRNA Synthetases, tRNA modification HI0816 865547 862926 alanyl-tRNA synthetase (alaS) {Escherichia coli} 68.2 82.6 873 HI1589 1648685 1650415 arginyl-IRNA synthetase (argS) {Escherichia coli} 71.2 83.5 577 HI1305 1382405 1380975 asparaginyl-tRNA synthetase (asnS) {Escherichia coli} 80.6 90.8 465 HI0319 348931 347168 aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (aspS) {Escherichia coli} 76.2 85.5 585 HI0078 85367 83991 cys-tRNA synthetase (cysS) {Escherichia coli} 75.7 87.0 461 HI0710 753356 754738 cysteinyl-tRNA (ser) selenium transferase (selA) {Escherichia coli} 58.8 75.8 454 HI1357 1431798 1433466 glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (glnS) {Escherichia coli} 75.7 86.9 547 HI0276 308282 306843 glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (gltX) {Escherichia coli} 72.4 84.3 464 HI0929 985024 984119 glycyl-tRNA synthetase alpha chain (glyQ) {Escherichia coli} 90.6 94.6 299 HI0926 983065 981002 glycyl-tRNA synthetase beta chain (glyS) {Escherichia coli} 69.7 81.9 689 HI0371 392076 393344 histidine-tRNA synthetase (hisS) {Escherichia coli} 66.8 79.1 421 HI0964 1021072 1018250 isoleucyl-tRNA ligase (ileS) {Escherichia coli} 66.0 78.5 934 HI0923 976547 979129 leucyl-tRNA synthetase (leuS) {Escherichia coli} 72.3 82.2 859 HI1214 1278435 1276930 lysyl-tRNA synthetase (lysU) {Escherichia coli} 70.2 84.3 505 HI0838 885271 886269 lysyl-tRNA synthetase analog (genX) {Escherichia coli} 62.7 78.5 331 HI0625 662613 663566 methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (fmt) {Escherichia coli} 65.0 77.4 313 HI1279 1353301 1351256 methionyl-tRNA synthetase (metG) {Escherichia coli} 69.0 83.3 677 HI0396 416278 415697 peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (pth) {Escherichia coli} 64.2 80.5 190 HI1314 1387690 1388676 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase beta-subunit (pheS) {Escherichia coli} 75.0 82.0 327 HI1315 1388713 1391097 phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase beta-subunit (pheT) {Escherichia coli} 65.3 80.1 795 HI0731 781970 783684 prolyl-tRNA synthetase (proS) {Escherichia coli} 74.9 86.8 570 HI1650 1709685 1708879 pseudouridylate synthase I (hisT) {Escherichia coli} 69.2 82.7 260 HI0246 273589 272501 queuosine biosynthesis protein (queA) {Escherichia coli} 72.5 85.7 346 HI0201 215333 216439 selenium metabolism protein (selD) {Escherichia coli} 66.1 80.6 330 HI0110 117234 118520 seryl-tRNA synthetase (serS) {Escherichia coli} 77.6 86.5 430 HI1370 1453876 1455804 threonyl-tRNA synthetase (thrS) {Escherichia coli} 77.9 86.1 642 HI0245 272154 271009 transfer RNA-guanine transglycosylase (tgt) {Escherichia coli} 81.3 91.5 374 HI0203 217564 216827 tRNA (guanine-N1)-methyltransferase (M1G-methyltransferase) (tmD) 83.2 93.0 244 {Escherichia coli} HI0850 894301 895389 tRNA (uracil-5-)-methyltransferase (tmA) {Escherichia coli} 64.6 80.4 362 HI0068 71519 72451 tRNA delta(2)-isopentenylpyrophosphate transferase (trpX) {Escherichia 69.8 87.4 300 coli} HI1612 1671420 1672667 tRNA nucleotidyltransferase (cca) {Escherichia coli} 58.4 73.4 404 HI0242 270097 269807 tRNA-guanine-transglycosylase (tgt) {Escherichia coli} 62.4 81.7 92 HI0639 678958 677957 tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (trpS) {Escherichia coli} 78.1 86.2 334 HI1616 1676533 1675331 tyrosyl tRNA synthetase (tyrS) {Thiobacillus ferrooxidans} 53.6 72.6 398 HI1396 1490259 1487398 valyl-tRNA synthetase (valS) {Escherichia coli} 70.8 83.3 951 Nucleoproteins HI0187 200140 200544 DNA binding protein (probable) {Bacillus subtilis} 43.4 64.2 106 HI1496 1568461 1568685 DNA-binding protein (rdgB) {Erwinia carotovora} 42.4 60.6 67 HI1593 1655153 1655554 DNA-binding protein H-NS (hna) {Escherichia coli} 47.4 65.2 135 HI0432 453511 453104 DNA-binding protein HU-ALPHA (NS2) (HU-2) {Escherichia coli} 78.9 86.7 90 Proteins - translation and modification HI0848 893035 893757 disulfide oxidoreductase (per) {Haemophilus influenzae} 100.0 100.0 205 HI0987 1042200 1041082 DNA processing chain A (dprA) {Escherichia coli} 44.8 60.2 358 HI0916 968177 969025 elongation factor EF-Ts (tsf) {Escherichia coli} 71.4 85.0 260 HI0580 597082 595901 elongation factor EF-Tu (duplicate) (tufB) {Escherichia coli} 92.6 95.9 394 HI0634 671167 672348 elongatien factor EF-Tu (duplicate) (tufB) {Escherichia coli} 92.6 95.9 394 HI0581 599249 597150 elongation factor G (fusA) {Escherichia coli} 64.6 92.0 704 HI0330 355617 355054 elongation factor P (efp) {Escherichia coli} 75.0 85.6 188 HI0069 72460 75402 glutamate-ammonia-ligase adenylyltransferase (glnE) {Escherichia coli} 52.5 69.7 914 HI1321 1394551 1394954 initiation factor 3 (infC) {Escherichia coli} 82.8 94.8 134 HI0550 569019 568768 initiation factor IF-1 (infA) {Escherichia coli} 94.4 98.6 72 HI1287 1360021 1362507 initiation factor IF-2 (infB) {Escherichia coli} 70.9 84.5 842 HI1155 1218859 1220211 maturation of antibiotic MccB17 (pmbA) {Escherichia coli} 60.8 78.7 450 HI1728 1794724 1793921 methionine aminopeptidase (map) {Escherichia coli} 64.3 79.8 262 HI0430 450570 451100 oxido-reductase (dsbB) {Escherichia coli} 43.8 68.8 174 HI1215 1279684 1278589 peptide chain release factor 2 (prfB) {Salmonella typhimurium} 81.7 93.7 365 HI1741 1811636 1813216 peptide-chain-release factor 3 (prfC) {Escherichia coli} 86.0 93.4 527 HI0079 85470 85976 peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase B (ppiB) {Escherichia coli} 71.3 80.5 163 HI1567 1631427 1630345 polypeptide chain release factor 1 (prfA) {Salmonella typhimurium} 72.5 68.3 360 HI0624 662011 662517 polypeptide deformylase (formylmethionine deformylase) (def) {Escherichia 65.1 79.9 169 coli} HI0810 857270 856716 ribosome releasing factor (frr) {Escherichia coli} 66.1 64.9 185 HI0575 593158 592940 rotamase, peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (slyD) {Escherichia coli} 50.7 73.1 67 HI0701 745982 745413 rotamase, peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (slyD) {Escherichia coli} 68.3 79.4 187 HI1334 1408450 1408923 transcription elongation factor (greA) {Escherichia coli} 79.7 89.9 158 HI0711 754738 756593 translation factor (selB) {Escherichia coli} 44.0 64.7 606 HI1216 1279817 1280503 xprA protein (xprA) {Escherichia coli} 45.4 67.4 227 Degradation of proteins, peptides, glycopeptides HI0877 927500 928801 aminopeptidase A (pepA) {Rickettsia prowazekii} 39.6 57.9 313 HI1711 1775967 1777439 aminopeptidase a/i (pepA) {Escherichia coli} 57.3 77.5 497 HI1620 1682194 1679588 aminopeptidase N (pepN) {Escherichia coli} 60.9 75.6 864 HI0818 867554 866265 aminopeptidase P (pepP) {Escherichia coli} 54.6 73.6 435 HI0716 762461 763039 ATP-dependent clp protease proteolytic component (clpP) {Escherichia coli} 71.0 88.1 193 HI0717 763052 764284 ATP-dependent protease ATPase subunit (clpX) {Escherichia coli} 70.2 83.2 413 HI0861 906379 908946 ATP-dependent protease binding subunit (clpB) {Escherichia coli} 77.4 88.6 857 HI0421 440910 442289 collagenase activity collagenase (prtC) {Porphyromonas gingivalis} 31.1 53.4 206 HI0151 166695 165811 HFLC protein (hflC) {Escherichia coli} 58.5 78.2 329 HI0248 274175 276400 lgA1 protease (iga1) {Haemophilus influenzae} 28.6 51.5 759 HI0992 1047674 1053118 lgA1 protease (iga1) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.8 99.9 1702 HI0249 278527 276401 lgA1 protease (igal) {Haemophilus influenzae} 45.2 62.5 791 HI1327 1402067 1403869 Ion protease (Ion) {Bacillus brevis} 24.2 46.6 714 HI0215 229004 231046 oligopeptidase A (prlD) {Escherichia coli} 72.0 84.8 678 Hl0677 716670 718121 peptidase D (pepD) {Escherichia coli} 55.8 72.2 485 HI0589 608542 607865 peptidase E (pepE) {Escherichia coli} 41.4 60.0 214 HI1351 1423832 1425067 peptidase T (pepT) {Salmonella typhimurium} 53.3 71.4 398 HI1262 1336467 1335070 periplasmic serine protease Do and heat shock protein (htrA) {Escherichia 55.8 73.9 469 coli} HI1603 1664636 1663212 probable ATP-dependent protease (sms) {Escherichia coli} 80.0 92.2 460 HI0724 768169 768786 proline dipeptidase (pepQ) {Escherichia coli} 53.7 70.2 204 HI0137 151209 151901 protease (prtH) {Porphyromonas gingivalis} 52.6 64.9 57 HI1547 1613228 1611384 protease IV (sppA) {Escherichia coli} 43.7 64.0 607 HI0152 167927 166698 protease specific for phage lambda cII repressor (hflK) {Escherichia coli} 55.8 72.6 396 HI1688 1751031 1752089 putative protease (sohB) {Escherichia coli} 53.3 74.5 348 HI0532 553214 552189 sialoglycoprotease (gcp) {Pasteurella haemolytica} 81.8 91.5 319 Transport/binding proteins Amino acids, peptides, amines HI1183 1247387 1246659 arginine transport ATP-binding protein artP (artP) {Escherichia coli} 65.8 83.1 242 HI1180 1245250 1244570 arginine transport system permease protein (artM) {Escherichia coli} 55.7 79.9 218 HI1181 1245915 1245253 arginine transport system permease protein (artQ) {Escherichia coli} 59.0 77.8 229 HI0254 284235 283786 biopolymer transport protein (exbB) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.0 98.7 150 HI0253 283779 283339 biopolymer transport protein (exbD) {Escherichia coli} 28.8 55.1 118 HI1734 1801710 1800520 branched chain aa transport system II carrier protein (braB) {Pseudomonas 28.4 49.8 279 aeruginosa} HI0885 935516 934149 D-alanine permease (dagA) {Alteromonas haloplanktis} 43.2 65.5 527 HI1188 1251117 1250128 dipeptide transport ATP-binding protein (dppD) {Escherichia coli} 74.2 84.0 326 HI1187 1250122 1249142 dipeptide transport ATP-binding protein (dppF) {Escherichia coli} 76.4 87.1 325 HI1126 1189626 1188709 dipeptide transport system permease protein (dppB) {Escherichia coli} 34.1 60.7 337 HI1190 1253029 1252031 dipeptide transport system permease protein (dppB) {Escherichia coli} 61.1 79.2 337 HI1189 1252013 1251130 dipeptide transport system permease protein (dppC) {Escherichia coli} 63.8 83.3 287 HI1536 1601926 1603137 glutamate permease (gltS) {Escherichia coli} 53.9 73.0 391 HI1081 146102 1145389 gtutamine transport system permease protein (glnP) {Escherichia coli} 37.6 59.0 212 HI1082 1146859 1146089 glutamine-binding periplasmic protein (glnH) {Escherichia coli} 28.4 48.2 222 HI0410 429066 428263 leucine-specific transport protein (livG) {Escherichia coli} 28.1 55.2 250 HI0227 255068 256375 membrane-associated component, LIV-II transport system (bmQ) 32.9 60.4 425 {Salmonella typhimurium} HI0214 228528 226987 oligopeptide binding protein (oppA) {Escherichia coli} 31.7 53.5 473 HI1127 1191333 1189710 oligopeptide binding protein (oppA) {Escherichia coli} 52.6 69.0 527 HI1124 1187751 1186783 oligopeptide transport ATP-binding protein (oppD) {Salmonella 77.2 85.0 320 typhimurium} HI1123 1186783 1185788 oligopeptide transport ATP-binding protein (oppF) {Salmonella typhimurium} 71.5 83.9 329 HI1125 1188696 1187784 oligopeptide transport system permease protein (oppC)C {Salmonella 71.1 87.4 300 typhimurium} HI1644 1702355 1704049 peptide transport periplasmic protein (sapA) {Salmonella typhimurium} 39.3 63.8 504 HI1647 1705898 1706944 peptide transport system ATP-binding protein (sapD) {Salmonella 62.4 80.0 330 typhimurium} HI1646 1705007 1705891 dipeptide transport system permease protein (dppC) {Escherichia coli} 36.2 59.9 279 HI1645 1704052 1705014 peptide transport system permease protein (sapB) {Salmonella 34.4 63.8 319 typhimurium} HI1182 1246838 1245922 periplasmic arginine-binding protein (artl) {Pasteurella haemolytica} 58.6 73.4 234 HI1157 1221270 1222589 proton glutamate symport protein (gltP) {Bacillus caldotenax} 26.6 53.6 395 HI0592 611920 610616 putrescine transport protein (potE) {Escherichia coli} 77.2 88.0 434 HI0291 324543 323308 serine transporter (sdaC) {Escherichia coli} 61.0 77.8 411 HI1350 1423563 1422421 spermidine/putrescine transport ATP-binding protein (potA) {Escherichia 68.1 83.1 378 HI1349 1422434 1421577 spermidine/putrescine transport system permease protein (potS) 61.5 83.6 275 HI1348 1421548 1420808 spermidine/putrescine transport system permease protein (potC) 72.4 88.9 243 {Escherichia coli} HI0500 514110 513175 spermidine/putrescine-binding periplasmic protein precursor (potD) 59.2 75.2 309 {Escherichia coli} HI1347 1420732 1419596 spermidine/putrescine-binding periplasmic protein precursor (potD) 54.1 71.6 330 {Escherichia coli} HI0289 320539 321792 tryptophan-specific permease (mtr) {Escherichia coli} 55.8 72.5 396 HI0479 497829 499028 tyrosine-specific transport protein (tyrP) {Escherichia coli} 46.1 68.2 401 HI0530 551559 550342 tyrosine-specific transport protein (tyrP) {Escherichia coli} 45.4 65.4 404 Cations HI0255 284871 284407 bacterioferritin comigratory protein (bcp) {Eschenchia. coli} 62.3 79.9 154 HI1275 1347862 1348650 ferric enterobactin transport ATP-binding protein (fepC) {Escherichia coli} 29.4 51.3 238 HI1475 1555193 1554435 ferric enterobactin transport ATP-binding protein (fepC) {Escherichia coli} 33.2 54.8 220 HI1471 1549654 1551853 ferrichrome-iron receptor (fhuA) {Escherichia coli} 26.4 48.9 710 HI1388 1479930 1480475 ferritin like protein (rsgA) {Escherichia coli} 57.4 79.0 162 HI1389 1480494 1480988 ferritin like protein (rsgA) {Escherichia coli} 57.3 73.8 164 HI0363 385804 384887 iron(III) dicitrate transport ATP-binding protein FECE {Escherichia coli} 35.9 56.4 220 HI1274 1347324 1347861 iron(III) dicitrate transport system permease protein (fecD) {Escherichia 36.0 64.0 255 coli} HI1037 1099321 1100265 magnesium and cobalt transport protein (corA) {Escherichia coli} 70.3 84.8 316 HI0097 103798 104679 major ferric iron binding protein precursor (fbp) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 69.7 82.3 293 HI1051 1114308 1114635 mercuric transport protein (merT) {Pseudomonas aeruginosa} 25.0 55.2 99 HI1052 1114651 1114926 mercury scavenger protein (merP) {Pseudomonas fluorescens} 29.3 45.7 91 HI0294 327396 327193 mercury scavenger protein (merP) {Pseudomonas fluorescens} 32.8 67.2 67 HI1531 1594953 1594219 molybdate-binding periplasmic protein precursor (modB) {Azotobacter 21.7 43.0 245 vinelandii} HI0226 254880 253681 NA(+)/H(+) antiporter 1 (rhaA) {Escherichia coli} 52.6 74.6 380 HI0429 448992 450557 Na+/H+ antiporter (nhaB) {Escherichia coli} 70.6 87.5 501 HI1110 1171933 1170530 Na+/H+ antiporter (nhaC) {Bacillus firmus} 37.5 62.0 382 HI0098 104899 106317 periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent iron transport protein (stuB) 38.1 59.5 457 {Serratia marcescens} HI1479 1558763 1558167 periplasmic-binding-protein-dependent iron transport protein (sfuC) 39.9 58.0 197 {Serratia marcescens} HI0913 964424 966276 potassium efflux system (kelC) {Escherichia coli} 40.9 65.7 594 HI0292 326934 324769 potassium/copper-transportING ATPase A (copA) {Enterococcus faecalis} 42.9 64.4 723 HI1355 1429787 1428276 sodium/proline symporter (proline permease) (putP) {Escherichia coli} 62.8 79.1 489 HI0252 283326 282517 tonB protein (tonB) {Haemophilus influenzae} 96.2 98.5 261 HI0627 664922 666362 TRK system potassium uptake protein (trkA) {Escherichia coli} 65.8 83.4 458 Carbohydrates, organic alcohols & acids HI0020 22097 20661 2-oxoglutarate/malate translocator (SODiT1) {Spinacia oleracea} 35.8 59.6 452 HI0824 872894 873940 D-galactose-binding periplasmic protein (mglB) {Escherichia coli} 67.6 81.2 329 HI1113 1176024 1174516 D-xylose transport ATP-binding protein (xylG) {Escherichia coli} 71.5 85.8 501 HI1114 1177073 1176078 D-xylose-binding penplasmic protein (rbsB) {Escherichia coli} 76.0 88.4 328 HI1718 1785024 1783300 enzyme I (ptsl) {Salmonella typhimurium} 70.2 84.3 574 HI0182 194818 193967 formate transporter (formate channel) {Escherichia coli} 53.2 73.4 263 HI0450 471781 470285 fructose-permease IIA/FPR component (fruB) {Escherichia coli} 51.5 68.3 374 HI0448 469337 467670 fructose-permease IIBC component (truA) {Escherichia coli} 57.2 72.2 552 HI0614 643282 642851 fucose operon protein (fucu) {Escherichia coli} 66.3 80.0 94 HI0692 733673 734484 glpF protein (glpF) {Escherichia coli} 73.6 87.2 258 HI1019 1080518 1081194 glpF protein (glpP) {Escherichia coli} 30.6 54.6 208 HI1017 1078404 1079867 gluconate permease (gntP) {Bacillus subtilis} 29.1 56.4 442 HI1717 1783237 1782740 glucose phosphotransferase enzyme III-glc (crr) {Escherichia coli} 73.2 83.3 169 HI0688 729474 730914 glycerol-3-phosphatase transporter (glpT) {Escherichia coli} 64.5 78.9 445 HI0504 517869 519347 high affinity ribose transport protein (rbsA) {Escherichia coli} 71.1 85.4 494 HI0505 519363 520331 high affinity ribose transport protein (rbsC) {Escherichia coli} 68.0 86.5 303 HI0503 517436 517852 high affinity ribose transport protein (rbsD) {Escherichia coli} 59.0 78.4 139 HI0612 542139 640856 L-fucose permease (fucP) {Escherichia coli} 35.6 57.9 413 HI1221 1288578 1286983 L-lactate permease (lctP) {Escherichia coli} 30.2 53.9 532 HI1735 1802527 1801757 lactam utilization protein (lamB) {Emericella nidulans} 41.3 60.3 130 HI0825 874009 875526 mglA protein (mglA) {Escherichia coli} 73.9 84.6 506 HI0826 875546 876553 mglC protein (mglC) {Escherichia coli} 79.2 90.2 336 HI0506 520354 521229 periplasmic ribose-binding protein (rbsB) {Escherichia coli} 73.9 86.6 291 HI1719 1785361 1785107 phosphohistidinoprotein-hexose phosphotransterase (ptsH) {Escherichia 77.6 88.2 85 coli} HI0830 878480 878773 potassium channel homolog (kch) {Escherichia coli} 67.7 80.2 96 HI0154 170140 168807 putative aspartate transport protein (dcuA) {Escherichia coli} 46.4 69.9 436 HI0748 803856 805175 putative aspartate transport protein (dcuA) {Escherichia coli} 42.6 70.1 435 HI1112 1174509 1173385 ribose transport permease protein (xylH) {Escherichia coli} 69.8 84.1 371 HI1696 1759373 1760743 sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter {Homo sapiens} 29.3 52.6 471 HI0738 790926 789403 sodium-dependent noradrenaline transporter {Homo sapiens} 31.1 54.2 523 Nucleosides, purines & pyrimidines HI1089 1151815 1151024 ribonucleotide transport ATP-binding protein (mkl) {Mycobacterrum leprae} 42.2 61.5 244 HI1230 1296319 1295078 uracil permease (ursA) {Escherichia coli} 37.2 61.6 400 Anions HI1104 1164213 1165028 cysteine synthetase (cysZ) {Escherichia coli} 53.7 76.3 190 HI1697 1761825 1760773 hydrophilic membrane-bound protein (modC) {Escherichia coli} 55.9 74.5 263 HI1698 1762501 1761815 hydrophobic membrane-bound protein (modB) {Escherichia coli} 65.9 84.8 223 HI1384 1477430 1476585 integral membrane protein (patA) {Escherichia coli} 59.6 77.6 272 HI0356 380045 380764 nitrate transporter ATPase component (nasD) {Klebsiella pneumoniae} 34.9 57.8 254 HI1383 1475710 1475584 peripheral membrane protein B (pstB) {Escherichia coli} 77.0 86.8 256 HI1385 1478379 1477435 peripheral membrane protein C (pstC) {Escherichia coli} 57.3 78.7 300 HI1386 1479246 1478473 periplasmic phosphate-binding protein (pstS) {Escherichia coli} 49.8 67.7 256 HI1387 1479247 1479929 periplasmic phosphate-binding protein (pstS) {Escherichia coli} 63.8 75.4 69 HI1610 1669474 1670733 phosphate permease (YBR296C) {Saccharomyces cerevisiae} 35.6 60.0 551 Other HI0060 62564 60804 ATP dependent translocator homolog (msbA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 100.0 100.0 458 HI0623 653683 662010 ATP-binding protein (abc) {Escherichia coli} 74.0 86.5 200 HI1625 1686470 1686186 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator {Bos taurus} 35.3 60.8 233 HI0855 899042 900688 heme-binding lipoprotein (dppA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 98.9 99.3 547 HI0266 295639 298353 heme-hemopexin-binding protein (hxuA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 82.1 89.5 928 HI1476 1556199 1555189 hemin permease (hemu) {Yersinia enterocolitica} 36.1 62.7 325 HI0264 291684 293852 hemin receptor precursor (hemR) {Yersinia enterocolitica} 28.5 45.9 678 HI1712 1779487 1777481 high-affinity choline transport protein (betT) {Escherichia coli} 34.7 61.6 653 HI0663 705327 703054 lactoferin binding protein (lbpA) {Neisseria meningitidis} 30.2 47.9 763 HI0610 637954 639336 Na+/sulfate cotransporter {Rattus norvegicus} 34.4 57.8 562 HI0977 1032420 1033871 pantothenate permease (panF) {Escherichia coli} 60.2 77.9 478 HI0714 760739 757488 transferrin binding protein 1 precursor (tbp1) {Neisseria meningitidis} 29.9 48.6 894 HI0996 1059604 1056869 transferrin binding protein 1 precursor (tbp1) {Neisseria meningitidis} 51.2 69.5 885 HI1220 1286725 1283987 transferrin binding protein 1 precursor (tbp1) {Neisseria meningitidis} 28.4 46.8 902 HI0997 1061509 1059635 transferrin binding protein 2 precursor (tbp2) {Neisseria meningitidis} 39.9 54.7 692 HI0975 1029676 1030542 transferrin-binding protein (tfbA) {Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae} 28.9 46.0 578 HI1571 1633105 1633993 transferrin-binding protein 1 (tbp1) {Neisseria meningitidis} 41.3 59.5 727 HI0637 676956 674098 transferrin-binding protein 1 (tbp2) {Neisseria gonorrhoeae} 31.6 51.7 828 HI0665 706622 708309 transport ATP-binding protein (cydD) {Escherichia coli} 26.4 54.0 561 HI1160 1226897 1225140 transport ATP-binding protein (cydD) {Eschenchia coli} 50.7 73.5 588 Cellular processes Chaperones HI0544 565037 565324 chaperonin (groES) (mopB) {Escherichia coli} 87.5 94.8 96 HI0545 565350 566993 heat shock protein (groEL) (mopA) {Haemophilus ducreyi} 89.8 94.9 547 HI1241 1310497 1311678 heat shock protein (dnaJ) {Escherichia coli} 68.0 82.5 376 HI0104 111572 109680 heat shock protein C62.5 (htpG) {Escherichia coli} 75.4 88.3 621 HI0375 396463 394607 hsc66 protein (hsc66) {Escherichia coli} 69.2 82.0 616 HI1240 1308539 1310443 hsp70 protein (dnaK) {Escherichia coli} 78.5 88.2 638 Cell division HI0771 831200 831853 cell division ATP-binding protein (ftsE) {Escherichia coli} 64.1 78.3 216 HI1121 11275245 1274358 cell division inhibitor (sulA) {Vibrio cholerae} 33.9 55.7 116 HI1145 1210058 1211332 cell division protein (ftsA) {Escherichia coli} 52.8 74.2 420 HI1338 1410017 1412129 cell division protein (ftsH) {Escherichia coli} 75.2 87.8 624 HI1470 1549516 1546374 cell division protein (ftsH) {Escherichia coli} 77.8 88.3 369 HI1337 1409390 1410016 cell division protein (ftsJ) {Escherichia coli} 81.7 90.4 208 HI1134 1196901 1197221 cell division protein (ftsL) {Escherichia coli} 36.6 60.4 101 HI1144 1209275 1210036 cell division protein (ftsQ) {Escherichia coli} 40.6 58.5 231 HI1140 1204467 1205648 cell division protein (ftsW) {Escherichia coli} 52.3 74.9 374 HI0770 829937 831178 cell division protein (ftsY) {Escherichia coli} 66.0 81.1 497 HI1146 1211419 1212681 cell division protein (ftsZ) {Escherichia coli} 67.2 83.1 306 HI1377 1465224 1469760 cell division protein (mukB) {Escherichia coli} 61.4 77.3 1455 HI1356 1429903 1431375 cytoplasmic axial filament protein (cafA) {Escherichia coli} 71.0 86.3 488 HI0772 831866 832795 ftsX protein (ftsX) {Escherichia coli} 43.5 69.9 292 HI1067 1128511 1129221 mukB suppressor protein (smbA) {Escherichia coli} 77.4 90.2 235 HI1135 1197237 1199067 penicillin-binding protein 3 (ftsl) {Escherichia coli} 52.8 70.7 564 Protein, peptide secretion HI0016 17278 15485 GTP-binding membrane protein (lepA) {Escherichia coli} 85.6 91.0 597 HI1472 1551915 1553681 colicin V secretion ATP-binding protein (cvaB) {Escherichia coli} 29.9 56.0 373 HI1008 1070885 1071397 lipoprotein signal peptidase (lspA) {Escherichia coli} 51.3 71.5 158 HI1648 1706947 1707753 peptide transport system ATP-binding protein SAPF (sapP) {Escherichia coli} 49.6 70.8 264 HI0718 764525 764842 preprotein translocase (secE) {Escherichia coli} 40.6 62.3 106 HI0800 848438 849760 preprotein translocase SECY subunit (secY) {Escherichia coli} 74.7 86.9 443 HI0241 269734 267887 protein-export membrane protein (secD) {Escherichia coli} 59.6 77.3 615 HI0240 267876 266902 protein-export membrane protein (secF) {Escherichia coli} 48.0 73.0 302 HI0447 466800 467135 protein-export membrane protein (secG) {Escherichia coli} 58.9 81.3 110 HI0745 801965 801459 protein-export protein (secB) {Escherichia coli} 56.2 80.8 145 HI0911 961135 963837 secA protein (secA) {Escherichia coli} 68.0 81.7 896 HI0015 15473 14427 signal peptidase I (lepB) {Escherichia coli} 46.3 65.1 319 HI0106 114073 112688 signal recognition particle protein (54 homolog) (ffh) {Escherichia coli} 79.9 90.9 452 HI0715 761040 762335 trigger factor (tig) {Escherichia coli} 64.4 80.3 432 HI0298 330445 329756 type 4 prepilin-like protein specific leader peptidase (hopt)) {Escherichia 27.2 49.0 208 coli} HI0299 331661 330445 xcpS protein (xcpS) {Pseudomonas putida} 29.2 56.7 396 Detoxification HI0930 985290 986813 KW20 catalasa (hktE) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.2 99.4 508 HI1090 1152892 1152248 superoxide dismutase (sodA) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.0 99.5 209 HI1004 1065726 1067108 thiophene and furan oxidation protein (thdF) {Escherichia coli} 73.8 85.4 451 Cell killing HI0303 334801 335697 hemolysin (tlyC) {Serpulina hyodysenteriae} 36.9 57.5 252 HI1664 1723070 1723648 hemolysin, 21 kDa (hly) {Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae} 54.5 72.4 156 HI1376 1464493 1465221 killing protein (kicA) {Escherichia coli} 69.0 83.6 222 HI1375 1463019 1464443 killing protein suppressor (kicB) {Escherichia coli} 66.9 83.0 440 HI1053 1116898 1115057 leukotoxin secretion ATP-binding protein (lktB) {Actinobacillus 34.2 55.1 512 actinomycetemcomitans} Transformation HI0436 456360 455674 com101A protein (comF) {Haemophilus influenzae} 100.0 100.0 229 HI1010 1072519 1072854 competence locus E (comE1) {Bacillus subtilis} 46.7 70.0 59 HI0603 622277 622927 tfoX protein (tfoX) {Haemophilus influenzae} 99.5 99.5 217 HI0443 462729 463571 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_1) (com) 100.0 100.0 281 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0435 455595 455002 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_10) (com) 99.5 99.5 198 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0442 460047 462638 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_2) (com) 100.0 100.0 864 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0441 459948 459154 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_3) (com) 100.0 100.0 265 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0440 459150 458647 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_4) (com) 100.0 100.0 168 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0439 458647 458129 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_5) (com) 100.0 100.0 173 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0438 458129 457719 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_6) (com) 100.0 100.0 137 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI0437 457706 456385 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_7) (com) 99.8 99.8 441 {Haemophilus influenzae} Other categories Colicin-related functions HI0384 403297 402017 colicin tolerance protein (tolB) {Escherichia coli} 63.9 78.1 409 HI1209 1272281 1272769 colicin V production protein (pur regulon) (cvpA) {Escherichia coli} 64.7 79.5 156 HI0387 405650 404967 inner membrane protein (tolQ) {Escherichia coli} 68.8 83.3 221 HI0386 404892 404476 inner membrane protein (tolR) {Escherichia coli} 61.8 78.7 136 HI0385 404457 403342 outer membrane integrity protein (tolA) {Escherichia coli} 42.6 57.1 406 HI1691 1753623 1756079 outer membrane integrity protein (tolA) {Escherichia coli} 28.9 47.7 345 Phage-related functions and prophages HI1493 1566955 1567509 E16 protein (muE16) (Bacteriophage mu) 28.5 52.8 143 HI1508 1576485 1576922 G protein (muG) (Bacteriophage mu) 38.3 52.5 147 HI1574 1636594 1636181 G protein (muG) (Bacteriophage mu) 33.3 54.0 138 HI1488 1564685 1565191 gam protein (Bacteriophage mu) 57.1 73.8 168 HI0071 78159 78860 heat shock protein 8253 (grpE) {Escherichia coli} 45.9 66.5 193 HI0413 432108 431836 host factor-1 (HF-1) (hfq) {Escherichia coli} 90.5 97.3 74 HI1509 1577156 1578220 I protein (mul) (Bacteriophage mu) 50.0 55.4 58 HI1485 1563429 1564289 MuB protein (muB) (Bacteriophage mu) 46.4 70.4 277 HI1521 1584995 1586365 N protein (muN) (Bacteriophage mu) 31.5 52.1 452 HI1522 1586368 1587105 P protein (Bacteriophage mu) 39.5 67.3 220 HI1416 1505940 1505428 terminase subunit 1 (Bacteriophage SF6) 32.3 52.3 128 HI1483 1560600 1562660 transposase A (muA) (Bacteriophage mu) 40.6 60.1 596 Transposon-related functions HI1106 1166078 1166803 insertion sequence IS1016(V-4) hypothetical protein (GB:X58176_2) 43.6 66.7 39 {Haemophilus influenzae} HI1020 1081916 1081346 IS1016-V6 protein (IS1016-V6) {Haemophilus influenzae} 91.7 93.8 191 HI1332 1406795 1406150 IS1016-V6 protein (IS1016-V6) {Haemophilus influenzae} 54.7 74.7 170 HI1583 1645515 1645991 IS1016-V6 protein (IS1016-V6) {Haemophilus influenzae} 45.4 61.2 153 Drug/analog sensitivity HI0897 947919 951014 acriflavine resistance protein (acrB) {Escherichia coli} 32.7 55.0 1027 HI0302 333614 334165 ampD signalling protein (ampD) {Escherichia coli} 56.1 75.1 172 HI1245 1315822 1314629 bicyclomycin resistance protein (bcr) {Escherichia coli} 42.6 68.7 383 HI1629 1688581 1689111 mercury resistance regulatory protein (merR2) {Thiobacillus ferrooxidans} 37.7 57.5 105 HI0650 692523 691900 modulator of drug activity (mda66) {Escherichia coli} 58.1 75.4 191 HI0899 953570 952041 multidrug resistance protein (emrB) {Escherichia coli} 67.7 84.8 499 HI0900 954752 953583 multidrug resistance protein (ermA) {Escherichia coli} 46.5 66.3 389 HI0036 37441 39472 multidrug resistance protein (mdl) {Escherichia coli} 29.0 51.2 1094 HI1467 1543471 1544832 nodulation protein T (nodT) {Rhizobium leguminosarum} 20.1 46.3 390 HI0551 569189 570049 rRNA (adenosine-N6,N6-)-dimethyltransferase (ksgA) {Escherichia coli} 69.3 61.5 269 HI0513 527345 526362 tellurite resistance protein (tehA) {Escherichia coli} 38.9 62.0 317 HI1278 1351140 1350283 tellurite resistance protein (tehB) {Escherichia coli} 55.2 70.6 194 Radiation sensitivity HI0954 1011412 1010711 radC protein (radC) {Escherichia coli} 49.8 71.7 219 Adaptations, atypical conditions HI1532 1596570 1595143 autotrophic growth protein (aut) {Alcaligenes eutrophus} 45.0 60.9 154 HI0722 766921 767769 heat shock protein (htpX) {Escherichia coli} 66.3 82.1 288 HI1533 1596655 1597599 heat shock protein B (ibpB) {Escherichia coli} 55.9 71.2 304 HI0947 1003887 1004906 htrA-like protein (htrH) {Escherichia coli} 55.2 72.6 262 HI0903 956705 957292 invasion protein (invA) {Bartonella bacilliformis} 39.5 60.5 167 HI1550 1615090 1614485 NAD(P)H:menadione oxidoreductase {Mus musculus} 35.9 54.9 200 HI0460 479443 478505 survival protein (surA) {Escherichia coli} 33.0 58.5 424 HI0817 866160 865738 uspA protein (uspA) {Escherichia coli} 68.6 87.1 140 HI0323 350541 350774 virulence plasmid protein (vagC) {Salmonella dublin} 35.9 57.8 62 HI1254 1326770 1327090 virulence associated protein A (vapA) {Dichelobacter nodosus} 40.8 57.7 71 HI0324 350774 351175 virulence associated protein C (vapC) {Dichelobacter nodosus} 35.4 56.9 128 HI0949 1007984 1007589 virulence associated protein C (vapC) {Dichelobacter nodosus} 40.9 60.6 131 HI0452 472751 472479 virulence associated protein D (vapD) {{Dichelobacter nodosus} 40.7 67.0 91 HI1310 1385051 1385680 virulence plasmid protein (mlgA) {Shewanella colwelliana} 23.8 56.3 124 Undetermined HI1164 1230321 1229908 15 kDa protein (P15) {Escherichia coli} 49.3 68.4 136 HI0085 69585 88593 2-hydroxyaciddehydrogenases homolog (ddh) {Zymomonas mobilis} 51.5 72.8 324 HI0462 480185 480973 beta-lactamase regulatory homolog (mazG) {Escherichia coli} 48.3 72.6 257 HI1676 1738223 1737753 conjugative transfer co-repressor (finO) {Escherichia coli} 32.5 51.9 76 HI0309 340039 340851 delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (proC) {Pseudomonas aeruginosa} 44.0 60.1 267 HI1555 1620490 1619810 devA protein (devA) {Anabsena sp.} 42.7 66.4 219 HI0558 576002 575514 devB protein (devB) {Anabsena sp.} 32.7 51.5 166 HI1342 1415087 1415473 embryonic abundant protein, group 3 {Triticum aestivum} 33.3 50.0 102 HI0939 996457 995658 extragenic suppressor (suhB) {Escherichia coli} 64.7 80.2 258 HI0370 390960 392063 GCPE protein (protein E) (gpcE) {Escherichia coli} 88.2 93.9 362 HI0095 102616 101864 GerC2 protein (gerG2) {Bacillus subtilis} 32.9 55.2 191 HI0669 712892 711894 glpX protein (glpX) {Escherichia coli} 69.2 83.4 325 HI1015 1076616 1077389 glyoxylate-induced protein {Escherichia coli} 39.1 57.8 258 HI0499 511702 513099 hsIU protein (hsIU) {Escherichia coli} 60.4 90.1 443 HI0498 511230 511754 hsIV protein (hsIV) {Escherichia coli} 79.8 89.0 172 HI1120 1184041 1182516 ilv-related protein {Escherichia coli} 59.7 77.0 504 HI0287 319073 317784 isochorismate synthase (entC) {Bacillus subtilis} 31.5 48.9 311 HI1624 1686217 1685567 membrane associated AtPase (cbiO) {Propionibacterium freudenreichii} 33.7 52.7 184 HI0463 481901 481029 membrane protein (lapB) {Pasteurella haemolytica} 34.2 56.0 221 HI1122 1184867 1185742 membrane protein (lapB) {Pasteurella haemolytica} 63.1 80.2 216 HI0590 608642 609874 N-carbamyl-L-amino acid amidohydrolase {Bacillus stearothermophilus} 35.9 59.2 406 HI0380 399796 398579 nitrogen fixation protein (nifS) {Anabaena sp.} 48.2 67.0 379 HI1298 1375045 1373735 nitrogen fixation protein (nifS) {Mycobacterium leprae} 33.4 56.2 402 HI1346 1418236 1417523 nitrogen fixation protein (nifS) {Mycobacterium leprae} 38.8 58.5 186 HI0379 398591 398139 nitrogen fixation protein (nifU) {Klebsiella pneumoniae} 50.8 74.2 122 HI0167 180354 181586 nitrogen fixation protein (mfE) {Rhodobacter capsulatus} 30.1 47.9 292 HI1692 1756087 1757160 nitrogen fixation protein (mfE) {Rhodobacter capsulatus} 32.7 59.5 290 HI0129 143015 144800 nitrogenase C (nifC) {Clostridium pasteurianum} 27.1 52.6 248 HI1480 1559124 1558768 nitrogenase C (nifC) {Clostridium pasteurianum} 40.9 60.2 92 HI0359 381523 382464 nmt1 protein (nmt1) {Aspergillus parasiticus} 25.6 54.7 289 HI1299 1375415 1374882 partitioning system protein (parB) (Plasmid RP4) 43.6 67.7 141 HI0224 252941 252168 rarD protein (rarD) {Escherichia coli} 26.5 53.0 230 HI0682 721733 720840 rarD protein (rarD) {Escherichia coli} 27.1 55.0 289 HI0918 970839 970249 skp protein (skp) {Pasteurella multocida} 55.5 76.4 191 HI0983 1038375 1037893 small protein (smpB) {Escherichia coli} 78.8 91.3 160 HI1598 1661468 1659882 spoIIIE protein (spoIIIE) {Coxiella burnetii} 56.1 74.5 504 HI0898 951407 952018 suppressor protein (msgA) {Escherichia coli} 30.2 56.1 254 HI1080 1145382 1144612 surfactin (sfpo) {Bacillus subtilis} 58.2 77.9 246 HI0753 811790 811296 toxR regulon (tagD) {Vibrio cholerse} 45.7 64.0 164 HI1412 1502860 1501311 traN protein (traN) (Plasmid RP4) 40.2 61.5 23.3 HI0666 708305 709960 transport ATP-binding protein (cydC) {Escherichia coli} 26.3 51.7 536 HI1159 1225137 1223410 transport ATP-binding protein (cydC) {Escherichia coli} 48.5 70.1 568 HI1562 1627239 1626295 vanH protein (vanH) {Transposon Tn1546} 39.7 57.1 251 HI0632 668489 669433 mucoid status locus protein (mucB) {Pseudomonas aeruginosa} 25.4 51.8 309 HI0172 183553 184785 phenolhydroxylase (ORF6) {Acinetobacter calcoaceticus} 33.0 56.9 313 HI1390 1481177 1481266 plasma protease C1 inhibitor {Homo sapiens} 75.0 79.2 23

[0271] 2 TABLE 1(b) Previously known gene products of the H. influenzae Rd genome. HI0060 ATP dependent translocator homolog msbA HI0140 outer membrane protein P2 (ompP2) HI0251 single-stranded DNA binding protein (ssb) HI0252 tonB protein (tonB) HI0266 heme-hemopexin-binding protein (hxuA) HI0351 adenylate kinase (ATP-AMP transphosphorylase) (adk) HI0352 hypothetical protein (SP:P24326) HI0353 udp-glucose 4-epimerase (galactowaldenase) (galE) HI0354 hypothetical protein SP:P24324) HI0383 PC protein (15kd peptidoglycan-associated outer membrane lipoprotein) (pal) HI0403 outer membrane protein P1 (ompP1) HI0435 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_10) (com) HI0436 com101A protein (comF) HI0437 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_7) (com) HI0438 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_6) (com) HI0439 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_5) (com) HI0440 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_4) ((com) HI0441 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_3) (com) HI0442 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_2) (com) HI0443 transformation gene cluster hypothetical protein (GB:M62809_1) (com) HI0514 HincII endonuclease (HincII) HI0515 modification methylase HincII (hincIIM) HI0552 lipooligosaccharide biosynthesis protein HI0583 streptomycin resistance protein (strA) HI0602 recombinase (recA) HI0603 tfoX protein (tfoX) HI0606 adenylate cyclase (cyaA) HI0622 28 kDa membrane protein (hlpA) HI0691 protein D (hpd) HI0695 lipoprotein (hel) HI0820 aldose 1-epimerase precursor (mutarotase) (mro) HI0821 galactokinase (galk) HI0822 galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (galT) HI0823 galactose operon repressor (galS) HI0847 hypothetical protein (GB:M94205_1) HI0848 disulfide oxidoreductase (por) HI0855 heme-binding lipoprotein (dppA) HI0919 protective surface antigen D15 HI0930 KW20 catalase (hktE) HI0959 cyclic AMP receptor protein (crp) HI1090 superoxide dismutase (sodA) HI1167 outer membrane protein P5 (ompA) HI1191 DNA helicase II (uvrD) HI1397 HindIII modification methyltransferase (hindIIIM) HI1398 HindIII restriction endonuclease (hindIIIR) HI1402 DNA polymerase III, chi subunit (holC) HI1545 lic-1 operon protein (licC) HI1546 lic-1 operon protein (licD) HI1585 15 kd peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (lpp) HI1594 formyltetrahydrofolate hydrolase (purU) HI1595 enolpyruvylshikimatephosphatesynthase (aroA) HI1699 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_8) HI1700 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_7) HI1701 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94355_6) HI1702 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_5) HI1703 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_4) HI1704 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94855_3) HI1705 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94355_2) HI1706 lsg locus hypothetical protein (GB:M94355_1)

[0272] 3 TABLE 2 Unidentified ORFs of the H. influenzae Rd genome. HI0003 3249 2464 HI0004 3729 3268 HI0012 11778 12767 HI0017 17829 17449 HI0019 20239 18819 HI0021 23349 22102 HI0028 29582 29307 HI0033 35298 34834 HI0034 35660 35355 HI0035 37440 35788 HI0040 43059 42286 HI0042 44594 43923 HI0043 45658 44597 HI0044 46380 45721 HI0045 47261 46710 HI0046 47328 47687 HI0050 51426 50224 HI0051 51998 51504 HI0052 53023 52040 HI0053 54078 53053 HI0056 56966 56256 HI0059 60728 59733 HI0065 67839 68312 HI0072 78167 77313 HI0073 79220 78879 HI0074 79653 79216 HI0077 83046 83909 HI0080 85983 86411 HI0081 86556 87341 HI0082 87601 87864 HI0083 87882 88094 HI0090 96604 97314 HI0091 98493 97360 HI0092 99761 98505 HI0093 100989 99686 HI0094 101511 101194 HI0096 102950 103522 HI0100 107807 107415 HI0101 108091 107654 HI0103 109598 109257 HI0105 111789 112625 HI0107 114405 115612 HI0108 115744 116634 HI0109 117067 116729 HI0112 119485 119847 HI0114 122424 122311 HI0115 128606 130242 HI0116 130860 130246 HI0117 131552 131800 HI0120 134883 134380 HI0121 136357 134999 HI0125 140096 141409 HI0126 142556 141573 HI0127 142955 143011 HI0128 142718 142584 HI0130 145160 144804 HI0131 145840 145136 HI0134 147247 148419 HI0135 148422 149609 HI0135 151208 149695 HI0144 159021 158125 HI0146 160156 159932 HI0147 160966 161952 HI0148 161966 163864 HI0149 164031 165167 HI0150 165574 165762 HI0153 168744 168040 HI0160 174988 174467 HI0163 178311 177715 HI0165 179007 180080 HI0166 180130 180348 HI0168 181562 182313 HI0169 182316 182567 HI0170 182570 182938 HI0171 182945 183537 HI0173 184932 185969 HI0174 185975 186232 HI0175 186247 187500 HI0176 188281 187550 HI0177 189257 188286 HI0178 189365 190150 HI0179 190715 190236 HI0183 195295 196233 HI0184 196413 197855 HI0185 198872 198048 HI0188 200705 201555 HI0189 201568 202335 HI0196 208646 208611 HI0199 213460 214224 HI0204 218138 217605 HI0206 218715 219485 HI0211 225095 225199 HI0218 234170 234697 HI0220 238722 238084 HI0228 256953 256489 HI0229 257403 257032 HI0231 259913 260854 HI0233 262997 264382 HI0234 264390 264539 H02352 64822 264679 HI0236 265239 265033 HI0238 265736 266389 HI0239 266350 266781 HI0243 270426 270208 HI0244 270941 270426 HI0247 274159 273716 HI0257 285979 286623 HI0258 286796 286879 HI0259 286880 288054 HI0260 288240 288058 HI0261 288839 288180 HI0262 289503 288919 HI0267 298808 298450 HI0268 298891 299487 HI0272 304213 303284 HI0273 305079 304216 HI0277 309032 310684 HI0278 311516 310710 HI0279 311998 311516 HI0280 312417 312004 HI0281 312664 312371 HI0283 315199 313886 HI0284 315200 316061 HI0286 318836 319252 HI0293 327115 326912 HI0295 327473 327856 HI0301 333498 333052 HI0305 337302 338036 HI0306 338036 338593 HI0307 338596 339012 HI0308 339973 339068 HI0310 340854 342017 HI0312 343117 343401 HI0313 343271 343092 HI0317 346507 345770 HI0318 347143 346670 HI0320 349150 349665 HI0321 349721 350002 HI0322 349998 350444 HI0325 351245 351649 HI0327 352729 354078 HI0328 354114 354374 HI0329 354653 354697 HI0331 355655 356668 HI0335 359242 360555 HI0338 363320 363910 HI0340 364253 365296 HI0342 367615 368352 HI0343 368440 368781 HI0344 368990 369516 HI0345 369512 369790 HI0346 369815 372311 HI0347 372369 373205 HI0348 373208 374068 HI0349 374068 374517 HI0352 377303 376029 HI0354 379329 378637 HI0355 379330 380044 HI0357 380765 381167 HI0358 381227 381171 HI0361 384039 383227 HI0365 386932 387009 HI0366 387928 387053 HI0367 388154 389323 HI0368 389428 389964 HI0369 390039 390947 HI0372 393364 393975 HI0373 394223 394032 HI0376 397168 396485 HI0377 397743 397222 HI0378 398079 397759 HI0381 400309 399860 HI0382 401087 400365 HI0388 406077 405670 HI0390 408337 409044 HI0391 409072 409620 HI0393 413144 412599 HI0394 414371 413637 HI0395 415645 414557 HI0397 416445 416750 HI0398 416756 417967 HI0400 419468 420118 HI0402 421340 421056 HI0406 425499 424210 HI0407 426365 425502 HI0414 433167 432202 HI0417 437163 437957 HI0418 437953 438759 HI0419 438773 439450 HI0420 439398 440738 HI0422 442434 2730 HI0423 443077 442916 HI0425 444797 445516 HI0426 446607 445555 HI0433 454103 453516 HI0434 454932 454142 HI0444 463691 464053 HI0451 472389 471856 HI0453 472951 472763 HI0454 474321 473026 HI0455 474896 474375 HI0456 475705 474926 HI0458 477453 476743 HI0466 485905 486561 HI0468 488712 487873 HI0469 489585 488725 HI0471 491037 492317 HI0478 497647 497796 HI0489 507333 506959 HI0490 507449 508048 HI0491 508051 508521 HI0492 508274 508038 HI0493 508854 509354 HI0494 509815 509856 HI0495 509856 510253 HI0496 510797 510306 HI0497 511011 510814 HI0502 516228 517265 HI0509 523382 523930 HI0510 524561 524076 HI0511 525540 524616 HI0512 525587 526303 HI0521 542216 540966 HI0522 543103 542318 HI0523 544656 543115 HI0524 544869 545522 HI0525 546551 545484 HI0528 549859 549044 HI0554 571956 572576 HI0556 575147 574608 HI0557 575547 575211 HI0559 576210 576091 HI0562 578540 580381 HI0563 581038 580382 HI0564 581352 581744 HI0567 584110 583439 HI0570 587757 587551 HI0572 591096 590482 HI0574 592124 592846 HI0576 593256 593978 HI0577 594070 594732 HI0578 594735 595112 HI0579 595480 595764 HI0587 607340 606504 HI0588 607795 607361 HI0591 610092 610508 HI0594 614632 614441 HI0595 616566 616775 HI0596 616702 615176 HI0599 619155 619970 HI0600 620322 619999 HI0619 650498 651154 HI0626 663569 664921 HI0628 666387 666770 HI0629 666663 667117 HI0635 672600 672893 HI0636 672699 673879 HI0638 677932 677645 HI0640 679087 679701 HI0649 691619 690906 HI0652 694996 694787 HI0655 696806 697567 HI0658 699494 698946 HI0660 701972 700059 Hl0661 702429 702136 Hl0662 702781 702425 HI0664 706058 705867 HI0667 711078 710050 HI0668 711395 711078 HI0670 713054 713269 HI0672 713806 714236 HI0673 715017 714544 HI0674 715691 714544 HI0675 715969 715694 HI0679 719498 719061 HI0689 731017 731928 HI0690 732026 732334 HI0696 737789 738508 HI0698 743511 739619 HI0699 744964 743524 HI0700 745259 744239 HI0702 746523 746065 HI0703 746632 747648 HI0704 747649 748418 HI0706 749006 749188 HI0708 749180 749148 HI0720 765555 766304 HI0721 766361 766750 HI0723 768095 767817 HI0725 768792 770060 HI0726 776311 776868 HI0727 776875 777312 HI0732 786122 783778 HI0733 786625 786245 HI0734 786731 786582 HI0735 787647 786715 HI0737 788457 789167 HI0742 799454 800908 HI0743 801060 801386 HI0744 801027 800965 HI0746 802425 801982 HI0755 816503 817648 HI0757 819456 818531 HI0758 820676 819447 HI0762 823117 823386 HI0763 823404 824474 HI0764 825768 825091 HI0768 829290 828811 HI0769 829882 829304 HI0774 835432 834092 HI0775 836100 835432 HI0777 836970 837914 HI0789 843493 844095 HI0808 854572 855375 HI0809 656603 855413 HI0812 860092 859214 HI0819 868114 667569 HI0827 876702 877433 HI0828 677442 877996 HI0829 677999 878460 HI0833 881059 881640 HI0839 887221 886541 HI0840 887844 687278 HI0841 888779 887757 HI0842 888896 889111 HI0843 889116 890870 HI0844 891071 891898 HI0845 891925 892059 HI0847 892866 893129 HI0849 893822 894164 HI0851 895374 896144 HI0852 896141 896572 HI0853 896977 897510 HI0854 897510 898898 HI0856 900867 901625 HI0857 902112 901768 HI0859 905068 905367 HI0860 905688 906248 HI0862 909726 908989 HI0863 912130 909785 HI0864 913029 912325 HI0866 915792 913945 HI0868 918419 918538 HI0871 920692 921246 HI0872 921338 921439 HI0873 922696 923613 HI0876 927351 926155 HI0880 931427 930509 HI0883 932310 933296 HI0884 933350 934084 HI0888 938667 939068 HI0892 943690 944319 HI0893 944315 944518 HI0904 957295 958086 HI0905 957488 957174 HI0908 959765 960283 HI0909 960628 960317 HI0910 960708 961007 HI0914 966380 967141 HI0920 974685 973357 HI0922 976298 975582 HI0927 983767 983405 HI0928 984057 983800 HI0931 988229 987051 HI0932 988850 988233 HI0933 989308 988826 HI0935 991961 990760 HI0936 993112 991961 HI0937 993639 993112 HI0938 995546 993642 HI0940 996553 997110 HI0941 997170 997883 HI0942 997886 998566 HI0943 998544 998846 HI0945 1002315 1002762 HI0950 1008217 1007987 HI0957 1013246 1013899 HI0958 1013924 1014091 HI0960 1016378 1015203 HI0961 1017426 1016374 HI0962 1017780 1017433 HI0963 1018172 1017783 HI0965 1022039 1021104 HI0966 1023606 1022077 HI0967 1023993 1024175 HI0968 1024843 1024944 HI0969 1024817 1024254 HI0976 1030609 1031712 HI0978 1033994 1034863 HI0979 1034868 1035440 HI0981 1036523 1037512 HI0986 1041067 1040252 HI0988 1042709 1044301 HI0990 1045642 1047047 HI0998 1061607 1062044 HI0999 1062363 1063049 HI1002 1063710 1063967 HI1003 1063970 1065592 HI1005 1067299 1067478 HI1006 1067384 1069165 HI1007 1069256 1070812 HI1009 1071385 1072338 HI1012 1073835 1074737 HI1013 1074743 1075981 HI1016 1077448 1078392 HI1018 1079890 1080315 HI1021 1082175 1083170 HI1022 1083178 1084791 HI1023 1084736 1085422 HI1026 1089466 1088792 HI1028 1091065 1090208 HI1029 1091066 1092597 HI1030 1093581 1092598 HI1031 1094889 1093615 HI1032 1095371 1094889 HI1033 1096441 1095446 HI1034 1096617 1097420 HI1036 1098535 1099023 HI1038 1100259 1100810 HI1039 1101878 1100997 HI1040 1102257 1103456 HI1041 1103535 1103386 HI1045 1108332 1107835 HI1046 1108943 1108335 HI1050 1113198 1114304 HI1055 1117984 1118322 HI1056 1119807 1118428 HI1057 1121239 1119698 HI1058 1123210 1123287 HI1060 1123449 1122868 HI1065 1127036 1126827 HI1066 1128454 1127000 HI1072 1135049 1133604 HI1073 1135234 1134995 HI1074 1137513 1135267 HI1075 1137884 1137513 HI1076 1138337 1137888 HI1084 1148702 1148448 HI1085 1149040 1148726 HI1086 1149695 1149054 HI1087 1150228 1149728 HI1088 1151024 1150242 HI1091 1153141 1153776 HI1092 1153784 1154446 HI1093 1154507 1155244 HI1094 1155289 1155489 HI1095 1155489 1156007 HI1096 1156007 1157950 HI1097 1158092 1158634 HI1098 1158637 1160013 HI1099 1160451 1160492 HI1100 1160501 1160632 HI1101 1160637 1160942 HI1103 1164060 1163077 HI1107 1166804 1168024 HI1121 1184774 1184115 HI1128 1191629 1192577 HI1129 1193461 1193234 HI1131 1195069 1195242 HI1132 1195447 1195899 HI1133 1195933 1196895 HI1149 1215838 1214972 HI1150 1216338 1215847 HI1151 1217066 1216344 HI1152 1217588 1217073 HI1153 1218198 1217572 HI1154 1218770 1218237 HI1156 1220425 1220961 HI1158 1223159 1222695 HI1165 1231243 1230773 HI1168 1235872 1236231 HI1171 1238778 1239119 HI1172 1239729 1239166 HI1176 1242916 1243383 HI1178 1244125 1244051 HI1179 1244360 1244142 HI1184 1248098 1247517 HI1185 1248305 1248859 HI1186 1248934 1249107 HI1193 1256974 1256552 HI1194 1257654 1257067 HI1195 1257810 1257950 HI1198 1260250 1261479 HI1201 1263689 1264309 HI1202 1264360 1265430 HI1205 1267550 1268050 HI1206 1270263 1268131 HI1208 1271751 1272191 HI1218 1282515 1283219 HI1219 1283219 1283904 HI1225 1291759 1292049 HI1226 1292052 1293239 HI1237 1306218 1306673 HI1238 1307299 1306835 HI1239 1308273 1307173 HI1243 1313696 1313037 HI1244 1313794 1314591 HI1246 1316522 1315827 HI1247 1317233 1316616 HI1249 1319911 1321851 HI1251 132SS06 1324541 HI1252 1326129 1325512 HI1253 1326454 1326756 HI1255 1327256 1328923 HI1256 1328946 1329326 HI1257 1329334 1330392 HI1258 1330618 1330839 HI1259 1330839 1331300 HI1260 1331300 1331470 HI1265 1339879 1339148 HI1268 1346269 1345733 HI1269 1346756 1346836 HI1270 1346624 1346241 HI1271 1346849 1347025 HI1272 1347022 1347135 HI1273 1347135 1347323 HI1276 1348650 1349453 HI1283 1356439 1356654 HI1284 1356655 1357185 HI1285 1358080 1358502 HI1289 1367227 1365851 HI1291 1369064 1369447 HI1292 1369450 1370385 HI1294 1372453 1371617 HI1295 1373365 1372583 HI1296 1373601 1373359 HI1297 1373735 1373532 HI1300 1375530 1375949 HI1301 1375971 1376663 HI1303 1378236 1380176 HI1304 1380896 1380210 HI1309 1384563 1385051 HI1312 1386755 1386510 HI1313 1386780 1387538 HI1317 1391445 1391927 HI1318 1392096 1392410 HI1319 1392802 1393383 HI1320 1393468 1394280 HI1326 1401970 1401527 HI1329 1404808 1405533 HI1330 1405533 1405667 HI1335 1409063 1408968 HI1336 1409263 1408968 HI1340 1412995 1414329 HI1341 1414391 1414882 HI1343 1416879 1415557 HI1344 1417617 1417009 HI1345 1418133 1419509 HI1352 1426116 1425637 HI1354 1428276 1427314 HI1358 1433535 1433996 HI1367 1450229 1449366 HI1369 1453591 1453010 HI1371 1458706 1455929 HI1372 1461329 1458813 HI1378 1469827 1470732 HI1379 1470738 1471610 HI1391 1481365 1481808 HI1394 1484556 1485554 HI1399 1492391 1492023 HI1400 1493035 1492616 HI1401 1493171 1493004 HI1404 1495447 1496052 HI1405 1496978 1496157 HI1407 1498433 1498230 HI1408 1499014 1498469 HI1409 1499166 1499050 HI1410 1500612 1499515 HI1411 1501029 1500676 HI1413 1503610 1504026 HI1414 1504094 1502787 HI1415 1505280 1504099 HI1417 1506471 1505953 HI1418 1506880 1506602 HI1419 1507067 1506795 HI1421 1507987 1507634 HI1422 1508392 1508327 HI1423 1509030 1508428 HI1424 1509352 1509648 HI1425 1509648 1509938 HI1426 1510250 1509975 HI1427 1510403 1510975 HI1428 1511264 1511545 HI1431 1513776 1514795 HI1432 1514998 1515831 HI1439 1521750 1522223 HI1440 1522224 1525568 HI1441 1525569 1525820 HI1443 1526752 1528626 HI1450 1533358 1533038 HI1454 1536172 1536492 HI1455 1536633 1536668 HI1456 1537150 1536566 HI1458 1538541 1537903 HI1460 1540315 1539812 HI1462 1541101 1541340 HI1468 1547394 1546060 HI1474 1554422 1554078 HI1477 1557241 1556189 HI1481 1560071 1559355 HI1482 1560378 1560563 HI1484 1562720 1562989 HI1486 1563395 1562928 HI1487 1564353 1564667 HI1489 1565191 1565349 HI1490 1565824 1566042 HI1491 1566045 1566215 HI1492 1566221 1566778 HI1494 1567509 1568060 HI1495 1568255 1568467 HI1497 1568697 1569200 HI1498 1569285 1569566 HI1500 1569836 1570093 HI1501 1570093 1570344 HI1502 1570465 1570689 HI1503 1570599 1571015 HI1504 1571343 1571909 HI1505 1571912 1573435 HI1506 1573450 1575009 HI1507 1575103 1576344 HI1510 1578223 1579146 HI1511 1579232 1579486 HI1512 1579501 1579614 HI1513 1579620 1580042 HI1514 1580012 1580593 HI1515 1580609 1580797 HI1516 1580800 1582260 HI1517 1582273 1582626 HI1518 1582642 1583022 HI1519 1583106 1584998 HI1520 1584526 1584371 HI1523 1587316 1587624 HI1524 1587664 1588209 HI1525 1588221 1588625 HI1526 1588628 1589692 HI1527 1589781 1590284 HI1528 1590287 1592155 HI1529 1592772 1593659 HI1530 1593826 1593975 HI1540 1605903 1606442 HI1541 1606426 1607595 HI1542 1607568 1607912 HI1548 1613326 1613877 HI1549 1614482 1613931 HI1551 1616455 1615214 HI1552 1616740 1617159 HI1554 1619807 1618560 HI1558 1622639 1621995 HI1561 1626292 1625114 HI1564 1628971 1628171 HI1566 1630319 1629852 HI1568 1631692 1631537 HI1569 1632481 1631948 HI1570 1632603 1632517 HI1572 1633105 1633257 HI1575 1636870 1636721 HI1576 1637376 1636870 HI1577 1637498 1637439 HI1586 1647922 1647857 HI1587 1648198 1648028 HI1588 1648605 1648189 HI1592 1654749 1653193 HI1596 1659183 1657846 HI1597 1659861 1659247 HI1599 1661605 1661453 HI1600 1662311 1661643 HI1601 1662648 1662328 HI1604 1665779 1664724 HI1605 1666807 1666094 HI1606 1667750 1666800 HI1607 1668067 1667783 HI1608 1668561 1668800 HI1609 1668769 1669446 HI1611 1670802 1671410 HI1613 1672733 1673359 HI1614 1673350 1674312 HI1618 1678855 1677464 HI1626 1686816 1686316 HI1627 1687436 1686819 HI1628 1687921 1687439 HI1630 1688617 1687937 HI1631 1689671 1689177 HI1632 1690500 1690847 HI1633 1690388 1689675 HI1634 1690881 1691282 HI1637 1693111 1692542 HI1643 1702285 1700876 HI1649 1707768 1708781 HI1653 1711982 1712854 HI1654 1712909 1713433 HI1656 1715939 1716046 HI1657 1716442 1716167 HI1658 1717744 1717196 HI1659 1718225 1717860 HI1660 1720257 1719409 HI1661 1720329 1722053 HI1662 1722056 1722412 HI1663 1722428 1723010 HI1669 1732543 1731909 HI1670 1733332 1732556 HI1671 1733482 1733363 HI1672 1733919 1733539 HI1673 1735404 1733938 HI1675 1737711 1737589 HI1677 1738407 1739654 HI1678 1739641 1742283 HI1683 1745073 1745741 HI1685 1747304 1747843 HI1686 1750100 1747947 HI1687 1750833 1750171 HI1689 1752090 1753040 HI1690 1753041 1753619 HI1693 1757163 1757783 HI1694 1757788 1758492 HI1707 1770253 1770993 HI1709 1774757 1773684 HI1710 1775859 1774744 HI1715 1782227 1781865 HI1716 1782482 1782345 HI1720 1786560 1785523 HI1721 1786631 1787176 HI1723 1788842 1788747 HI1724 1789761 1788979 HI1726 1792471 1793034 HI1727 1793205 1793852 HI1729 1794860 1795201 HI1730 1795161 1795556 HI1736 1803407 1802481 HI1737 1804045 1803407 HI1742 1813528 1813298 HI1743 1813960 1813634 HI1744 1814691 1813960

[0273] 4 TABLE 3 Whole Genome Sequencing Strategy. Stage Description Random small insert and large Randomly sheared genomic DNA insert library construction on the order of 2 kb and 15-20 kb respectively Library Plating Verify random nature of library and maximize random selection of small insert and large insert clones for template production High-throughput DNA sequencing Sequence sufficient number of sequence fragments from both ends for 6× coverage Assembly Assemble random sequence fragments and identify repeat regions Gap closure a. Physical gaps Order all contigs (finger- prints, peptide links, lambda clones, PCR) and provide templates for closure b. Sequence gaps Complete the genome sequence by primer walking Editing Visual inspection and resolution of sequence ambiguities, including frameshifts Annotation Identification and description of all predicted coding regions (putative identifications, starts and stops, role assignments, operons, regulatory regions)

[0274] 5 TABLE 4 The theory of shotgun sequencing follows from the application of the equation for the Poisson distribution px = mxe−m/x1 where x is the number of occurrences of an event and m is the mean number of occurrences. The numbers below predict the assembly of a 1.9 Mb genome with an average sequence fragment size of 460 bp. % bp Avg. Gap N unsequenced unsequenced DS Gaps Length 250 94.44 1794304 236 7600 500 89.18 1694487 446 3800 1,000 79.54 1511204 795 1900 2,000 63.26 1201967 1265 950 3,000 50.32 956009 1509 633 5,000 31.83 604785 1592 380 10,000 10.13 192508 1013 190 15,000 3.23 61277 484 127 20,000 1.03 19505 205 95 25,000 0.33 6209 82 76 30,000 0.10 1976 31 63 50,000 0.00 20 1 38

[0275] 6 TABLE 5 Summary of features of whole genome sequencing of H. influenzae Rd Description Number Double stranded templates 19,687 Forward sequencing reactions (M13-21 primer) 19.346 # Successful (%) 16.240(84%) Average edited read length 485 bp Reverse sequencing reactions (M13RP1 primer) 9297 # Successful (%) 7,744(83%) Average edited read length 444 bp Sequence fragments in random assembly 24.304 Total # of base pairs 11,631,485 # of contigs 140 Physical gap closure 42 PCR 37 Southern analysis 15 Lambda clones 23 Peptide links 2 Terminator sequencing reactions+ 3,102 # Successful (%) 2.024(65%) Average edited read length 375 bp Genome Size 1,830,121 bp # of N's in sequence (%) 188(0.01%) Coordinates of proposed origin of replication 602,483-602,764 G/C content 38% # of rRNA 6 rmA. rmC, rmD (spacer region) 723 bp rmB, rmE, rmF (spacer region) 478 bp # of tRNA genes identified 574 Number of Predicted Coding Regions 1,749 # Unassigned role (%) 724(41%) No database match 384 Match hypothetical proteins 340 # Assigned role (%) 1025(59%) Amino acid metabolism 71(6.9%) Fatty acid/phospholipid metabolism 24(2.3%) Biosynthesis of cofactors, prosthetic groups, 54(52%) and carriers Purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, nucleotides 54(5.3%) Central intermediary metabolism 31(3.0%) Energy metabolism 99(9.7%) Cell envelope 82(8.0%) Regulatory functions 63(6.1%) Replication 88(8.6%) Transcription 27(2.5%) Translation 146(14.2%) Transport/binding proteins 145(14.1%) Cellular processes 42(4.1%) Other 99(9.7%) +Includes gap closure, walks on rRNA repeats, and random end-sequencing of lambda clones for assembly confirmation

[0276] 7 TABLE 6 Two component systems in H. influenzae Rd ID Location Best Match % ID % Sim Length (bp) Sensors: HI0221 239,378 arcB {E. coli} 39.5 63.9 200 HI0269 299,541 narQ {E. coli} 38.1 68.0 562 HI1713 1,781,143 basS {E. coli} 27.7 51.5 250 HI1381 1,475,017 phoR {E. coli} 38.1 61.6 280 Regulators: HI0728 777,934 narP {E. coli} 59.3 77.0 209 HI0839 887,011 cpxR {E. coli} 51.9 73.0 229 HI0886 936,624 arcA {E. coli} 77.2 87.8 236 HI1382 1,475,502 phoB {E. coli} 52.9 71.4 228 HI1714 1,781,799 basR {E. coli} 43.5 59.3 219



1. An isolated polynucleotide comprising a nucleic acid fragment of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome, wherein said fragment consists of the nucleotide sequence of any one of the fragments of SEQ ID NO: 1 depicted in Table 1a or a degenerate variant thereof, excluding the fragments of SEQ ID NO: 1 depicted in Table 1b.

2. A vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 1.

3. An organism which has been altered to contain the polynucleotide of claim 1.

4. An isolated polypeptide encoded by any one of the fragments of the Haemophilus influenzae Rd genome depicted in Table 1a or by a degenerate variant of said fragment, excluding the fragments of SEQ ID NO:1 depicted in Table 1b.

5. An antibody which specifically binds the polypeptide of claim 4.

6. An isolated polynucleotide encoding the polypeptide of claim 4.

7. A vector comprising the polynucleotide of claim 6.

8. An organism which has been altered to contain the polynucleotide of claim 7.

9. A method for producing a polypeptide in a host cell comprising the steps of:

(a) incubating a host containing a heterologous nucleic acid molecule whose nucleotide sequence consists of the polynucleotide of claim 6 under conditions where said heterologous nucleic acid molecule is expressed to produce said polypeptide, and
(b) isolating said polypeptide.
Patent History
Publication number: 20040018503
Type: Application
Filed: Dec 27, 2002
Publication Date: Jan 29, 2004
Applicant: Human Genome Sciences, Inc. (Rockville, MD)
Inventors: Robert D. Fleischmannn (Gaithersburg, MD), Mark D. Adams (Rockville, MD), Owen White (Rockville, MD), Hamilton O. Smith (Reisterstown, MD), J. Craig Venter (Queenstown, MD)
Application Number: 10329670