Cadmium Containing Patents (Class 136/260)
  • Patent number: 10424680
    Abstract: A targeted-annealing system can automatically cure a conductive paste that may bind cascaded strips of a string together without damaging the strips. The targeted-annealing system can process strings of cascaded strips on a supporting surface, and can anneal conductive paste between overlapping strips by blowing heated air on the overlapping sections of the strips. An air nozzle shaped to target the overlapping sections may provide the heated air. The supporting surface may include a porous material that allows a vacuum to pull on the cascaded strips from below the surface during the annealing process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2015
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2019
    Assignee: SolarCity Corporation
    Inventors: Pablo Gonzalez, Rey Ilagan
  • Patent number: 10199588
    Abstract: A planar mixed-metal perovskite solar cell can exhibit many favorable properties including high efficiencies and tunable electronic properties. The incorporation of different metal species (i.e. Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Sn, Sr, and Zn) into the film is made possible by the solubility of either each metal's divalent acetate or halide compound in a solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2019
    Assignee: MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Angela M. Belcher, Matthew T. Klug, Paula T. Hammond
  • Patent number: 10153387
    Abstract: A method (200) and deposition zone apparatus (300) for fabricating thin-film optoelectronic devices (100), the method comprising: providing a potassium-nondiffusing substrate (110), forming a back-contact layer (120); forming at least one absorber layer (130) made of an ABC chalcogenide material, adding at least two different alkali metals, and forming at least one front-contact layer (150) wherein one of said at least two different alkali metals is potassium and where, following forming said front-contact layer, in the interval of layers (470) from back-contact layer (120), exclusive, to front-contact layer (150), inclusive, the comprised amounts resulting from adding at least two different alkali metals are, for potassium, in the range of 500 to 10000 ppm and, for the other of said at least two different alkali metals, in the range of 5 to 2000 ppm and at most ½ and at least 1/2000 of the comprised amount of potassium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2018
    Assignees: FLISOM AG, EMPA
    Inventors: Adrian Chirila, Stephan Buecheler, Fabian Pianezzi, Patrick Reinhard, Ayodhya Nath Tiwari
  • Patent number: 10008618
    Abstract: A method for forming a back contact on an absorber layer in a photovoltaic device includes forming a two dimensional material on a first substrate. An absorber layer including Cu—Zn—Sn—S(Se) (CZTSSe) is grown over the first substrate on the two dimensional material. A buffer layer is grown on the absorber layer on a side opposite the two dimensional material. The absorber layer is exfoliated from the two dimensional material to remove the first substrate from a backside of the absorber layer opposite the buffer layer. A back contact is deposited on the absorber layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Satoshi Oida
  • Patent number: 10005800
    Abstract: Provided are a mixed metal halide perovskite compound, and an electronic device including the same, wherein the mixed metal halide perovskite compound includes an organic cation, two or more kinds of metal cations, and a halogen anion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignee: KOREA RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Sang Jin Moon, Jong Cheol Lee, Ki Jeong Kong, Won Wook So, Won Suk Shin, Sang Kyu Lee, Bo Keun Park, Muhammad Jahandar, Chang Eun Song
  • Patent number: 9960307
    Abstract: A method to produce thin film solar cells in superstrate or substrate configuration is an efficient way to minimize the loss due to absorption in CdS layer and to eliminate the CdCl2 activation treatment step. This is achieved by applying a sacrificial metal-halide layer between the CdS-layer and the CdTe-layer of the solar cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2018
    Assignees: China Triumph International Engineering Co., Ltd., CTF SOLAR GMBH
    Inventors: Krishnakumar Velappan, Bastian Siepchen, Bettina Späth, Christian Drost, Shou Peng
  • Patent number: 9935214
    Abstract: A method for forming a back contact on an absorber layer in a photovoltaic device includes forming a two dimensional material on a first substrate. An absorber layer including Cu—Zn—Sn—S(Se) (CZTSSe) is grown over the first substrate on the two dimensional material. A buffer layer is grown on the absorber layer on a side opposite the two dimensional material. The absorber layer is exfoliated from the two dimensional material to remove the first substrate from a backside of the absorber layer opposite the buffer layer. A back contact is deposited on the absorber layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2018
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Richard A. Haight, James B. Hannon, Satoshi Oida
  • Patent number: 9893216
    Abstract: A solar cell is provided wherein a circular polarizer is positioned proximate a transparent conductor layer which itself is separated from a loop of conductive metal by an electrically insulative layer. Upon exposure to non-polarized light, a portion of the incident light is polarized and transmitted to the transparent conductor layer. Under the influence of this polarized light, free electrons in the conductor layer are induced to move in a circular motion, thereby generating magnetic fields. These magnetic fields drive the flow of current within the conductive metal loop.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2018
    Inventor: Steven Wade Shelton
  • Patent number: 9871159
    Abstract: Disclosed are a solar cell apparatus and a method of fabricating the same. The solar cell apparatus includes a substrate, a back electrode layer on the substrate, a light absorbing layer on the back electrode layer, a first window layer including a first oxide on the light absorbing layer, and a second window layer provided on the first window layer and including a second oxide having a composition ratio of oxygen higher than a composition ratio of oxygen contained in the first oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Assignee: LG INNOTEK CO., LTD.
    Inventor: Chul Hwan Choi
  • Patent number: 9837565
    Abstract: A method (200) and deposition zone apparatus (300) for fabricating thin-film optoelectronic devices (100), the method comprising: providing a potassium-nondiffusing substrate (110), forming a back-contact layer (120); forming at least one absorber layer (130) made of an ABC chalcogenide material, adding at least two different alkali metals, and forming at least one front-contact layer (150) wherein one of said at least two different alkali metals is potassium and where, following forming said front-contact layer, in the interval of layers (470) from back-contact layer (120), exclusive, to front-contact layer (150), inclusive, the comprised amounts resulting from adding at least two different alkali metals are, for potassium, in the range of 500 to 10000 ppm and, for the other of said at least two different alkali metals, in the range of 5 to 2000 ppm and at most ½ and at least 1/2000 of the comprised amount of potassium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 16, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2017
    Assignees: FLISON AG, EMPA
    Inventors: Adrian Chirila, Stephan Buecheler, Fabian Pianezzi, Patrick Reinhard, Ayodhya Nath Tiwari
  • Patent number: 9608144
    Abstract: In one aspect of the present invention, a photovoltaic device is provided. The photovoltaic device includes a window layer and an absorber layer disposed on the window layer, wherein the absorber layer includes a first region and a second region, the first region disposed adjacent to the window layer. The absorber layer further includes a first additive and a second additive, wherein a concentration of the first additive in the first region is greater than a concentration of the first additive in the second region, and wherein a concentration of the second additive in the second region is greater than a concentration of the second additive in the first region. Method of making a photovoltaic device is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2017
    Assignee: First Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: James Neil Johnson, Bastiaan Arie Korevaar, Timothy John Sommerer
  • Patent number: 9573809
    Abstract: A method of forming a metal chalcogenide material. The method comprises exposing a metal to a solution comprising a chalcogenide element source compound and an acid. Methods of forming memory cells including the metal chalcogenide material are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2017
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Chet E. Carter
  • Patent number: 9564543
    Abstract: Methods for doping an absorbent layer of a p-n heterojunction in a thin film photovoltaic device are provided. The method can include depositing a window layer on a transparent substrate, where the window layer includes at least one dopant (e.g., copper). A p-n heterojunction can be formed on the window layer, with the p-n heterojunction including a photovoltaic material (e.g., cadmium telluride) in an absorber layer. The dopant can then be diffused from the window layer into the absorber layer (e.g., via annealing).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2017
    Assignee: First Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Scott Daniel Feldman-Peabody, Robert Dwayne Gossman
  • Patent number: 9559247
    Abstract: Described herein is a method of using the buffer layer of a transparent conductive substrate as a dopant source for the n-type window layer of a photovoltaic device. The dopant source of the buffer layer distributes to the window layer of the photovoltaic device during semiconductor processing. Described herein are also methods of manufacturing embodiments of the substrate structure and photovoltaic device. Disclosed embodiments also describe a photovoltaic module and a photovoltaic structure with a plurality of photovoltaic devices having an embodiment of the substrate structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2017
    Assignee: First Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Markus Gloeckler
  • Patent number: 9437760
    Abstract: A completed photovoltaic device and method forming it are described in which fluxing of a window layer into an absorber layer is mitigated by the presence of a sacrificial fluxing layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2016
    Assignee: FIRST SOLAR, INC.
    Inventors: Daniel Damjanovic, Rick C. Powell, Jigish Trivedi, Zhibo Zhao
  • Patent number: 9373744
    Abstract: Methods for treating a semiconductor material, and for making devices containing a semiconducting material, are presented. One embodiment is a method for treating a semiconductor material that includes a chalcogenide. The method comprises contacting at least a portion of the semiconductor material with a chemical agent. The chemical agent comprises a solvent, and an iodophor dissolved in the solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2016
    Assignee: First Solar, Inc.
    Inventor: Donald Franklin Foust
  • Patent number: 9343378
    Abstract: Embodiments include methods of depositing and controlling the deposition of a film in multiple stages. The disclosed deposition and deposition control methods include the optical monitoring of a deposition matrix to determine a time when at least one transition point occurs. In certain embodiments, the transition point or transition points are a stoichiometry point. Methods may also include controlling the length of time in which material is deposited during a deposition stage or controlling the amount of the first, second or subsequent materials deposited during any deposition stage in response to a determination of the time when a selected transition point occurs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2016
    Assignee: ALLIANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, LLC
    Inventors: Jian Li, Dean H. Levi, Miguel A. Contreras, John Scharf
  • Patent number: 9324898
    Abstract: A method for forming thin films or layers of cadmium telluride (CdTe) for use in photovoltaic modules or solar cells. The method includes varying the substrate temperature during the growth of the CdTe layer by preheating a substrate (e.g., a substrate with a cadmium sulfide (CdS) heterojunction or layer) suspended over a CdTe source to remove moisture to a relatively low preheat temperature. Then, the method includes directly heating only the CdTe source, which in turn indirectly heats the substrate upon which the CdTe is deposited. The method improves the resulting CdTe solar cell reliability. The resulting microstructure exhibits a distinct grain size distribution such that the initial region is composed of smaller grains than the bulk region portion of the deposited CdTe. Resulting devices exhibit a behavior suggesting a more n-like CdTe material near the CdS heterojunction than devices grown with substrate temperatures held constant during CdTe deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 26, 2016
    Assignee: Alliance For Sustainable Energy, LLC
    Inventors: David S. Albin, James Neil Johnson, Yu Zhao, Bastiaan Arie Korevaar
  • Patent number: 9219215
    Abstract: The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2015
    Assignee: The Regents of The University of California
    Inventors: Peidong Yang, Arunava Majumdar, Allon I. Hochbaum, Renkun Chen, Raul Diaz Delgado
  • Patent number: 9200172
    Abstract: Aspects describe phthalocyanine (Pc) molecules with peripheral modifications of its core (e.g., alkyl substituents) so that the Pc can self assemble, for example under vacuum sublimation, and form nanocrystals of a size on the order of nanometers. The Pc nanocrystals can be prepared, for example, by a simple vapor deposition method. Further aspects describe a polymer composite ink based Pc nanocrystals in a polymer matrix, which can be formed, for example, under a solution process approach. For example, the polymer matrix can be a different p-type conjugated polymer from the Pc nanocrystals, which are inherently p-type semiconductors. This can increase the film formation ability and charge transport properties of the polymer composite ink. The polymer composite ink can be utilized, for example, in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices, such as photovoltaic devices and/or thin film transistors. The optoelectronic devices can exhibit high power conversion efficiency (PCE), for example 6-7 percent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2015
    Assignee: CITY UNIVERSITY OF HONG KONG
    Inventors: Xu Zongxiang, A. L. Roy Vellaisamy
  • Patent number: 9147778
    Abstract: A photovoltaic cell can include a nitrogen-containing metal layer in contact with a semiconductor layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2015
    Assignee: First Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Syed Zafar, Upali Jayamaha, Michael T. Steele
  • Patent number: 9090500
    Abstract: Certain example embodiments of this invention relate to articles including anticondensation coatings that are exposed to an external environment, and/or methods of making the same. In certain example embodiments, the anticondensation coatings may be survivable in an outside environment. The coatings also may have a sufficiently low sheet resistance and hemispherical emissivity such that the glass surface is more likely to retain heat from the interior area, thereby reducing (and sometimes completely eliminating) the presence condensation thereon. The articles of certain example embodiments may be, for example, skylights, vehicle windows or windshields, IG units, VIG units, refrigerator/freezer doors, and/or the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2015
    Assignee: Guardian Industries Corp.
    Inventors: Jean-Marc Lemmer, Nestor P. Murphy
  • Patent number: 9065009
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for converting an amorphous transparent conductive oxide to a crystalline form with the assistance of irradiation of a laser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2015
    Assignee: FIRST SOLAR, INC.
    Inventors: Douglas Dauson, Joseph Kucharczyk, James D. Reed, Thomas W. Shields
  • Publication number: 20150144195
    Abstract: Photovoltaic devices such as solar cells, hybrid solar cell-batteries, and other such devices may include an active layer having perovskite material and copper-oxide or other metal-oxide charge transport material. Such charge transport material may be disposed adjacent to the perovskite material such that the two are adjacent and/or in contact. Inclusion of both materials in an active layer of a photovoltaic device may improve device performance. Other materials may be included to further improve device performance, such as, for example: one or more interfacial layers, one or more mesoporous layers, and one or more dyes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Inventors: Michael D. Irwin, Robert D. Maher, III, Jerred A. Chute, Vivek V. Dhas
  • Patent number: 9040816
    Abstract: Methods of forming a photovoltaic structures including nanoparticles are disclosed. The method includes electrospray deposition of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles can include TiO2 nanoparticles and quantum dots. In an example, the nanoparticles are formed on a flexible substrate. In various examples, the flexible substrate is light transparent. Photovoltaic structures and apparatus for forming photovoltaic structures are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2015
    Assignee: Nanocopoeia, Inc.
    Inventor: Anand Gupta
  • Publication number: 20150129034
    Abstract: The invention provides an optoelectronic device comprising a porous material, which porous material comprises a semiconductor comprising a perovskite. The porous material may comprise a porous perovskite. Thus, the porous material may be a perovskite material which is itself porous. Additionally or alternatively, the porous material may comprise a porous dielectric scaffold material, such as alumina, and a coating disposed on a surface thereof, which coating comprises the semiconductor comprising the perovskite. Thus, in some embodiments the porosity arises from the dielectric scaffold rather than from the perovskite itself. The porous material is usually infiltrated by a charge transporting material such as a hole conductor, a liquid electrolyte, or an electron conductor. The invention further provides the use of the porous material as a semiconductor in an optoelectronic device. Further provided is the use of the porous material as a photosensitizing, semiconducting material in an optoelectronic device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 20, 2013
    Publication date: May 14, 2015
    Applicant: ISIS INNOVATION LIMITED
    Inventors: Henry Snaith, Michael Lee
  • Patent number: 9012770
    Abstract: Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC
    Inventors: Mircea Cotlet, Hsing-Lin Wang, Hsinhan Tsai, Zhihua Xu
  • Publication number: 20150096617
    Abstract: A compound semiconductor solar battery according to the present invention includes a substrate; a back electrode disposed on the substrate; a p-type compound semiconductor light absorbing layer disposed on the back electrode; an n-type compound semiconductor buffer layer disposed on the p-type compound semiconductor light absorbing layer; and a transparent electrode disposed on the n-type compound semiconductor buffer layer. The p-type compound semiconductor light absorbing layer has a cross sectional structure including, in a thickness direction, a portion only of a single particle and a portion of a plurality of piled particles. In the portion of a plurality of piled particles, the particles in contact with the back electrode have a ratio y1 of Ga/(In+Ga), and the particles in contact with the n-type compound semiconductor buffer layer have a ratio y2 of Ga/(In+Ga), where y1>y2.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 28, 2013
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Inventors: Masato Kurihara, Yasuhiro Aida
  • Patent number: 8993363
    Abstract: In one aspect, optoelectronic devices are described herein. In some embodiments, an optoelectronic device comprises a fiber core, a radiation transmissive first electrode surrounding the fiber core, at least one photosensitive inorganic layer surrounding the first electrode and electrically connected to the first electrode, and a second electrode surrounding the inorganic layer and electrically connected to the inorganic layer. In some embodiments, the device comprises a photovoltaic cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: Wake Forest University
    Inventor: David L Carroll
  • Patent number: 8981207
    Abstract: A photovoltaic (PV) device having a quantum dot sensitized interface includes a first conductor layer and a second conductor layer. At least one of the conductor layers is transparent to solar radiation. A quantum dot (nanoparticle) sensitized photo-harvesting interface comprises a photo-absorber layer, a quantum dot layer and a buffer layer, placed between the two conductors. The absorber layer is a p-type material and the buffer layer is an n-type material. The quantum dot layer has a tunable bandgap to cover infrared (IR), visible light and ultraviolet (UV) bands of solar spectrum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 5, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Magnolia Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Gopal G. Pethuraja, Roger E. Welser, Ashok K. Sood
  • Patent number: 8980681
    Abstract: The disclosure provides a method for fabricating a solar cell, including: providing a first substrate; forming a light absorption precursor layer on the first substrate; conducting a thermal process to the light absorption precursor layer to form a light absorption layer, wherein the light absorption layer includes a first light absorption layer and a second light absorption layer, and the first absorption layer is formed on the first substrate; forming a second substrate on the second light absorption layer; removing the first substrate to expose a surface of the first light absorption layer; forming a zinc sulfide (ZnS) layer on the surface of the first light absorption layer; and forming a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layer on the zinc sulfide (ZnS) layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Industrial Technology Research Institute
    Inventor: Wei-Tse Hsu
  • Patent number: 8980682
    Abstract: Methods of forming absorber layers in a TFPV device are provided. Methods are described to provide the formation of metal oxide films and heating the metal oxide films in the presence of a chalcogen to form a metal-oxygen-chalcogen alloy. Methods are described to provide the formation of metal oxide films, forming a layer of elemental chalcogen on the metal oxide film, and heating the stack to form a metal-oxygen-chalcogen alloy. In some embodiments, the metal oxide film includes zinc oxide and the chalcogen includes selenium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Intermolecular, Inc.
    Inventors: Haifan Liang, Jeroen Van Duren
  • Patent number: 8969719
    Abstract: In one example embodiment, a method includes sputtering one or more absorber layers over a substrate. In a particular embodiment, the substrate is pre-heated to a substrate temperature of at least approximately 300 degrees Celsius prior to the sputtering and during the sputtering of each of one or more of the absorber layers, and the sputtering of at least one of the absorber layers is performed in a sputtering atmosphere having a pressure of at least 0.5 Pascals. Additionally, in a particular embodiment, the sputtering of at least one of the absorber layers comprises sputtering from a sputter target that comprises a chalcogenide alloy that comprises copper (Cu) and one or more of sulfur (S), selenium (Se), or tellurium (Te).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2015
    Assignee: Zetta Research and Development LLC—AQT Series
    Inventors: Mariana Rodica Munteanu, Erol Girt
  • Patent number: 8932495
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention generally provide hydrogen-doped and/or fluorine-doped transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials and processes for forming such doped TCO materials. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a doped TCO on a substrate surface includes forming a TCO material on a substrate, exposing the TCO material to a hydrogen plasma while forming a hydrogen-doped TCO material during an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) process, wherein the hydrogen-doped TCO material contains atomic hydrogen at a concentration within a range from about 1 at % (atomic percent) to about 30 at %, and exposing the hydrogen-doped TCO material to a thermal annealing process. In another embodiment, the method includes exposing the TCO material to a fluorine plasma while forming a fluorine-doped TCO material during the APP process, wherein the fluorine-doped TCO material contains atomic fluorine at a concentration within a range from about 1 at % to about 30 at %.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: Clearist, Inc.
    Inventors: Paul Phong Nguyen, Scott Allen Jewhurst
  • Publication number: 20150007890
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device includes a substrate, a back contact layer disposed above the substrate, an absorber layer comprising an absorber material disposed above the back contact layer, and a buffer layer disposed above the absorber layer. The buffer layer includes a first layer comprising the absorber material doped with zinc, and a second layer comprising a zinc-containing compound and a cadmium-containing compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 8, 2013
    Publication date: January 8, 2015
    Inventors: Wei-Lun XU, Ying-Chen CHAO
  • Publication number: 20140373908
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device is presented. The photovoltaic device includes a layer stack; and an absorber layer is disposed on the layer stack. The absorber layer includes cadmium, tellurium, and selenium. A semiconductor layer is further disposed on the absorber layer, wherein a valence band offset between the semiconductor layer and the absorber layer is less than about 1.3 electron Volts, and a band gap of the semiconductor layer is in a range from about 1.2 electron Volts to about 3.5 electron Volts.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 21, 2013
    Publication date: December 25, 2014
    Applicant: First Solar Inc.
    Inventors: Anil Raj Duggal, Joseph John Shiang, William Hullinger Huber, Adam Fraser Halverson
  • Patent number: 8916412
    Abstract: A method of forming an ohmic contact and electron reflector on a surface of a CdTe containing compound film as may be found, for example in a photovoltaic cell. The method comprises forming a Cd-deficient, Te-rich surface region at a surface of the CdTe containing compound film; exposing the Cd-deficient surface region to an electron reflector forming material; forming the electron reflector; and laying down a contact layer over the electron reflector layer. The solar cell so produced has a Cd-deficient region which is converted to an electron reflector layer on the surface of a CdTe absorber layer, and an ohmic contact. A Cd/Te molar ratio within the Cd-deficient region decreases from 1 at an interface with the CdTe absorber layer to a value less than 1 towards the ohmic contact.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2014
    Assignee: Encoresolar, Inc.
    Inventor: Bulent M. Basol
  • Patent number: 8907210
    Abstract: This invention describes a semiconductor material of general formula (I) Me12Me21-xMe3xMe4(C11-yC2y)4, in which x stands for a numeric value from 0 to 1, and y stands for a numeric value of 0 to 1, as well as its use as an absorber material in a solar cell. The metal Mel is a metal which is selected from the metals in group 11 of the periodic table of the elements (Cu, Ag or Au). The metals Me2 and Me3 are selected from the elements of the 12th group of the periodic table of elements (Zn, Cd & Hg). The metal Me4 is a metal which is selected from the 4th main group of the periodic table of elements (C, Si, Ge, Sn and Pb). The non-metals C1 and C2 are selected from the group of chalcogenides (S, Se and Te).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2014
    Assignee: crystalsol OÜ
    Inventors: Dieter Meissner, Mare Altosaar, Enn Mellikov, Jaan Raudoja, Kristi Timmo
  • Patent number: 8889466
    Abstract: A method for forming a photovoltaic device includes forming an absorber layer with a granular structure on a conductive layer; conformally depositing an insulating protection layer over the absorber layer to fill in between grains of the absorber layer; and planarizing the protection layer and the absorber layer. A buffer layer is formed on the absorber layer, and a top transparent conductor layer is deposited over the buffer layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Talia S. Gershon, Supratik Guha, Jeehwan Kim, Mahadevaiyer Krishnan, Byungha Shin
  • Patent number: 8883549
    Abstract: Exemplary embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to improve p-type doping (p-doping) of cadmium telluride (CdTe) for CdTe-based solar cells, such as cadmium Sulfide (Cds)/CdTe solar cells. Embodiments can achieve improved p-doping of CdTe by creating a high density of cadmium (Cd) vacancies (VCd) and subsequently substituting a high density of substitutional defects and/or defect complexes for the Cd vacancies that were created. Formation of a high density of substitutional defects and defect complexes as a p-dopant can improve light-to-electricity conversion efficiency, doping levels or hole concentrations, junction band bending, and/or ohmic contact associated with p-type CdTe (p-CdTe) based solar cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2014
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Ken K. Chin
  • Publication number: 20140326315
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device is presented. The photovoltaic device includes a layer stack; and an absorber layer is disposed on the layer stack. The absorber layer comprises selenium, wherein an atomic concentration of selenium varies across a thickness of the absorber layer. The photovoltaic device is substantially free of a cadmium sulfide layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 2, 2013
    Publication date: November 6, 2014
    Applicant: First Solar, Inc.
    Inventors: Holly Ann Blaydes, Kristian William Andreini, William Hullinger Huber, Eugene Thomas Hinners, Joseph John Shiang, Yong Liang, Jongwoo Choi
  • Publication number: 20140318623
    Abstract: Photovoltaic thin-film materials comprising crystalline tin sulfide alloys of the general formula Sn1-x(R)xS, where R is selected from magnesium, calcium and strontium, as well as methods of producing the same, are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2014
    Publication date: October 30, 2014
    Applicant: Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC
    Inventor: Stephan LANY
  • Publication number: 20140290739
    Abstract: A thin-film solar battery includes a substrate, a first electrode, a photoelectric conversion layer, and a second electrode. The first electrode, the photoelectric conversion layer, and the second electrode are laminated on the substrate. The photoelectric conversion layer has a laminated layer structure which includes at least a p-type layer and an n-type layer. The p-type layer is formed of Cu, In, Ga, and Se, and a composition ratio of Se of the p-type layer is equal to or higher than 40 atomic % and less than 50 atomic %. The n-type layer is a compound of an element of at least one Group selected from Group 2, Group 7, and Group 12, an element of Group 13, and an element of Group 16, and contains at least In as the element of Group 13 and at least S as the element of Group 16.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 21, 2014
    Publication date: October 2, 2014
    Applicant: RICOH COMPANY, LTD.
    Inventor: Hiroshi Deguchi
  • Publication number: 20140283913
    Abstract: Photovoltaic (PV) devices and solution-based methods of making the same are described. The PV devices include a CIGS-type absorber layer formed on a molybdenum substrate. The molybdenum substrate includes a layer of low-density molybdenum proximate to the absorber layer. The presence of low-density molybdenum proximate to the absorber layer has been found to promote the growth of large grains of CIGS-type semiconductor material in the absorber layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 8, 2013
    Publication date: September 25, 2014
    Applicant: Nanoco Technologies Ltd.
    Inventors: Stephen Whitelegg, Takashi Iwahashi, Paul Kirkham, Cary Allen, Zugang Liu, Stuart Stubbs, Jun Lin
  • Publication number: 20140261685
    Abstract: Embodiments include photovoltaic devices that include at least one absorber layer, e.g. CdTe and/or CdSxTe1-x (where 0?x?1), having an average grain size to thickness ratio from greater than 2 to about 50 and an average grain size of between about 4 ?m and about 14 ?m and methods for forming the same.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: FIRST SOLAR, INC.
    Inventors: Feng Liao, Jigish Trivedi, Zhibo Zhao, Rick C. Powell, Long Cheng, Markus Gloeckler, Benyamin Buller, Igor Sankin, Jeremy Brewer
  • Publication number: 20140261689
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device is disclosed, the device having a zinc-containing layer, such as a ZnO1-xSx layer, as a window layer, as part of a composite window layer, and/or as a buffer layer. Use of the ZnO1-xSx layer improves an overall efficiency of the photovoltaic device due to improved optical transmission thereof as compared to CdS window layers, and due to a improved quantum efficiency of the photovoltaic device in the blue light spectrum due to the presence of the ZnO1-xSx layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Inventors: Benyamin Buller, Dan Damjanovic, Jing Guo, David Hwang, Zhibo Zhao
  • Publication number: 20140261687
    Abstract: A completed photovoltaic device and method forming it are described in which fluxing of a window layer into an absorber layer is mitigated by the presence of a sacrificial fluxing layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: FIRST SOLAR, INC
    Inventors: Dan Damjanovic, Rick C. Powell, Jigish Trivedi, Zhibo Zhao
  • Publication number: 20140261688
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device is disclosed including at least one Cadmium Sulfide Telluride (CdSxTe1-x) layer as are methods of forming such a photovoltaic device.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: FIRST SOLAR, INC
    Inventors: Arnold Allenic, Zhigang Ban, Benyamin Buller, Markus Gloeckler, Benjamin Milliron, Xilin Peng, Rick C. Powell, Jigish Trivedi, Oomman K. Varghese, Jianjun Wang, Zhibo Zhao
  • Publication number: 20140261686
    Abstract: Photovoltaic devices with a zinc oxide layer replacing all or part of at least one of a window layer and a buffer layer, and methods of making the devices.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: FIRST SOLAR, INC
    Inventors: Benyamin Buller, Daniel Damjanovic, Feng Liao, Rick C. Powell, Jigish Trivedi, Zhibo Zhao
  • Patent number: 8835748
    Abstract: A photovoltaic device is provided which includes a plurality of junction layers. Each junction layer includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected to one another. At least one of the junction layers is at least in part optically transmissive. The junction layers are arranged in a stack on top of each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Sunlight Photonics Inc.
    Inventors: Sergey Frolov, Allan James Bruce, Michael Cyrus