Carbon Containing Patents (Class 204/294)
  • Patent number: 6312757
    Abstract: The invention concerns a diaphragm chlor-alkali electrolysis cell comprising a cover, a conductive base for supporting the anodes and a cathode in the form of a box provided with internal wall, external wall and tubular fingers made of a mesh or perforated sheet covered with a porous diaphragm. One or more copper sheets for electric current distribution are fixed to the cathode external walls. The connection between the copper sheets and the cathode external walls is made by means of bolts with the interposition of a conductive and deformable element provided with residual elasticity under compression. The weldings for the assembling of the cathode walls are free from internal stresses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2001
    Assignees: De Nora S.p.A., Elf Atochem S.A.
    Inventors: Jean-Claude Fort, Corrado Mojana, Pierluigi Borrione
  • Patent number: 6309535
    Abstract: An electrode comprises a non-conductive substrate and a conductive layer comprising, in a bonded matrix, graphite particles coated with a noble metal, and carbon particles, wherein the graphite particles are up to 20 &mgr;m is size and have a surface area of 1-50 m2/g. This electrode is capable of measuring low levels of analyte, e.g. glucose in sweat when convined with a layer containing glucose oxidase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2001
    Assignee: Cambridge Sensors Limited
    Inventors: Stephen Charles Williams, Bernadette Yon-Hin, Neil Blair
  • Patent number: 6309521
    Abstract: An ozone generator which operates at constant pressures to produce a continuous flow of ozone in an oxygen stream having from 10% to 18% by weight of ozone. The ozone generator includes one or more electrolytic cells comprising an anode/anode flowfield, a cathode/cathode flowfield, and a proton exchange medium for maintaining the separation of ozone and oxygen from hydrogen. The ozone generator also has an anode reservoir which vents oxygen and ozone and a cathode reservoir which vents hydrogen. The anode reservoir can be filled from the cathode reservoir while continuing to produce ozone. The ozone generator is readily configured for self-control using a system controller programmed to operate the anode reservoir at a constant pressure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2001
    Assignee: Lynntech Internationals, Inc.
    Inventors: Craig C. Andrews, Oliver J. Murphy
  • Patent number: 6296746
    Abstract: Carbon-base bipolar electrode for electrochemical redox reactions in an acid electrolyte in the form of a fluid impervious and electrically conductive septum, at least a face of which consists, at least partially, of a fluid previous woven or unwoven electrodically active fabric of carbon fibers or of yarns of carbon fibers, has an electrically conductive fluid impervious septum consisting of a composite of a matrix fabric in the form of a tightly knit or woven fabric of carbon fibers or of yarns of carbon fibers the pores of which are hydraulically sealed by an electrically conductive carbon containing material at least partly filling the pores of said matrix fabric.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2001
    Assignee: Squirrel Holdings Ltd.
    Inventors: Barry Michael Broman, Andrea Zocchi, Alberto Pellegri
  • Patent number: 6280871
    Abstract: Gas-diffusion electrodes containing modified carbon products are described wherein the modified carbon product is a carbon product having attached at least one organic group. The modified carbon product can be used for at least one component of the electrodes such as the active layer and/or the blocking layer. Methods to extend the service life of electrodes as well as methods to reduce the amount of fluorine containing compounds are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 28, 2001
    Assignees: Cabot Corporation, Termoelettrica S.p.A.
    Inventors: Paolo Tosco, Laurent Kosbach, Yuan Yu, Claudio Orecchia
  • Publication number: 20010011636
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell for the recovery of silver from a photographic fixer solution has a cylindrical cathode secured to and depending downwardly from a screw-on lid of the cell into the solution. The cathode is formed from a sheet of graphite foil laminated to a polyester base, and is clamped at its upper periphery around a boss of the lid. A metal connection ring is embedded around the outer periphery of the base and is contacted by the cathode. This arrangement is particularly suitable for allowing a thin, flexible disposable cathode to be conveniently removed from the cell by means of the lid, without the user being exposed to contact with the silver or with the solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 10, 2001
    Publication date: August 9, 2001
    Inventors: Bruce S. Gowans, Christopher B. Rider
  • Patent number: 6261632
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for improving the adhesion of metal particles to a carbon substrate, characterized in that, before the said metal particles are deposited on the carbon substrate, the said substrate is treated in an alkaline medium at a temperature of between 50° C. and 100° C. in a stream of a gas containing oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2001
    Assignee: Atofina
    Inventors: Franåoise Andolfatto, Sylvain Miachon
  • Patent number: 6251307
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the use of petroleum coke for the manufacture of carbonaceous anodes for the aluminum smelting industry. The inclusion of Group 4 and/or Group 13 metal compounds as additives to the petroleum coker feedstock diminish the oxidizing tendencies of the metal impurities inherent in the petroleum coke.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: Mobil Oil Corporation
    Inventors: Steven Matthew LeCours, Arthur Warren Chester, Gary Lester Smith
  • Patent number: 6235184
    Abstract: The present invention refers to an anode composition comprising as binding agent the sugar cane molasses instead of the conventional electrolytic pitch. The composition may optionally include additives based on lithium, fluorine, aluminum, boron and sulfur, and is used in a process for the manufacture of anodes for the primary aluminum industry. The invention also refers to a process for the manufacture of said anode and the application thereof to the primary aluminum industry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2001
    Assignee: Albras Aluminio Brasileiro S.A.
    Inventors: José Ricardo Duarte De Carvalho, Eduardo Baptista Sarcinelli, Deusa Maria Braga Dognini
  • Patent number: 6221234
    Abstract: A method for pickling products in a metal alloy containing iron, and products in titanium and alloys thereof, in the absence of nitric acid as an oxidizing agent, and for the recovery of the exhausted solutions, characterized in that the recovery of the exhausted solutions deriving from pickling comprises the following steps: sending of the pickling solution, both as catholyte and as anolyte, in an electro-chemical cell optionally of the membrane type to separate the Fe2+ (or Ti2+) ions to be disposed of, from the Fe3+ (or of the Ti3+ and Ti4+) ions to be recovered, obtained by reduction at the cathode of the Fe3+ ions which are in the catholyte to Fe2+ (or of the Ti3+ and Ti4+ ions to Ti2+) and of oxidation at the anode Fe2+ (or Ti2+) ions which are in the anolyte to Fe3+ (to Ti3+ and Ti4+); treating the catholytic solution coming out of the cell and enriched in Fe2+ (or Ti2+) ions as to allow the separation in two phases, a
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2001
    Assignee: Acciai Speciali Terni S.p.A.
    Inventors: Franco Mancia, Sandro Fortunati
  • Patent number: 6217728
    Abstract: An electrolysis cell for carrying out chemical reactions include an electrolyte chamber (2) with a fixed-bed electrode (2F), a gas chamber (1) filled with filling bodies (1F), a gas diffusion electrode with an ion-exchanging separator (3) applied on the electrolyte-chamber side. The ion-exchanging separator is applied onto the gas diffusion electrode by a method comprising a single or multiple application of a solution of an ion-exchanging material in a solvent onto the electrocatalytically active layer of the gas diffusion electrode and at least partial evaporation of the solvent after each coating. The electrolysis cell may be used for the oxidation and reduction of organic or inorganic components dissolved in the electrolyte.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2001
    Assignee: Degussa-Huls AG
    Inventors: Thomas Lehmann, Patrik Stenner, Andreas Küver
  • Patent number: 6187168
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell and electrolytic process for producing a metal by reduction of a metal oxide dissolved in a molten salt bath containing at least one chloride and at least one fluoride. A solid conductor of oxide ions is interposed between the anode and the cathode. The solid conductor preferably comprises zirconia, stabilized in cubic form by addition of a divalent or trivalent metal oxide such as yttria.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2001
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: Alfred F. LaCamera, Siba P. Ray
  • Patent number: 6171460
    Abstract: Conductive ceramics are useful in the construction of electrochemical electrodes that are used in a wide variety of applications because of their inherent chemical resistance. When porous forms of these ceramics are employed as electrodes in even dilute corrosive solutions, corrosive ionic species are caused to diffuse from the solutions into the porous electrode and to concentrate in the vicinity of the electrical connection by means of electromigration. The resulting corrosive degradation of the electrode and the electrical connection ultimately causes electrical failure. The present invention uses polymers to impregnate and selectively coat the ceramic so as to create a barrier seal against the migration of corrosives into the electrode while allowing the ceramic electrode to maintain electrical contact with its environment. Methods for achieving such impregnation are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 9, 2001
    Inventor: John L. Bill
  • Patent number: 6168694
    Abstract: Metal nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder with high surface area (up to 150 m2/g) is prepared by using sol-gel process. The metal organic precursor, alkoxides or amides, is synthesized firstly. The metal organic precursor is modified by using unhydrolyzable organic ligands or templates. A wet gel is formed then by hydrolysis and condensation process. The solvent in the wet gel is then be removed supercritically to form porous amorphous hydroxide. This porous hydroxide materials is sintered to 725° C. under the ammonia flow and porous nitride powder is formed. The other way to obtain high surface area nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder is to pyrolyze polymerized templated metal amides aerogel in an inert atmosphere. The electrochemical capacitors are prepared by using sol-gel prepared nitride, carbonitride, and oxycarbonitride powder. Two methods are used to assemble the capacitors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 4, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 2, 2001
    Assignee: Chemat Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Yuhong Huang, Oiang Wei, Chung-tse Chu, Haixing Zheng
  • Patent number: 6153327
    Abstract: Amorphous carbon comprising a dispersion comprising a catalytically effective load of catalyst, preferably an electrocatalytically effective load of a noble metal electrocatalyst, and membrane electrode assemblies and fuel cell electrodes incorporating same.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2000
    Assignee: Southwest Research Institute
    Inventors: Geoffrey Dearnaley, James H. Arps
  • Patent number: 6153058
    Abstract: Water-derived fuel gas. An underwater carbon arc operated in the absence of hydrocarbons results in a mixture of gases, being non-self-combustible but combustible as a fuel gas in the presence of air, and comprising gaseous hydrogen in major amount and carbon oxides in minor amount, predominantly carbon monoxide. The fuel gas is adapted along with air to run an internal combustion engine, and along with oxygen to operate a cutting or welding torch.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 28, 2000
    Inventor: William H. Richardson, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6146506
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell for the production of fluorine includes an anode having a carbon portion partially or fully impregnated with a polymeric material and a conductive centrally disposed internal channel that permits the anode to be run at high current with uniform current densities without undue resistance heating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: November 14, 2000
    Assignee: 3M Innovative Properties Company
    Inventors: Gerald L. Bauer, William Ves Childs
  • Patent number: 6139704
    Abstract: Carbon-containing components of cells for the production of aluminium by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a cryolite-based molten electrolyte are protected from attack by liquid and/or gaseous components of the electrolyte in the form of elements, ions or compounds, by a refractory boride coating applied from a slurry composed of pre-formed particulate refractory boride in a colloidal carrier which is dried and heated to consolidate the coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 31, 2000
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Vittorio de Nora, Jainagesh A. Sekhar
  • Patent number: 6129831
    Abstract: The sensor electrode has a sensing surface intended to contact a liquid medium for continuous measuring, in combination with a counter electrode and a reference electrode, of the hydrogen peroxide concentration over a concentration range from 0.005 mole/liter to 3 mole/liter, said sensor consisting of a carbon electrode having an open circuit potential between -65 and -85 mV, said open circuit potential being measured with respect to a Ag/AgCl/saturated Cl.sup.- reference electrode in an alkaline solution having a pH between 10.5 and 14, said solution containing hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of more than 0.5 mole/liter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 10, 2000
    Assignee: Universiteit Gent - Vakgroep Textielkunde
    Inventors: Eduard Temmerman, Philippe Westbroek, Paul Kiekens
  • Patent number: 6127059
    Abstract: A gas diffusion layer for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell having a solid polymer electrolyte and a catalyst layer disposed adjacent to the solid polymer electrolyte, where the gas diffusion layer includes a carbon fiber woven cloth having a surface and a coating of a fluororesin (such as polytetrafluoroethylene) containing carbon black on the surface, wherein the carbon fiber woven cloth is adapted to be disposed in the solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell such that the coating is adjacent to the catalyst layer in the solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell. Preferably, the coating penetrates no more than one-half the thickness of the carbon fiber woven cloth. Most preferably, the coating penetrates no more than one-third the thickness of the carbon fiber woven cloth. The carbon fiber woven cloth may be pre-treated with a water-repellent fluororesin (such as polytetrafluoroethylene), or with a mixture of a fluororesin and carbon black, to enhance water repellency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Japan Gore-Tex Inc.
    Inventor: Hiroshi Kato
  • Patent number: 6113756
    Abstract: An electrolytic reduction cell for production of a metal includes an outer steel shell, a layer of insulating material adjacent the outer steel shell and a carbonaceous layer overlaying the insulating material and protecting the insulating material from an electrolytic bath to be contained in the cell. The carbonaceous layer includes at least one carbonaceous cathode block having an upper surface and a lower surface, with a plurality of electrical contact plugs being mounted in electrical contact with the lower surface of the cathode block. A collector plate is in electrical contact with the electrical contact plugs. The electrical contact plugs are distributed over the lower surface of the cathode block such that in operation of the cell, a substantially isopotential surface is achieved at the top surface of the cathode block.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1998
    Date of Patent: September 5, 2000
    Assignees: Comalco Aluminium Limited, Plasma Technology Scientific and Engineering Centre of E O Paton Electric Welding Institute of Ukraine
    Inventors: Drago Dragutin Juric, Raymond Walter Shaw, Boris Eu Paton, Victor J. Lakomsky, Alexander Ja Taran, Michael A. Fridman
  • Patent number: 6110335
    Abstract: An electrode comprising a carbon material with a solid carbon skeleton network and a capacitor containing same, in which there is a first and a second plurality of pores forming transport channels and the first plurality of pores have a pore size of less than 10 nm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2000
    Assignee: Superfarad, Ltd.
    Inventors: Robert Gustavovitj Avarbz, Alla Vladilenovna Vartanova, Sergej Konstantinovitj Gordeev, Sergej Germanovitj Zjukov, Boris Aleksandrovitj Zelenov, Aleksandr Efimovitj Kravtjik, Viktor Petrovitj Kuznetsov, Julia Aleksandrovna Kukusjkina, Tatjana Vasilevna Mazaeva, Olga Sergeevna Pankina, Vasilij Vasilevitj Sokolov
  • Patent number: 6106692
    Abstract: There is provided a concentration sensor for measurement of concentrations of one or plural target substances in a system, with a detection electrode of conductive diamond. The measuring method with the concentration sensor involves measuring the reaction potentials of plural target substances in a sample containing and determining the concentrations of the plural substances by use of the difference between the resulting reaction potentials of the respective substances. The measuring method can also determine the concentration of a single substance in a sample containing one kind of target substance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 22, 2000
    Assignees: Imra Japan Kabushikikaisha, Akira Fujishima, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Kohei Uosaki
    Inventors: Keiji Kunimatsu, Toshihide Nakata, Toshiya Saito, Mayumi Kazuta, Akira Fujishima, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Kohei Uosaki
  • Patent number: 6103077
    Abstract: Gas Diffusion Electrodes (GDES) play a pivotal role in clean energy production as well as in electrochemical processes and sensors. These gas-consuming electrodes are typically designed for liquid electrolyte systems such as phosphoric acid and alkaline fuel cells, and are commercially manufactured by hand or in a batch process. However, GDEs using the new electrolytes such as conductive polymer membranes demand improved electrode structures.This invention pertains to GDEs and gas diffusion media with new structures for systems using membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs), and automated methods of manufacture that lend themselves to continuous mass production Unexpected improvements in gas and vapor transport through the electrode are realized by incorporating a new dispersion process in the construction, reformulating the applied mix with solution additives, and creating a novel coating structure on a conductive web.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 15, 2000
    Assignee: De Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Michael DeMarinis, Emory S. De Castro, Robert J. Allen, Khaleda Shaikh
  • Patent number: 6099704
    Abstract: This invention covers a cathodic element free from asbestos fibres that can be obtained by deposition after filtration through a porous medium of an aqueous suspension comprising electrically conductive fibres, at least one cationic polymer, at least one electocatalytic agent, at least one pore-forming agent and at least one binder selected from among the fluoropolymers. The invention also covers a method for preparing such a cathodic element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2000
    Assignee: Chloralp
    Inventors: Gerard Bacquet, Frederic Kuntzburger
  • Patent number: 6096179
    Abstract: A carbon-reinforced electrode is disclosed. The electrode is formed from a high surface area absorptive material ("HSAAM electrode") made from resorcinol, formaldehyde, a carbon reinforcing agent, a catalyst, and reaction products thereof, and is in a carbonized form. This electrode removes ions from a liquid when an electric current is applied. The liquid may be passed through a thickness of the electrode, or may be passed by the surface of the electrode. A method of making the HSAAM electrodes is also disclosed. The HSAAM electrodes are formed from setting a polymerized mixture of resorcinol, formaldehyde and a carbon reinforcing agent supplied in the form of carbon fibers, carbon felt or cellulose under controlled temperature and time constraints, and subsequently firing the resulting product so as to carbonize the electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 1, 2000
    Assignee: Southeastern Trading, LLP
    Inventors: James R. Fajt, David A. Caple, Brian B. Elson
  • Patent number: 6093304
    Abstract: An electrolytic cell for the electrowinning of aluminium from alumina dissolved in a halide-containing molten electrolyte, has a cathode cell bottom made of a series of carbon cathode blocks (10) connected side-by-side by glue or ramming paste, each one provided with steel or other conductive bars (11) for the delivery of current and a series of anodes (15) facing the cathode cell bottom. The tops of the carbon blocks (10) forming the cathode cell bottom are shaped in such a way as to provide in the cell bottom a series of parallel channels (25) or grooves preferably coated with an aluminium-wettable refractory coating (35) covered in use by a pool (40) of molten aluminium or a layer of molten aluminium forming a drained surface. Movement of the aluminium pool (40) is decreased, cell operation improved and cell life extended.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventor: Vittorio de Nora
  • Patent number: 6093442
    Abstract: The invention concerns a diaphragm chlor-alkali electrolysis cell comprising a cover, a conductive base for supporting the anodes and a cathode in the form of a box provided with internal wall, external wall and tubular fingers made of a mesh or perforated sheet covered with a porous diaphragm. One or more copper sheets for electric current distribution are fixed to the cathode external walls. The connection between the copper sheets and the cathode external walls is made by means of bolts with the interposition of a conductive and deformable element provided with residual elasticity under compression. The weldings for the assembling of the cathode walls are free from internal stresses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: De Nora S.p.A. - Elf Atochem S.A.
    Inventors: Jean-Claude Fort, Corrado Mojana, Pierluigi Borrione
  • Patent number: 6086733
    Abstract: A high performance electrochemical cell is useful for recovery of metal from aqueous solutions. The electrochemical cell has a cathode assembly that includes a nonporous support member, a primary cathode, and a nonconductive or conductive porous material covering the primary cathode. An anode is spaced apart from the cathode assembly. Fluid is caused to flow through the porous material to the primary cathode, through openings or fluid collection channels in the nonporous support member, and uniformly out of the cell. Uniform and efficient deposition of metal is accomplished over the entire primary cathode because of modulation of fluid flow and increased mass transfer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 11, 2000
    Assignee: Eastman Kodak Company
    Inventors: James J. Carey, Gary P. Wainwright, Stephen N. Lowery, Robert B. Call, Peter J. Kelch
  • Patent number: 6077414
    Abstract: A stacked plate cell having serially connected stacked electrodes is described, at least one stacked electrode consisting of a graphite felt plate, a carbon felt plate, a web having a carbon-covered starting material contact surface or a porous solid having a carbon-covered starting material contact surface or comprising such a material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 11, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Hermann Putter, Heinz Hannebaum
  • Patent number: 6069107
    Abstract: A catalyst composition for use in a rechargeable metal-air electrochemical cell comprises an oxygen evolution catalyst coated with a thin film deposition of carbon. This catalyst is useful to make an air electrode which produces more power in a metal-air cell then a metal-air cell having oxygen evolution catalyst without the thin carbon film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2000
    Assignee: AER Energy Resources, Inc.
    Inventors: Irena Kuznetsov, Milton Neal Golovin
  • Patent number: 6042751
    Abstract: The invention is directed to polymer thick film conductor compositions comprising conductive metal particles selected from the group consisting of finely divided powders of platinum group metals and mixtures thereof; modified graphite; and a thermoplastic polymer and optionally, graphite and/or a metallized graphite in combination with a surfactant may replace the modified graphite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 28, 2000
    Assignee: E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company
    Inventors: Man-Sheung Chan, Donald W. Kuty
  • Patent number: 6039852
    Abstract: Bipolar plate made of a composite material for use in a filter-press electrolyzer. Said plate comprises a central portion (6) which is electrically conductive and is obtained by heat-pressing of a mixture of graphite or conductive carbon and a thermoplastic polymer powder resistance to corrosion and two terminal portions (7,8) containing the distribution holes (2,3,4,5) for the inlet of the fresh electrolytes and for the outlet of the exhausted electrolytes and electrolysis products. Said terminal portions are integral with the central portion and are obtained during said heat-pressing from a mixture of graphite or conductive carbon and said thermoplastic polymer powder with a ratio between said powders lower than that of the central portion. Said mixture of the terminal portions may further contain also a non-conductive compound powder, in which case the mixture may also be free from graphite or conductive carbon powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2000
    Assignee: DE NORA S.p.A.
    Inventor: Fulvio Federico
  • Patent number: 6019880
    Abstract: Two types of HgO-modified electrodes are disclosed. The HgO-modified electrode according to the present invention comprises, HgO particles as precursor of mercury, which can be exposed on the surface of the said electrode and then can be reduced electrochemically into micro-droplets of mercury; and electro-conductive material to maintain optimal conductivity of the said modified electrode. In the HgO-modified electrode according to the present invention, built-in mercury precursor, HgO can be utilized feasibly for the generation of the surface mercury droplets by in situ electrochemical treatment or pretreatment without necessity of Hg.sup.2+ solution. The electrode surface can be renewed easily either by a simple polishing process for the bulk-modified electrode type-I or by simple exchange for the screen-printed disposable type modified electrode type-II. So further simplification of anodic stripping analysis process is possible by employing the HgO-modified electrodes according to the present invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2000
    Assignee: Jongman Park
    Inventors: Jongman Park, Kyoungwon Seo, Jung-Yeun Choi
  • Patent number: 6017650
    Abstract: The present invention describes an improved electrode suitable for application in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells, comprising a thin, porous, planar, conductive substrate having one side coated with a pre-layer consisting of conductive carbon having a low surface area mixed to a first hydrophobic agent, to which is applied a catalytic layer consisting of platinum supported on conductive carbon with a high surface area, mixed to a second hydrophobic agent. The hydrophobic degree of the applied layers are suitably adjusted to obtain the best exploitation of the catalyst and to improve the water balance of the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2000
    Assignee: De Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Enrico Ramunni, Manfred Kienberger
  • Patent number: 6010611
    Abstract: This invention provides apparatus and a method for measuring the concentration of alumina in a molten electrolyte in a smelter. A test anode (101) (a mimic of the actual cell anode) supplied from a computer-controlled voltage source (303) with several to about (100) rapid cyclic voltammetry sweeps the voltage at which the anode effect occurs, as sensed by current measurement (305). In order to derive a measurement the voltage is compared within the computer (301) to previous measurements made from a calibration set of alumina samples in known concentrations. Brief rapid cycles and an improved electrode configuration help to provide results from the invention which are reproducible and accurate, and in addition the test electrode has a long life.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 14, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 4, 2000
    Assignee: Auckland Uniservices Limited
    Inventors: Richard Gerard Haverkamp, Barry John Welch
  • Patent number: 6007696
    Abstract: Disclosed is an apparatus for manufacturing an electrolytic ionic water for treating a substrate, comprising an electrolytic cell including an anodic chamber and a cathodic chamber partitioned from the anodic chamber by a porous membrane, a first carbon electrode housed in the anodic chamber, a second carbon electrode housed in said cathodic chamber, apparatus for supplying an electrolyte solution prepared by dissolving a supporting electrolyte in pure water or ultra pure water into the electrolytic cell, apparatus for applying a DC voltage between the first and second carbon electrodes and so as to electrolyze the electrolyte solution, thereby to form an oxidizing ionic water in the anodic chamber and a reducing ionic water in the cathodic chamber, a first discharge port for discharging the oxidizing ionic water from within the anodic chamber, and a second discharge port for discharging the reducing ionic water from within the cathodic chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 28, 1999
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Jun Takayasu, Naoto Miyashita
  • Patent number: 6001225
    Abstract: Non self-passivating cathodic protection anode materials such as graphite and high silicon iron are treated to improve corrosion resistance. Anodically stable oxide coatings such as cobalt oxide (cobalt spinnel) or precious metal oxides are received on the underlying anode substrate. The rate of consumption of the anode material during the operation of the cathodic protection system is dramatically reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Inventor: James B. Bushman
  • Patent number: 6001236
    Abstract: Carbon-containing components of cells for the production of aluminium by the electrolysis of alumina dissolved in a cryolite-based molten electrolyte are protected from attack by liquid and/or gaseous components of the electrolyte in the form of elements, ions or compounds, by a refractory boride coating applied from a slurry composed of pre-formed particulate refractory boride in a colloidal carrier which is dried and heated to consolidate the coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 14, 1999
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Vittorio de Nora, Jainagesh A. Sekhar
  • Patent number: 5993637
    Abstract: An electrode structure is constituted by a first electrode, and at least one second electrode providing a pair of opposite portions with a prescribed spacing therebetween at which the first electrode is disposed. The electrode structure is suitably used for electrolytic etching and is effective in providing an accurate etching pattern without damaging the surface of an etching object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masaya Hisamatsu, Akio Hasebe, Tsutomu Murakami, Hirofumi Ichinose, Satoshi Shinkura, Yukie Ueno
  • Patent number: 5993618
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for generating oxygen or a mixture of ozone and oxygen from high-purity water by means of an electrochemical cell in which a buffer vessel is provided for the high-purity water and the high-purity water can be supplied from the buffer vessel to the electrochemical cell through a feed line and oxygen or ozone and oxygen as well as high-purity water is guided from the anode chamber of the cell through a drain line directly into the buffer vessel and a feed line for the oxygen or mixture of ozone and oxygen comes out from the buffer vessel, possibly with the addition of high-purity water, to a consumer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignees: Dirk Schulze, Wolfgang Beyer Bonn, Rheinbach
    Inventors: Dirk Schulze, Wolfgang Beyer
  • Patent number: 5985114
    Abstract: A carbon body, in particular a pre-baked anode of an electrolytic cell for the production of aluminium by the electrolysis of alumina in a molten fluoride electrolyte is treated over its surfaces to improve the resistance thereof to deterioration during operation of the cell by air and oxidizing gases released at the anode, by treating the body with a treating liquid comprising a precipitable boron-containing compound and an additive, said additive being present in an amount so that substantially no separate phase from said the precipitate of said boron-containing compound is formed upon curing. Suitable boron oxide additives include colloidal alumina, silica, yttria, ceria, thoria, zirconia, magnesia, lithia, monoaluminium phosphate, cerium acetate and mixtures thereof. The same treatment can also be applied to a carbon mass forming a Soderberg anode and to cell sidewalls.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: Moltech Invent S.A.
    Inventors: Jainagesh A. Sekhar, James Jenq Liu, Jean-Jacques Duruz
  • Patent number: 5985112
    Abstract: The general area of this invention relates to porous materials made from nanofiber packed beds. More particularly, the invention relates to altering the porosity or packing structure of a nanofiber packed bed structure by blending nanofibers with scaffold particulates having larger dimensions. For example, adding large diameter fibers to a nanotube packed bed to serve as a scaffolding to hold the smaller nanofibers apart and prevent the nanofiber bed structure from collapsing. This increases the average pore size of the mass by changing the pore size distribution and alters the packing structure of the packed bed. The increase in average pore size is caused by the creation of larger channels which improves the flow of liquids or gasses through these materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1999
    Assignee: Hyperion Catalysis International, Inc.
    Inventor: Alan B. Fischer
  • Patent number: 5977015
    Abstract: An apparatus for deionization of a liquid is disclosed. The apparatus has a number of deionization cells, each cell having two different types of electrodes. The first type of electrode is formed from a high surface area absorptive material ("HSAAM electrode") made from resorcinol, formaldehyde, a carbon reinforcing agent, a catalyst, and reaction products thereof, and is in a carbonized form. This electrode removes ions when an electric current is applied. The second type of electrode, which does not remove ions, is formed from a non-HSAAM material. Each deionization cell has a single HSAAM electrode bordered on either side by a non-HSAAM electrode, and adjacent deionization cells do not share any electrodes of either type. The non-HSAAM electrodes are formed from carbon cloth or carbon felt fixed to one side of a plexiglass sheet, and two such sheets are needed to form a cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: Southeastern Trading LLP
    Inventors: James R. Fajt, David A. Caple, Brian B. Elson
  • Patent number: 5976349
    Abstract: A method for electrochemically purifying solutions with a pH higher than 14 to reduce metal impurities to the level of traces. The method comprises processing the solutions in an electrolytic cell in which the cathode has a fibrous web produced from a mixture of fibres including at least one fraction consisting of electrically conductive fibres and a binder selected from fluoropolymers, said fibrous web being deposited on an electrically conductive porous support. Said cathode may also be combined with a diaphragm or a membrane. A cathode having a fibrous web produced from a mixture of carbon fibres, cellulose compounds, and a cationic polymer such as cationic starch is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Assignee: Rhodia Chimie
    Inventors: Frederic Kuntzburger, Jean-Claude Magne
  • Patent number: 5976333
    Abstract: A collector bar adapted for utilization with carbon during the production of molten metal, such as aluminum, under Hall Heroult applications includes a one-piece metallic extruded and/or drawn tube of relatively low electrical conductivity, such as steel or ferrous metal and a one-piece rod of relatively high electrical conductivity, such as copper. The tube is in encircling relationship to the rod and the rod and tube have surfaces in intimate surfaces-to-surface contact. The rod has an exterior profile exactly complementing an interior profile of the tube, or alternately the rod is relatively elongated and narrow and opposite longitudinal edges thereof are in intimate surface-to-surface contact with parallel opposite surfaces of the tube or opposite diagonal corners of the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 6, 1998
    Date of Patent: November 2, 1999
    Inventor: Ray H. Pate
  • Patent number: 5972186
    Abstract: An electrolytic test machine includes an electrolytic cell in which an electrolytic liquid is stored so that a test material is immersed in the electrolytic liquid. An electrode is immersed in the electrolytic liquid. A DC power source supplies a current between the test material and the electrode. A treating pipe line extends from the electrolytic cell to collect a harmful gas which is generated from the electrolytic liquid during supplying of a current and which is released out of the electrolytic liquid, along with the electrolytic liquid. A harmful gas purifying device is disposed in the treating pipe line. The harmful gas purifying device includes a catalyst for purifying the harmful gas, and a determining device for determining the replacement time of the catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 26, 1999
    Assignees: Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha, Mitsuba Corporation
    Inventors: Toshihiro Takeuchi, Tadashi Imanaka, Takeshi Mashimo, Keiji Kiuchi, Atsushi Tsuzaki
  • Patent number: 5968325
    Abstract: An auto-electrolyte hydrogen generating reactor having a plurality of cells. The cells are stacked in series in an electronically non-conductive housing. Each cell is separate from its neighbour by electronically conductive bipolar walls. Each cell comprises an anode with a metal whose standard oxidation potential is above that of hydrogen in the same electrolyte. There is a solid electrolyte and a cathode. The cathode is an inert electronic conductor with a surface in contact with a solid electrolyte. The surface is electrochemically catalytic for the formation of hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Assignee: A.T.S. Electro-Lube Holdings Ltd.
    Inventors: Colin William Oloman, Jonathan Wing-Fai Ho, Jielin Song
  • Patent number: 5964990
    Abstract: The device proposed for cleaning metal surfaces consist of pad (12, 34, 91) of insulating material held between a beak-shaped (11, 52, 94) electrode (10, 26, 46) and the metal surface (8) to be cleaned, plus a low-voltage a.c. power supply (2) which is connected via the other electrode to the metal (7). A pump supplies the pad with a highly corrosive, high-density, acid solution. The pad consists of a relatively thick hose or tape. The device has slots (36) into which the gases and vapors produced during cleaning are drawn by an extractor fan (40) and then passed through a washing bottle (41) where they are cleaned. The electrode may have various shapes, and it is possible to replace the tip (28, 94, 98). The electrode is preferably designed with bores through which the acid solution can be fed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Assignees: Nitty-Gritty S.R.L., Nitty-Gritty GmbH
    Inventors: Stefano Muratori, Michele Lapelosa, Alessandro Alboni
  • Patent number: 5964992
    Abstract: A graphite reference electrode for use in the cathodic protection of steel embedded in concrete has been produced with a stable catalyzed structure that when equilibrated with air or oxygen and an electrolyte reaches a reproducible and reversible redox potential. This stable device is produced by exposure to hydrogen peroxide, impregnating with a metal oxide followed by a coating treatment. The embedded catalyzed graphite reference electrodes can be used in impressed cathodic protection systems or monitoring the corrosion condition of embedded steel to provide an early warning of impending damage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1999
    Assignee: Giner, Inc.
    Inventors: Larry L. Swette, Mourad Manoukian, Monjid Hamdan, Anthony LaConti, Ali Akbar Sohanghpurwala, William T. Scannell