In A Moving Bed Patents (Class 201/32)
  • Patent number: 4108732
    Abstract: A method for mixing a stream of particulate carbonaceous material with another stream of particulate material in a reaction zone maintained substantially free of free oxygen, which method is especially useful for mixing a stream of particulate agglomerative carbonaceous material with a stream of particulate heat-supplying material to produce valuable gaseous, liquid and solid products. This invention discloses a number of apparatuses useful for mixing streams of particulate material in a reactor maintained substantially free of free oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1978
    Assignee: Occidental Petroleum Corporation
    Inventor: Herbert E. Nuttall, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4106997
    Abstract: The invention comprises methods for converting a supply of solid, naturally occurring coal and like hydrocarbon material to a plastic-like condition solely by the application of heat, and without employing any extraneous additives, and conducting the plastic-like conditioned material to a pressurized receiver.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1977
    Date of Patent: August 15, 1978
    Assignee: Ingersoll-Rand Research, Inc.
    Inventors: Victor Kevorkian, Francis J. Cumings
  • Patent number: 4102773
    Abstract: In a continuous process for recovery of values contained in a solid carbonaceous material, the carbonaceous material is comminuted and then subjected to flash pyrolysis in the presence of a particulate heat source over an overflow weir to form a pyrolysis product stream containing a carbon containing solid residue and volatilized hydrocarbons. After the carbon containing solid residue is separated from the pyrolysis product stream, values are obtained by condensing volatilized hydrocarbons. The particulate source of heat is formed by oxidizing carbon in the solid residue and separating out the fines.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1978
    Assignee: Occidental Petroleum Corporation
    Inventors: Norman W. Green, Kandaswamy Duraiswamy, Robert E. Lumpkin
  • Patent number: 4101263
    Abstract: Nongaseous carbonaceous material is heated by a method comprising introducing tangentially a first stream containing a nongaseous carbonaceous material and carbon monoxide into a reaction zone; simultaneously and separately introducing a second stream containing oxygen into the reaction zone such that the oxygen enters the reaction zone away from the wall thereof and reacts with the first stream thereby producing a gaseous product and heating the nongaseous carbonaceous material; forming an outer spiralling vortex within the reaction zone to cause substantial separation of gases, including the gaseous product, from the nongaseous carbonaceous material; removing a third stream from the reaction zone containing the gaseous product which is substantially free of the nongaseous carbonaceous material before a major portion of the gaseous product can react with the nongaseous carbonaceous material; and removing a fourth stream containing the nongaseous carbonaceous material from the reaction zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 18, 1978
    Assignee: Occidental Petroleum Corporation
    Inventor: Robert E. Lumpkin, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4100032
    Abstract: A process for carbonizing lignite coal in a Herreshoff Carbonizer of a multi-hearth type. The novel process comprises the steps of introducing given quantities of lignite in the first and succeeding hearths while introducing sufficient quantities of combustion air and fuel to ignite the fuel and to raise the temperature of the hearths until the process is self-sustaining as a result of the combustion of the volatiles driven off of the lignite. The hearth temperatures range approximately 1450.degree. to 1620.degree. F in the first furnace hearth with the second furnace hearth ranging approximately 1650.degree. to 1800.degree. F and the third furnace hearth ranging approximately 1650.degree. to 1890.degree. F. Sufficient combustion air is introduced into various hearths of the furnace to insure complete combustion in at least the first hearth and in the stack of the volatiles being driven off thereby making the process self-sustaining, allowing the introductory fuel to be cut off.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 1977
    Date of Patent: July 11, 1978
    Assignee: Husky Industries Inc.
    Inventor: Anton J. Elberg
  • Patent number: 4098649
    Abstract: Apparatus and the method of converting organic material such as that separated from municipal and industrial waste into useful products by using a form of an extruder in a continuous destructive distillation process and in which the material being processes is compressed in the extruder in the absence of air and is heated to carefully controlled temperatures in separate zones to extract different products from each of the zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 1976
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1978
    Assignee: Redker-Young Processes, Inc.
    Inventor: Donald S. Redker
  • Patent number: 4096038
    Abstract: Method and apparatus for the heat treatment of volatile containing materials in a rotary hearth type furnace wherein the flue gases emanating from the calciner are employed to create either a positive or negative pressure within the calciner hearth as well as the soaking pit area of the said calciner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1976
    Date of Patent: June 20, 1978
    Assignee: Salem Furnace Co.
    Inventors: Ray E. Kranz, William E. Solano, Beverly E. Johnson
  • Patent number: 4092098
    Abstract: Temperature control is often a problem in direct-fired rotary kilns for the pyrolysis of carbonaceous materials wherein at least part of the thermal energy for pyrolysis is obtained by in situ combustion of the pyrolysis gases. The present process and apparatus provides a means by which temperature control, and particularly reduction in intensity of the fireball at the burner end of the kiln and/or moving the fireball away from the burner hood. This is accomplished by (1) controlling the velocity of any burner gases and the velocity of the in situ air (or other oxygen-containing gas) and (2) the distribution of the in situ air at the burner end of the kiln, such that a Craya-Curtet number of at least 0.2, and preferably at least 0.4, is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1976
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1978
    Assignee: Monsanto Company
    Inventors: Donald E. Honaker, Louis J. Jacobs, Jr.
  • Patent number: 4083770
    Abstract: In gas-solids contacting processes involving the transfer of granular solids from a high-temperature, non-oxidizing treating zone through an enclosed conduit to a combustion zone, the transfer of gases between the treating zone and the combustion zone is prevented by using a novel steam sealing technique which avoids the use of mechanical sealing means and differential pressure controllers. Steam is injected into the system between the two contacting zones, and by the use of flow rate controllers and a pressure controller, a portion of such steam is forced at all times to flow through the combustion zone, while another portion thereof is withdrawn from the transfer conduit in admixture with a portion of net off-gas from the treating zone. The control system is particularly adapted for use in oil shale retorting, wherein coke on the retorted shale is burned in a combustion zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 11, 1978
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventor: Roland F. Deering
  • Patent number: 4082645
    Abstract: In the process for recovering energy values from oil shale by the cross-flow retort technique, an improvement is disclosed wherein controlled oxidation of non-vaporizable carbonaceous residue not only provides additional heat for the continuation of the oil educing process without application of external heat but also enables the continuation of a temperature profile which is below that at which adverse chemical and physical changes occur in the shale. According to the invention the moving bed is removed from exposure to external heat as soon as oil eduction has been completed in the upper bed regions. It is thereafter immediately exposed to unheated gases containing measured amounts of oxygen. Oxidation is initiated in those regions of the bed which are above about 800.degree. F. The heat generated by such oxidation may be utilized, in place of externally heated gases, to transfer heat to the lower regions of the bed for oil eduction from those lower regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1976
    Date of Patent: April 4, 1978
    Assignee: The Superior Oil Company
    Inventors: John H. Knight, Lewis A. St. Cyr, Omer L. Wilson
  • Patent number: 4052265
    Abstract: Organic and pseudo-organic materials such as waste materials, for example, are processed in a converter system and decomposed into various usable and reusable forms. Inorganic metals and salts are treated likewise in the same converter system and processed into various usable and reusable forms. While being carried by a conveyor through a controlled atmosphere treatment chamber, virtually free from combustion supporting air or other oxidizing agents, the feed material is caused to progressively thermally break down into its more basic constituents which flow out of the material treatment chamber in a continuous liquid and gaseous vapor stream. Negative pressure is applied upstream from the material treatment chamber to lead the liquid and gaseous vapor stream through successive processing stages of collection containers, condensers and gas scrubbers. The variable negative pressure is sufficient to maintain the pressure in the material treatment chamber within a range of slightly above ambient pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1976
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1977
    Inventor: Klaus M. Kemp
  • Patent number: 4052293
    Abstract: A closed self-contained system (method and apparatus) for efficiently extracting oil and other hydrocarbons from oil-bearing hydrocarbonaceous solid material, which may be preheated to remove water and hydrocarbons which vaporize below about 600.degree. F., is advanced in the form of discrete individual pieces along a pathway in a substantially evacuated zone (e.g., less than 50 torr) while in the presence of heat energy sufficient to raise the temperature of the shale (e.g., to 600.degree. to no more than 900.degree. F.) to cause the oil and other hydrocarbons to be liberated as a vapor in the evacuated zone. The hydrocarbonaceous solid material advances in proximity with at least one condenser surface so that oil and other hydrocarbons are condensed and recovered from the liberated vapor. The system operates at temperatures which are at all times below 900.degree. F., and generally below 700.degree. F.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 10, 1975
    Date of Patent: October 4, 1977
    Assignee: CRYO-MAID Inc.
    Inventors: James L. Mercer, Hachiro J. Togashi
  • Patent number: 4050900
    Abstract: An apparatus for carrying out various methods of material incineration includes an elongated combustion chamber housing a continuous conveyor belt supported beneath infrared heating units, air flow means to the combustion chamber and to the heating units to supply needed oxygen for cooling the heating units, a gas discharge system connected with the inlet end of the combustion chamber for counterflow of combustion gases, means for discharging the treated material at the end of the combustion chamber, and means for feeding the material to be treated into the combustion chamber. In a specific form of the system for sewage sludge treatment, the feed system includes means for grinding the sewage sludge and for pre-heating it to drive off moisture and fragment the particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1975
    Date of Patent: September 27, 1977
    Assignee: Shirco, Ltd.
    Inventors: Jim F. Hobbs, Craig Smyser
  • Patent number: 4039427
    Abstract: A process for the recovery of oil from oil-bearing shale and for employing the oil-depleted shale as a combustible heat source. The oil-bearing shale is charged on a traveling grate to form a burden. A bed of oil-depleted shale having uncombusted carbon and hydrocarbons is provided, and those uncombusted materials are combusted to raise the temperature of the bed to above about 1000.degree. F. A reducing atmosphere is passed through the oil-depleted and combusted bed to raise the temperature of the reducing atmosphere. The heated reducing atmosphere is then passed through the burden to raise the temperature of the oil shale to at least 800.degree. F. and to thereby educt oil from the oil shale. In another embodiment, the combusted oil-depleted material is layered onto the oil-bearing and the reducing atmosphere is passed sequentially through the oil-depleted and oil-bearing material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 1975
    Date of Patent: August 2, 1977
    Assignee: McDowell-Wellman Engineering Company
    Inventor: Thomas E. Ban
  • Patent number: 4038153
    Abstract: Pulverulent coke and granular reactive coke are produced, respectively, from fines and grains of coal of grades which are not normally usable for coking, containing more than 15% of volatile matter and having a swelling index between 1 and 8, by carbonization between 600.degree. C and 1100.degree. C, wherein combustion air in excess of that which would be necessary to bring the coke to the desired coking temperature is introduced into a slightly inclined rotary tubular oven through which the coal passes during its conversion into coke, the air introduction being effected between the coke outlet and the zone in which the product reaches its maximum temperature and being controlled so that the temperature of the gases issuing from the oven is kept above 600.degree. C. At least 60% of the air is preferably introduced at the downstream end of the oven, and further air may be introduced at intermediate points along the oven length.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 1975
    Date of Patent: July 26, 1977
    Assignee: Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine
    Inventors: Jean Deruelle, Olivier Penet
  • Patent number: 4030984
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for feeding scrap tires into a reactor for the recovery of carbonaceous raw materials. The process comprises suspending the tires in a melt chamber having hot gases flowing therethrough at between 250.degree. F and 600.degree. F, allowing the hot gases to flow past the tires, melting the carbonaceous material therein, the melted material being fed into a reactor tube which converts the material to carbonaceous raw materials. The non-meltable portions of the scrap tires, such as metal beads or belted reinforcement, are separated in the melt chamber from the melted scrap tires.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 1975
    Date of Patent: June 21, 1977
    Assignee: Deco Industries
    Inventor: Ren W. Chambers
  • Patent number: 4025416
    Abstract: Crushed oil shale is subjected to eduction in a solids-upflow or -downflow retort in contact with a preheated counter-currently flowing eduction gas comprising a recycled portion of the retort make gases. The problem of shale particle agglomeration is avoided by correlating the eduction gas flow rate and temperature so as to insure that the 750.degree.-850.degree. F shale temperature interval in the retort is maintained at a level sufficiently high in the retort that the total shale, or "rock" pressure bearing down on said interval is insufficient to bring about agglomeration. It is found that the problem of agglomeration is critical to the 750.degree.-850.degree. F temperature range, and that there is a definite correlation between the oil assay of the raw shale and the permissible rock pressure which the shale particles in this temperature range can withstand without undergoing agglomeration. Provision is made for shifting the 750.degree.-850.degree. F zone upwardly or downwardly in the retort.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 24, 1977
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Roland F. Deering, Roland O. Dhondt, Thomas A. Seesee
  • Patent number: 4022569
    Abstract: In the calcination of petroleum coke or the like in a rotary kiln, utilizing controlled air supply intermediate the ends of the kiln to burn removed volatiles and thereby generate all or nearly all of the heat required, highly effective control procedure includes establishing and repeatedly re-establishing target values for temperatures of exit gas and discharging product respectively at opposite ends of the kiln, such target temperatures representing conditions of desired position of the calcining zone and desired physical character of the calcined product which is achieved by proper maximum temperature in said zone. The procedure further includes adjusting one or more of the variables of combustion air supply, RPM of the kiln, and green coke feed rate so as to keep the end temperatures at target value.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 1975
    Date of Patent: May 10, 1977
    Assignee: Alcan Research and Development Limited
    Inventors: Frank John Farago, Dale Gordon Retallack, Raman Radha Sood
  • Patent number: 4004982
    Abstract: In a continuous, solids upflow, gas downflow shale retorting process carried out at superatmospheric pressures, hydrostatic sealing means are provided at the shale inlet and retorted shale outlet ends of the retort, thereby avoiding the need for mechanical sealing means, lock vessels, etc. The raw shale is fed into the retort through a standing reservoir of product oil, or preferably a light fraction thereof, and the retorted shale is discharged from the retort through a water quenching zone and seal, in the lower portion of which is maintained a sufficient hydrostatic head of water to prevent the discharge therethrough of retort gases. Steam generated in the quench zone, containing some entrained hydrocarbonaceous matter, is treated in a multistage cooling and condensing manner for gas cleanup and for recovery of heat and an oil-free water condensate for recycle to the water sealing and quench zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 25, 1977
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: Don C. Jennings, Roland O. Dhondt
  • Patent number: 4003797
    Abstract: In a continuous, solids upflow, gas downflow shale retorting process carried out at superatmospheric pressures, hydrostatic sealing means are provided at the shale inlet and retorted shale outlet ends of the retort, thereby avoiding the need for mechanical sealing means, lock vessels, etc. The raw shale is fed into the retort through a standing reservoir of product oil, or preferably a light fraction thereof, and the retorted shale is discharged from the retort through a water quenching zone and seal, in the lower portion of which is maintained a sufficient hydrostatic head of water to prevent the discharge therethrough of retort gases. Steam generated in the quench zone, containing some entrained hydrocarbonaceous matter, is treated in a multistage cooling and condensing manner for gas cleanup and for recovery of heat and an oil-free water condensate for recycle to the water sealing and quench zones.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1976
    Date of Patent: January 18, 1977
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventors: George D. Cheadle, Roland O. Dhondt
  • Patent number: 3998703
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method and apparatus for the heat treatment of materials on a traveling hearth mounted on a horizontal plane and rotated on a vertical axis within a substantially air-tight enclosure. The materials on the hearth are deposited thereon in separate and distinct rows and retained in separate rows while undergoing heat treatment within the enclosure. The material in one of said rows is capable of evolving volatiles when the materials are subjected to a heat treatment and the evolved volatiles rise and are dispersed in the upper portion of the enclosure where the same will combine with an oxidant such as air and/or oxygen which is admitted into this portion of the enclosure. The mixture of evolved volatiles and oxidants such as air and/or oxygen will combust in the upper portion of the enclosure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1975
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1976
    Assignee: Salem Corporation
    Inventor: John B. Harrell
  • Patent number: 3985637
    Abstract: A substance to be treated for the production therefrom of useful products (usually decomposition products) is formed into a bed on a perforate support, the bed having a thickness of up to about one inch. An inert atmosphere is maintained above and in contact with the bed in a substantially closed space of constant volume. The bed is heated to progressively increasing temperatures by means of a radiant heat source located in the closed space at a distance of up to one and one-half inches above the upper surface of the bed. As the bed is heated, liquid products are educted from the substance and are removed by the force of gravity from the bottom of the bed through the perforate support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1974
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1976
    Inventor: Kindred L. Storrs
  • Patent number: 3976548
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for processing coal and like material, wherein the material is converted by heat into plastic-like condition and then supplied to a pressurized receiver such as a coal gasification reactor or a synthesis gas generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1974
    Date of Patent: August 24, 1976
    Assignee: Ingersoll-Rand Research Inc.
    Inventors: Victor Kevorkian, Francis J. Cumings
  • Patent number: 3971705
    Abstract: Char from the waste liquor of a pulp manufacturing process is produced by confining the waste liquor in a container and feeding the container into an air heating furnace in a manner such that the container is contacted countercurrently with heated air without rotating or stirring the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 1974
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1976
    Assignee: Sanyo-Kokusaku Pulp Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Toshimasa Norita, Hisato Ibara, Masahiro Murakami, Masao Okano
  • Patent number: 3971704
    Abstract: Waste, preferably in a pre-dried state, is passed through a carbonizing oven chamber, from the top towards the bottom and is carbonized therein through interaction with a counter flow of heated gas; that gas together with carbonization gas is taken from the chamber and pre-cleaned (to remove condensates); a portion of the pre-cleaned gas is heated and used as carbonization producing and sustaining gas; the remainder of the pre-cleaned gas is washed and used otherwise, for example, as combustion fuel in a heater for the pre-cleaned gas that will then be used as carbonizing agent. The carbonizing oven chamber can be of various construction such as a pit furnace or a revolving oven. Preferred is to commence carbonization of waste in the chamber through a thermo shock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 1973
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1976
    Assignee: Mannesmann Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jurgen von Klenck, Erich Michel, Klaus-Dieter Gerstenacker
  • Patent number: 3966560
    Abstract: In the calcination of petroleum coke in a rotary kiln, procedure wherein air is controllably supplied internally of the kiln to burn the removed volatiles, as by selection or adjustment of the amount of such air and of the speed of coke travel down the kiln, so that all or nearly all of the heat for calcining the coke is provided by such combustion, and so that a suitably high temperature is reached for effective calcination at an efficiently large feed rate of coke, a special feature being to maintain a significantly long travel time of the coke from a region of intense calcining activity to the product discharge end of the kiln. High production rates, of coke calcined well and uniformly, are economically attained, with ease of control and with unusual stability of kiln operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 6, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1976
    Assignee: Alcan Research and Development Limited
    Inventors: Frank John Farago, Raman Radha Sood, David Michael Stokes
  • Patent number: 3966561
    Abstract: Carbonization of coal in travelling grate furnace with hot gas inlets below the grate. A refractory screen is provided above the grate to provide a flame propagation base for the volatile gases withdrawn from the coal on the grate. The combustion zone above the refractory screen provides radiant heat to vaporize volatiles present in the coal on the grate.The coal to be treated may be in the form of briquettes or an extruded slab. When an extruded slab of slurried coal is used the thermal shock on first entering the carbonization chamber results in the formation of carbon granules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 1974
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1976
    Assignee: International Oils Exploration N.L.
    Inventor: David William Hinkley
  • Patent number: 3950267
    Abstract: High quality activated carbon is produced by charging a mixture of an organic material such as wood, anthracite coal, brown coal, coconut husk, and a material containing metal oxide, metal carbonate or metal hydroxide, such as iron ore and lime, into an internal heating rotary furnace, preferably, having an internal space with a length of 1 to 10 times the diameter thereof, through an end of the rotary furnace, blowing air or oxygen gas into the internal space through an opposite end thereof, burning the distilled gas from the organic material and carbon monoxide generated by the reaction of the organic material with the metal oxide, carbonate or hydroxide, and uniformly circulating the burnt gas in the internal space to maintain the internal space at the reduction temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 1973
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1976
    Assignees: Japan Eng. Co., Ltd., Nippon Iron Powder Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hideo Arakawa, Tatsuo Hasebe, Shigeru Sato
  • Patent number: 3945890
    Abstract: Organic and pseudo-organic materials, such as waste materials, for example, are processed in a converter system and decomposed into various usable and reusable forms. Inorganic metals and salts are treated likewise in the same converter system and processed into various usable and reusable forms. While being carried by a conveyor through a controlled atmosphere treatment chamber, virtually free from combustion supporting air or other oxidizing agents, the feed material is caused to progressively thermally break down into its more basic constituents which flow out of the material treatment chamber in a continuous liquid and gaseous vapor stream. Negative pressure is applied upstream from the material treatment chamber to lead the liquid and gaseous vapor stream through successive processing stages of collection containers, condensers and gas scrubbers. The variable negative pressure is sufficient to maintain the pressure in the material treatment chamber within a range of slightly above ambient pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 1974
    Date of Patent: March 23, 1976
    Inventor: Klaus M. Kemp