Multiple Anodic Coatings Patents (Class 205/174)
  • Patent number: 11540408
    Abstract: Methods and structures for forming anodization layers that protect and cosmetically enhance metal surfaces are described. In some embodiments, methods involve forming an anodization layer on an underlying metal that permits an underlying metal surface to be viewable. In some embodiments, methods involve forming a first anodization layer and an adjacent second anodization layer on an angled surface, the interface between the two anodization layers being regular and uniform. Described are photomasking techniques and tools for providing sharply defined corners on anodized and texturized patterns on metal surfaces. Also described are techniques and tools for providing anodizing resistant components in the manufacture of electronic devices.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2022
    Assignee: APPLE INC.
    Inventors: Lucy Elizabeth Browning, Charles B. Woodhull, Bryan Patrick Kiple, David A. Pakula, Tang Yew Tan, Julie Hanchak-Connors, John Murray Thornton, III, Thomas Johannessen, Peter Russell-Clarke, Masashige Tatebe, Napthaneal Y. Tan
  • Patent number: 11242614
    Abstract: Anodic oxide coatings that provide corrosion resistance to parts having protruding features, such as edges, corners and convex-shaped features, are described. According to some embodiments, the anodic oxide coatings include an inner porous layer and an outer porous layer. The inner layer is adjacent to an underlying metal substrate and is formed under compressive stress anodizing conditions that allow the inner porous layer to be formed generally crack-free. In this way, the inner porous layer acts as a barrier that prevents water or other corrosion-inducing agents from reaching the underlying metal substrate. The outer porous layer can be thicker and harder than the inner porous layer, thereby increasing the overall hardness of the anodic oxide coating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2022
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: James A. Curran, Aaron D. Paterson, Brian M. Gable
  • Patent number: 11161203
    Abstract: A process for producing an aluminum member, including irradiating a surface of an aluminum raw material member including, as a component, aluminum or aluminum alloy and unavoidable impurities with a top-hat laser beam at an intensity of from 110 MW/cm2 to 320 MW/cm2. The aluminum member includes, in sequence, a base layer containing, as a component, aluminum or aluminum alloy and having unavoidable impurities; an oxide layer containing an aluminum oxide; and a porous layer containing a porous aggregate of aluminum metal particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2020
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2021
    Assignee: HONDA MOTOR CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Etsuko Tsurugai, Yasuhiko Saijo, Shoko Namera
  • Patent number: 11131036
    Abstract: The embodiments described herein relate to anodizing and anodized films. The methods described can be used to form opaque and white anodized films on a substrate. In some embodiments, the methods involve forming anodized films having branched pore structures. The branched pore structure provides a light scattering medium for incident visible light, imparting an opaque and white appearance to the anodized film. In some embodiments, the methods involve infusing metal complex ions within pores of an anodized. Once within the pores, the metal complex ions undergo a chemical change forming metal oxide particles. The metal oxide particles provide a light scattering medium for incident visible light, imparting an opaque and white appearance to the anodized film. In some embodiments, aspects of the methods for creating irregular or branched pores and methods for infusing metal complex ions within pores are combined.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2016
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2021
    Assignee: APPLE INC.
    Inventors: Masashige Tatebe, Jody R. Akana, Takahiro Oshima, Peter N. Russell-Clarke, Ayumi Hongou, Kenji Hara
  • Patent number: 10179956
    Abstract: Provided are an anodic oxide coating for an aluminum-based material, a treatment method therefor, and a piston for an internal combustion engine, the anodic oxide coating having both high heat insulation properties and high corrosion resistance, high durability and high impact resistance, and high water-repellent and oil-repellent functions. The treatment method includes the steps of: forming a second anodic oxide coating 2b by application of AC-DC superimposition electrolysis to an aluminum-based material 1; and, after the step, forming a first anodic oxide coating 2a by application of direct-current electrolysis to the aluminum-based material 1, wherein the second anodic oxide coating 2b is formed on the first anodic oxide coating 2a.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 26, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2019
    Inventors: Haruhiko Murakami, Masahiro Fujita
  • Patent number: 10006140
    Abstract: A method for dye-free coloring of one-time anodic aluminum oxide surface is revealed. First provide a substrate containing aluminum. The substrate containing aluminum is anodized once at room temperature. The anodizing process includes a step of applying a pulse signal on the substrate containing aluminum for a first period of time. Thus a porous aluminum oxide layer is formed on surface of the substrate containing aluminum. The pulse signal includes a part with positive voltage and a part with negative voltage. Then a metal layer is deposited on the surface of the porous aluminum oxide layer. The porous aluminum oxide layer has a first interference wavelength. Next perform a linear regression of the first interference wavelength versus the first period of time. The absolute value of the slope of the regression line obtained ranges from 1.8 to 38.5. The absolute value is positively correlated with the positive voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignee: National Cheng Kung University
    Inventors: Chen-Kuei Chung, Ming-Wei Liao, Bo-Yu Chu, Shu-Hsien Liao, Cheng-Hui Chen
  • Patent number: 9892818
    Abstract: An aluminum alloy comprising more than 3.5% and up to 6.0% of Mg, 0.02 to 1.0% inclusive of Cu, 0.02 to 0.1% inclusive of Cr, and a remainder made up by Al and unavoidable impurities, wherein the contents of Si and Fe in the unavoidable impurities are limited to 0.05% or less and 0.05% or less, respectively, and wherein the number of intermetallic compound particles contained in the aluminum alloy and having a maximum length of 4 ?m or more is 50 particles or less per 1 mm2 of an arbitrary cross-sectional area of the aluminum alloy. An aluminum alloy is provided, which has excellent anodic-oxidation-treatability and can be used for providing an anodic-oxidation-treated aluminum alloy member having high withstand voltage properties and such excellent heat resistance that the occurrence of cracking under high temperatures conditions can be prevented.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 10, 2013
    Date of Patent: February 13, 2018
    Assignee: Kobe Steel, Ltd.
    Inventors: Satoru Takada, Kazunori Kobayashi, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Kenichi Inoue
  • Patent number: 9869030
    Abstract: Anodic oxide coatings and methods for forming anodic oxide coatings are disclosed. In some embodiments, the anodic oxide coatings are multilayered coatings that include at least two anodic oxide layers formed using two separate anodizing processes. The anodic oxide coating includes at least an adhesion-promoting or color-controlling anodic oxide layer adjacent the substrate. The adhesion-promoting anodic oxide layer is formed using an anodizing process that involves using an electrolyte that prevents formation of delaminating compounds at an interface between the adhesion-promoting anodic oxide layer and the substrate, thereby securing the anodic oxide coating to the substrate. In some cases, the electrolyte includes an organic acid, such as oxalic acid. The anodic oxide coating can also include a cosmetic anodic oxide layer having an exposed surface corresponding to an external surface of the anodic oxide coating. Cosmetic anodic oxide layers can be designed to have a desired appearance or tactile quality.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 16, 2018
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: James A. Curran, Sean R. Novak
  • Patent number: 9850590
    Abstract: Provided is an anodized aluminum film formed on a surface of a substrate that comprises aluminum or an aluminum alloy, the anodized aluminum film having a structure constituted of a single anodized film layer or a structure composed of superposed anodized film layers of two or more different kinds, wherein the outermost anodized film has a degree of film formation, defined by equation (1), of 1.3 or more and the proportion of the thickness of this anodized film in the entire film thickness is 3% or higher. Thus, the anodized aluminum film is inhibited from cracking in bent portions. As a result, the substrate is inhibited from corroding in corrosive-gas atmospheres, and a decrease in withstand voltage characteristics due to film cracking is inhibited. With this anodized aluminum film, enhanced withstand voltage characteristics can hence be attained: Degree of film formation=(thickness of anodized film)/(substrate thickness loss by anodization)??(1).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2017
    Assignee: Kobe Steel, Ltd.
    Inventors: Mamoru Hosokawa, Satoru Takada
  • Patent number: 9512537
    Abstract: Porous metal oxide layers having a color due to visible light interference effects are disclosed. In particular embodiments the porous metal oxide layers are formed using an anodizing processes, which includes a porous metal oxide layer forming process and a barrier layer thickening process. The barrier layer thickening process increases a thickness of a barrier layer within the porous metal oxide layer to a thickness sufficient to and cause incident visible light waves to be reflected in the form of a new visible light waves, thereby imparting a color to the porous metal oxide layer. Methods for tuning the color of the porous metal oxide layer and for color matching surfaces of different types of metal substrates are described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2014
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2016
    Assignee: Apple Inc.
    Inventors: James A. Curran, Sean R. Novak
  • Patent number: 9011668
    Abstract: A method for the antimicrobial provision of implant surfaces with silver, in which the method comprises an anodizing of the implant surface with an electrolyte, in which the electrolyte has a silver-yielding substance. Alternatively, the method comprises a silver implantation or a silver PVD deposition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2008
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: Stryker Trauma GmbH
    Inventor: Andreas Speitling
  • Publication number: 20150064450
    Abstract: To manufacture a chamber component for a processing chamber a first anodization layer is formed on a metallic article with impurities, the first anodization layer having a thickness greater than about 100 nm, and an aluminum coating is formed on the first anodization layer, the aluminum coating being substantially free from impurities. A second anodization layer can be formed on the aluminum coating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 19, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Inventors: Jennifer Y. Sun, Biraja P. Kanungo
  • Publication number: 20120256224
    Abstract: Provided is an insulating substrate which includes an aluminum substrate and an anodized film covering a whole surface of the aluminum substrate and in which the anodized film contains intermetallic compound particles with a circle equivalent diameter of 1 ?m or more in an amount of up to 2,000 pcs/mm3. Also provided is a method for manufacturing the insulating substrate which includes an anodizing treatment step for anodizing the aluminum substrate. The anodized film of the insulating substrate covering the whole surface of the aluminum substrate contains intermetallic compound particles with a circle equivalent diameter of 1 ?m or more in an amount of up to 2,000 pcs/mm3.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Publication date: October 11, 2012
    Inventors: Yusuke Hatanaka, Yoshinori Hotta, Akio Uesugi
  • Patent number: 7998333
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method of manufacturing a magnetic recording medium having high recording density. The magnetic recording medium manufacturing method of the present invention is directed to a manufacturing method including: disposing at least a silicon layer on a substrate; disposing an uneven structure including regularly arranged projections on the silicon layer; disposing magnetic material on the upper surfaces of the projections and within recessed parts of the uneven structure; and allowing the magnetic material disposed within each recessed part to be changed into silicon compound by heat treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 16, 2011
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Tatsuya Saito, Toru Den
  • Patent number: 7479213
    Abstract: A plating method is capable of preferentially precipitating a plated film fully and uniformly in trenches and via holes according to a mechanical and electrochemical process, and of easily forming a plated film having higher flatness surface without being affected by variations in the shape of trenches and via holes. The plating method includes a first plating process and a second plating process. The second plating process is performed by filling a plating solution between an anode and a substrate, with a porous member placed in the plating solution, repeatedly bringing the porous member and the substrate into and out of contact with each other, passing a current between the anode and the substrate while the porous member is being held in contact with the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2004
    Date of Patent: January 20, 2009
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Mizuki Nagai, Hiroyuki Kanda, Keiichi Kurashina, Satoru Yamamoto, Hidenao Suzuki, Koji Mishima, Brett C. Baker-O'Neal, Hariklia Deligianni, Keith Kwietniak
  • Patent number: 7422674
    Abstract: Provided are electron-emitting devices improved in durability during concentration of an electric field and thus rarely suffering chain discharge breakdown. An electron-emitting device has an electroconductive film, a layer placed on the electroconductive film and containing aluminum oxide as a main component, a pore placed in the layer containing aluminum oxide as a main component, and an electron emitter placed in the pore and containing a material of the electroconductive film, and the electron emitter is porous and is electrically connected to the electroconductive film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2008
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Nobuhiro Yasui, Tohru Den
  • Publication number: 20070289874
    Abstract: In this method for producing an anti-reflective film, pores are formed on a surface of a polymer molding material to continuously change a refractive index and then reduce reflectance, in which anodic oxidized porous alumina, in which pores having a tapered shape and whose pore diameter continuously changes, are formed by repeating anodic oxidation at about the same formation voltage and pore diameter enlargement treatment, is used as a mold, or a stamper, which is produced by using the anodic oxidized porous aluminum as a mold, is used as a mold.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 14, 2006
    Publication date: December 20, 2007
    Applicant: Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Hideki Masuda, Kenji Yasui, Yasushi Kawamoto
  • Patent number: 7166205
    Abstract: The present invention uses a two-step anodizing process to produce a colored anodized coating on the surface of an aluminum part. In accordance with this invention, a thin hard anodized coating layer is first formed on the surface of the aluminum part and then growing a softer a clear anodized coating layer on the surface of the aluminum part underneath the hard coat layer. The soft coat is essentially colorless and suitable for color finishing. This invention drastically improves the wear resistance of the aluminum part while maintaining a desired amount of clarity for effective electrolytic coloring.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 6, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 23, 2007
    Assignee: General Motors Corporation
    Inventors: Hong-Hsiang Kuo, Yar-Ming Wang, Joseph C. Simmer, Hsai-Yin Lee
  • Patent number: 7029568
    Abstract: A negative ion generating medium for generating negative ions from the surface of a mother material made of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The negative ion generating medium has the mother material of aluminum or aluminum alloy covered at the surface with an anodized layer on which a rare metal separated from a rare metal solution such as zirconium salt is deposited. As the rare metal is deposited in the pores provided in the anodized layer, its negative ion generating area can be increased thus releasing a large number of negative ions. The negative ion generating medium is manufactured by electrolytically processing the mother material in an electrolyte solution of sulfuric acid doped with a rare metal salt such as lithium salt to develop the anodized layer on the surface of the mother material and deposit the rare metal on the anodized layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2006
    Assignee: GHA Corporation
    Inventors: Yuichiro Matsuo, Takayasu Ikeda
  • Patent number: 6228241
    Abstract: A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 23, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 8, 2001
    Assignee: Boundary Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert S. Alwitt, Yanming Liu
  • Patent number: 5820740
    Abstract: A colored anodic coating for use on surfaces of substrates, e.g. aluminum substrates in which it is desirable to maintain a high solar absorptance (a) and a high infrared emittance (e), particularly in low earth orbit space environments. This anodic coating is preferably a dark colored coating, and even more preferably a black coating. This coating allows a touch temperature within an acceptable design range to preclude burning of an astronaut in case of contact, but also allows a solar radiation absorption in an amount such that an a/e ratio of unity is achieved. The coating of the invention comprises a first layer in the form of an acid anodized colored anodic layer for achieving a high solar absorptance and a second or high emittance layer in the form of a clear acid anodized layer for achieving a high emittance. The entire coating is quite thin, e.g. 1-2 mils and is quite stable in a hostile space environment of the type encountered in a low earth orbit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 13, 1998
    Assignees: Aluminum Finishing Corporation, McDonnell Douglas Corporation
    Inventors: Huong Giang Le, John L. Chesterfield
  • Patent number: 5674371
    Abstract: A process for providing a variety of light to medium colors of anodized aluminum or aluminum alloy which comprises the steps of anodizing an aluminum or aluminum alloy workpiece in an aqueous strong acid electrolyte solution such as a sulfuric acid solution by application of direct current at a current density of 5 to about 25 amperes per square foot and a temperature of from F. to F. to form on the workpiece a porous anodic oxide film having a thickness of at least about 3 microns; subjecting the resulting anodized workpiece to alternating current at a voltage of about 5 to about 25 volts for about 1 to 25 minutes in an aqueous strong acid electrolyte solution such as a sulfuric acid solution comprising about 1 to 15 volume percent of an organic carboxylic acid containing at least one reactive group in the alpha-position, wherein said reactive group is a hydroxy, amino, keto or carboxyl group; and electrolytically coloring the workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 7, 1997
    Assignee: Clariant Finance (BVI) Limited
    Inventor: Pinakin Patel
  • Patent number: 5587063
    Abstract: Anodized aluminum surfaces are electrolytically colored using alternating current in a process in which two different coloring baths are sequentially employed. One bath contains copper(II) ions and an additive which improves throwing power thereby providing uniform distribution of the depth of color. The other bath contains tin(II) ions, silver ions, or both tin(II) and silver ions. If tin(II) ions are included, additives which stabilize tin(II) ions and improve throwing power are also included. Either bath may be used first. The use of two separate coloring baths provides colored aluminum surfaces which have excellent resistance to corrosion. Workpieces with reddish-gold hues and darker tones can be produced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1995
    Date of Patent: December 24, 1996
    Assignee: Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien
    Inventors: Peter Kuhm, Christine Schroeder, Volker Sander, Juergen Lindener, Loert De Riese-Meyer
  • Patent number: 5486283
    Abstract: An improved method of anodizing aluminum which produces an oxide surface receptive to the formation of strong and durable bonds with epoxy adhesives and coatings with underlying bulk properties providing dissimilar metal separation and basic corrosion protection. The invention provides a two step electrolytic process which includes, firstly, anodizing the aluminum with a phosphoric acid solution and then, secondly, further anodizing the aluminum with a sulfuric and boric acid solution. A product is provided that has a final coating having two anodized regions. The first outer region produced by the phosphoric acid solution is about 3000 angstroms thick and is characterized by open pores which is particularly well suited for the establishment of stable, strong and durable bonds with epoxy primers and adhesives. The second base region produced by the sulfuric/boric acid solution provides a thick, tough, corrosion resistant region about 15,000 angstroms thick.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 1993
    Date of Patent: January 23, 1996
    Assignee: Rohr, Inc.
    Inventor: Jason G. Mnich
  • Patent number: 5472788
    Abstract: A broad range of colors within the visible spectrum can be obtained by light interference and multiple refraction in an anodized aluminum product, by electrolytically depositing on an aluminum-based substrate an aluminum oxide anodic film separated from the substrate by an aluminum/aluminum oxide interface. The aluminum oxide anodic film comprises at least three superimposed aluminum oxide anodic layers having different porosities and separated by interfaces between each other, the innermost one of said anodic layers having a non porous barrier layer arranged between the bottom of the pores thereof and the aluminum/aluminum oxide interface. Pigmentary inorganic material is deposited within the pores of the superimposed anodic layers and at least in portions of the interfaces between them, the different colors being produced by varying the current and/or time conditions when depositing the innermost one of the aluminum oxide anodic layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1995
    Inventor: Eliseo Benitez-Garriga
  • Patent number: 5132003
    Abstract: The present invention provides a process for surface treatment in which the surface of aluminium or its alloy can be put in a desired color and the improved wear resistance and corrosion resistance can be obtained. Anodic oxidation coatings obtained by conventional alumite treatment is porous and thus is small in wear resistance and in corrosion resistance and is insufficient in durability of coloring. The process of the present invention is characterized in that the process comprises the steps of: forming anodic oxidation coatings by conventional method on the surface of the aluminium or its alloy, thereafter applying an alternating voltage of 10 V.about.30 V within a sulfate solution or nitrate solution of a desired metal to a member on which said anodic oxidation coatings was formed by the above step, whereby said metal is electrolytically impregnated into said anodic oxidation coatings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 1990
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1992
    Inventor: Minoru Mitani
  • Patent number: 5078845
    Abstract: A process for preparing an electrode foil for use in aluminum electrolytic capacitors is disclosed which comprises the steps of: subjecting an aluminum base foil to a first anodic treatment in an aqueous solution of oxalic acid or sulfuric acid; subjecting the base foil so treated to a second anodic treatment in an aqueous solution of boric acid or adipic acid; and immersing the base foil so treated into an aqueous solution containing phosphoric acid or a salt thereof. Also disclosed is an electrode foil prepared by this process, which comprises an aluminum base foil, an anodic oxide film disposed on the base foil, and a porous oxide film disposed on the anodic oxide film, wherein phosphate ions are adsorbed on the surface of the porous oxide film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 21, 1990
    Date of Patent: January 7, 1992
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiromu Kunugihara, Hiroshi Takahashi, Ryoichi Shimatani, Nobuyoshi Kanzaki