Controlling Current Distribution Within Bath Patents (Class 205/96)
  • Patent number: 10741513
    Abstract: External electrical connectors and methods of forming such external electrical connectors are discussed. A method includes forming an external electrical connector structure on a substrate. The forming the external electrical connector structure includes plating a pillar on the substrate at a first agitation level affected at the substrate in a first solution. The method further includes plating solder on the external electrical connector structure at a second agitation level affected at the substrate in a second solution. The second agitation level affected at the substrate is greater than the first agitation level affected at the substrate. The plating the solder further forms a shell on a sidewall of the external electrical connector structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2018
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2020
    Assignee: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Meng-Fu Shih, Chun-Yen Lo, Cheng-Lin Huang, Wen-Ming Chen, Chien-Ming Huang, Yuan-Fu Liu, Yung-Chiuan Cheng, Wei-Chih Huang, Chen-Hsun Liu, Chien-Pin Chan, Yu-Nu Hsu, Chi-Hung Lin, Te-Hsun Pang, Chin-Yu Ku
  • Patent number: 10300462
    Abstract: A silver impregnation solution comprising: (i) silver ions, (ii) a silver concentration enhancer selected from at least one ammonium salt having an anionic component that is thermally decomposable; or at least one amino acid, or a combination thereof, (iii) at least one organic amine; and (iv) water; wherein said components (i)-(iii) are dissolved in said impregnation solution, and oxalic acid may or may not be included. The silver impregnation solution can achieve significantly higher silver concentrations, including at least or above 33, 34, or 35 wt %. Methods for producing a silver catalyst by silver impregnation of a refractory support followed by calcination are also described. The resulting silver catalysts possess high silver loadings of typically at least 17, 18, or 19 wt %.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2019
    Assignee: SCIENTIFIC DESIGN COMPANY, INC.
    Inventors: Lixin Cao, Andrzej Rokicki
  • Patent number: 10214829
    Abstract: Various embodiments herein relate to methods and apparatus for electroplating metal onto substrates. In various cases, a reference electrode may be modified to promote improved electroplating results. The modifications may relate to one or more of the reference electrode's shape, position, relative conductivity compared to the electrolyte, or other design feature. In some particular examples the reference electrode may be dynamically changeable, for example having a changeable shape and/or position. In a particular example the reference electrode may be made of multiple segments. The techniques described herein may be combined as desired for individual applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2019
    Assignee: Lam Research Corporation
    Inventors: Zhian He, Ashwin Ramesh, Shantinath Ghongadi
  • Patent number: 10190229
    Abstract: A new system has a plurality of modular segments flexibly attached to one other and a source of electrical power and plating and coating solutions at the rear of the plurality of modular segments. The plurality of modular segments include a drive stage configured to push the plurality of modular segments along a surface, a plating stage configured to apply the plating solution to the surface under a pre-set operating current density to deposit metal or metal alloy onto the surface, a surface treatment application stage configured to apply the coating solution to the surface, and a curing stage configured to cure the coating solution to form a final coating on the surface that is resistant to corrosion, chemical attacks and chemical buildup.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 21, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2019
    Assignee: OCEANIT LABORATORIES, INC.
    Inventors: Glen Nakafuji, Ganesh Kumar Arumugam, Vinod Veedu, Matthew Nakatsuka
  • Patent number: 10190230
    Abstract: The embodiments herein relate to methods and apparatus for electroplating one or more materials onto a substrate. In many cases the material is a metal and the substrate is a semiconductor wafer, though the embodiments are no so limited. Typically, the embodiments herein utilize a channeled plate positioned near the substrate, creating a cross flow manifold defined on the bottom by the channeled plate, on the top by the substrate, and on the sides by a cross flow confinement ring. During plating, fluid enters the cross flow manifold both upward through the channels in the channeled plate, and laterally through a cross flow side inlet positioned on one side of the cross flow confinement ring. The flow paths combine in the cross flow manifold and exit at the cross flow exit, which is positioned opposite the cross flow inlet. These combined flow paths result in improved plating uniformity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 29, 2019
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Abraham, Steven T. Mayer, Bryan L. Buckalew, Robert Rash
  • Patent number: 9938629
    Abstract: A method of making property modulated composite materials includes depositing a first layer of material having a first microstructure/nanostructure on a substrate followed by depositing a second layer of material having a second microstructure/nanostructure that differs from the first layer. Multiple first and second layers can be deposited to form a composite material that includes a plurality of adjacent first and second layers. By controlling the microstructure/nanostructure of the layers, the material properties of the composite material formed by this method can be tailored for a specific use. The microstructures/nanostructures of the composite materials may be defined by one or more of grain size, grain boundary geometry, crystal orientation, and a defect density.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 10, 2018
    Assignee: Modumetal, Inc.
    Inventors: John D. Whitaker, Zhi Liang Bao
  • Patent number: 9728450
    Abstract: Insulating a via in a semiconductor substrate, including: depositing, in the via, a dielectric layer; depositing, in the via, a barrier layer; allowing the barrier layer to oxidize; and depositing, in the via, a conducting layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2017
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Mukta G. Farooq, Jennifer A. Oakley, Kevin S. Petrarca, Nicole R. Reardon, Andrew H. Simon
  • Patent number: 9127371
    Abstract: A moth-eye mold fabrication method of an embodiment of the present invention includes the steps of: (a) anodizing a surface of an aluminum film to form a porous alumina layer which has a plurality of minute recessed portions; (b) after step (a), bringing the porous alumina layer into contact with an etching solution, thereby enlarging the plurality of minute recessed portions of the porous alumina layer; and (c) after step (b), further anodizing the surface to grow the plurality of minute recessed portions, wherein a voltage applied in step (c) is higher than a voltage applied in step (a). According to an embodiment of the present invention, a mold fabrication method is provided which is capable of preventing formation of a plurality of tiny pores in one micropore.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 8, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignee: SHARP KABUSHIKI KAISHA
    Inventors: Akinobu Isurugi, Kiyoshi Minoura, Takao Imaoku
  • Patent number: 9062388
    Abstract: An electroplating apparatus including a reference electrode to control the potential during an electro-deposition process. The electroplating apparatus may include a bath containing a plating electrolyte and an anode present in a first portion of the bath containing the plating electrolyte. A cathode is present in a second portion of the bath containing the plating electrolyte. A reference electrode is present at a perimeter of the cathode. The electroplating apparatus also includes a control system to bias the cathode and the anode to provide a potential. A measuring system is provided in electrical communication with the reference electrode to measure the potential of the cathode. Methods of using the above described electroplating apparatus are also provided. Structures and method for electroless deposition are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2015
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Charles L. Arvin, Harry Cox, Hariklia Deligianni, George J. Scott
  • Patent number: 9017539
    Abstract: A method for fabricating a heat sink may include: providing a carbon fiber fabric having carbon fibers and openings, the openings leading from a first side to a second side of the fabric; and electroplating the fabric with metal, wherein metal is deposited with a higher rate at the first side than at the second side of the fabric. Another method for fabricating a heat sink may include: providing a carbon metal composite having metal-coated carbon fibers and openings, the openings leading from a first side to a second side of the carbon metal composite; disposing the composite over a semiconductor element such that the first side of the composite faces the semiconductor element; and bonding the composite to the semiconductor element by means of an electroplating process, wherein metal electrolyte is supplied to an interface between the carbon metal composite and the semiconductor element via the openings.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 22, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: Infineon Technologies AG
    Inventor: Friedrich Kroener
  • Patent number: 9005420
    Abstract: Variable property deposit, at least partially of fine-grained metallic material, optionally containing solid particulates dispersed therein, is disclosed. The electrodeposition conditions in a single plating cell are suitably adjusted to once or repeatedly vary at least one property in the deposit direction. In one embodiment denoted multidimension grading, property variation along the length and/or width of the deposit is also provided. Variable property metallic material deposits containing at least in part a fine-grained microstructure and variable property in the deposit direction and optionally multidimensionally, provide superior overall mechanical properties compared to monolithic fine-grained (average grain size: 2 nm-5 micron), entirely coarse-grained (average grain size: >20 micron) or entirely amorphous metallic material deposits.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Integran Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Klaus Tomantschger, Glenn Hibbard, Gino Palumbo, Iain Brooks, Jonathan McCrea, Fred Smith
  • Publication number: 20150096894
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods of electroplating copper onto at least one surface of a substrate in which more uniform electrical double layers are formed adjacent to the at least one surface being electroplated (i.e., the cathode) and an anode of an electrochemical cell, respectively. In one embodiment, the electroplated copper may be substantially-free of dendrites, exhibit a high-degree of (111) crystallographic texture, and/or be electroplated at a high-deposition rate (e.g., about 6 ?m per minute or more) by electroplating the copper under conditions in which a ratio of a cathode current density at the at least one surface to an anode current density at an anode is at least about 20. In another embodiment, a porous anodic film may be formed on a consumable copper anode using a long conditioning process that promotes forming a more uniform electrical double layer adjacent to the anode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 15, 2014
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Inventors: Valery M. Dubin, Xingling Xu, Yingxiang Tao, James D. Blanchard
  • Publication number: 20150090599
    Abstract: This application relates to systems and methods for controlling current density in an electrochemical bath using an anode assembly that comprises a plurality of anodes arranged across a surface of the anode assembly. In one embodiment, each of the anodes may be coupled to a power supply through an intervening electrical switch. A switch controller enables the selection of which anodes should be turned on or off during processing. In this way, current density across the anode assembly can be controlled in a uniform manner by turning on and off select anodes. Turning off a portion of the anodes may lower current density in that region. Likewise, turning on the portion of anodes will increase the current density in that region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 2, 2013
    Publication date: April 2, 2015
    Applicant: TEL NEXX, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan Hander, Demetrius Papapanayiotou, Robert Moon, David Guarnaccia
  • Patent number: 8992757
    Abstract: A method for electrofilling large, high aspect ratio recessed features with copper without depositing substantial amounts of copper in the field region is provided. The method allows completely filling recessed features having aspect ratios of at least about 5:1 such as at least about 10:1, and widths of at least about 1 ?m in a substantially void-free manner without depositing more than 5% of copper in the field region (relative to the thickness deposited in the recessed feature). The method involves contacting the substrate having one or more large, high aspect ratio recessed features (such as a TSVs) with an electrolyte comprising copper ions and an organic dual state inhibitor (DSI) configured for inhibiting copper deposition in the field region, and electrodepositing copper under potential-controlled conditions, where the potential is controlled not exceed the critical potential of the DSI.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Mark J. Willey, Steven T. Mayer
  • Publication number: 20150060291
    Abstract: Methods of electroplating metal on a substrate while controlling azimuthal uniformity, include, in one aspect, providing the substrate to the electroplating apparatus configured for rotating the substrate during electroplating, and electroplating the metal on the substrate while rotating the substrate relative to a shield such that a selected portion of the substrate at a selected azimuthal position dwells in a shielded area for a different amount of time than a second portion of the substrate having the same average arc length and the same average radial position and residing at a different angular (azimuthal) position. For example, a semiconductor wafer substrate can be rotated during electroplating slower or faster, when the selected portion of the substrate passes through the shielded area.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 11, 2014
    Publication date: March 5, 2015
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, David W. Porter, Bryan L. Buckalew, Robert Rash
  • Patent number: 8926820
    Abstract: An electroplating apparatus including a plating tank for containing a plating electrolyte. A counter electrode, e.g., anode, is present in a first portion of the plating tank. A cathode system is present in a second portion of the plating tank. The cathode system includes a working electrode and a thief electrode. The thief electrode is present between the working electrode and the counter electrode. The thief electrode includes an exterior face that is in contact with the plating electrolyte that is offset from the plating surface of the working electrode. In one embodiment, the thief electrode overlaps a portion of the working electrode about the perimeter of the working electrode. In one embodiment, a method is provided of using the aforementioned electroplating apparatus that provides increased uniformity in the plating thickness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2015
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Charles L. Arvin, Raschid J. Bezama, Glen N. Biggs, Hariklia Deligianni, Tracy A. Tong
  • Patent number: 8911609
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods of electroplating copper onto at least one surface of a substrate in which more uniform electrical double layers are formed adjacent to the at least one surface being electroplated (i.e., the cathode) and an anode of an electrochemical cell, respectively. In one embodiment, the electroplated copper may be substantially-free of dendrites, exhibit a high-degree of (111) crystallographic texture, and/or be electroplated at a high-deposition rate (e.g., about 6 ?m per minute or more) by electroplating the copper under conditions in which a ratio of a cathode current density at the at least one surface to an anode current density at an anode is at least about 20. In another embodiment, a porous anodic film may be formed on a consumable copper anode using a long conditioning process that promotes forming a more uniform electrical double layer adjacent to the anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2014
    Assignee: Moses Lake Industries, Inc.
    Inventors: Valery M. Dubin, Xingling Xu, Yingxiang Tao, James D. Blanchard
  • Patent number: 8858774
    Abstract: Methods of electroplating metal on a substrate while controlling azimuthal uniformity, include, in one aspect, providing the substrate to the electroplating apparatus configured for rotating the substrate during electroplating, and electroplating the metal on the substrate while rotating the substrate relative to a shield such that a selected portion of the substrate at a selected azimuthal position dwells in a shielded area for a different amount of time than a second portion of the substrate having the same average arc length and the same average radial position and residing at a different angular (azimuthal) position. For example, a semiconductor wafer substrate can be rotated during electroplating slower or faster, when the selected portion of the substrate passes through the shielded area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, David W. Porter, Bryan L. Buckalew, Robert Rash
  • Publication number: 20140291158
    Abstract: In order to provide a coating facility for coating workpieces, which includes a dip tank, into which the workpieces are introducible in order to coat them, a current conversion system for providing a coating current, which is feedable through the dip tank to coat the workpieces, and an electrode, which is configured to be arranged in the dip tank and which is electrically connected to the current conversion system, which coating facility is configured to be flexibly and reliably operated, it is proposed that the current conversion system comprises a current conversion unit, which includes a power switch and an isolating transformer, the power switch being connectable on the input side to a supply current source and being connected on the output side to the isolating transformer and the isolating transformer being connected on the input side to the power switch and on the output side to an electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 3, 2014
    Publication date: October 2, 2014
    Applicant: Dürr Systems GmbH
    Inventors: Alfred Pregenzer, Michael Dieterich
  • Publication number: 20140251814
    Abstract: A method of plating a metal layer on a work piece includes exposing a surface of the work piece to a plating solution, and supplying a first voltage at a negative end of a power supply source to an edge portion of the work piece. A second voltage is supplied to an inner portion of the work piece, wherein the inner portion is closer to a center of the work piece than the edge portion. A positive end of the power supply source is connected to a metal plate, wherein the metal plate and the work piece are spaced apart from each other by, and are in contact with, the plating solution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 26, 2013
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicant: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Chen-Yuan Kao, Hung-Wen Su, Minghsing Tsai
  • Publication number: 20140251815
    Abstract: An electrical brush plating system and method for metal parts wherein a motion control member and a plating bath with a plating pen includes an anode member provided with an anode plate and bristles that are mounted on the motion control member. A part to be plated is disposed within the plating bath with the bristles provided towards the surface of the part to be plated and under the control of the motion control member, the bristles perform a relative friction motion with the surface of the part to be plated. During the relative friction motion, the surface of the part to be plated is opposite to the anode plate of the anode member. The method includes the steps of mounting the plating pen and the part to be plated; electrocleaning; strong activation; weak activation and electrical brush plating. The generation of pinholes, pits and nodules are avoided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 28, 2014
    Publication date: September 11, 2014
    Applicants: People's Liberation Army Academy of Armored Forces Engineering
    Inventors: Zhenfeng HU, Binshi XU, Xiaohe WANG, Biao LV, XiuBing LIANG, Peijing SHI, Yongxiong CHEN, Zhihai CAI
  • Patent number: 8784618
    Abstract: An electroplating apparatus is provided that includes a plating tank for containing a plating electrolyte. A counter electrode, e.g., anode, is present in a first portion of the plating tank. A cathode system is present in a second portion of the plating tank. The cathode system includes a working electrode and a thief electrode. The thief electrode is present between the working electrode and the counter electrode. The thief electrode includes an exterior face that is in contact with the plating electrolyte that is offset from the plating surface of the working electrode. In one embodiment, the thief electrode overlaps a portion of the working electrode about the perimeter of the working electrode. In one embodiment, a method is provided of using the aforementioned electroplating apparatus that provides increased uniformity in the plating thickness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Charles L. Arvin, Raschid J. Bezama, Glen N. Biggs, Hariklia Deligianni, Tracy A. Tong
  • Patent number: 8771492
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and device for the electrochemical treatment of at least one component, which has a treatment chamber and at least one feed unit for an electrolyte to the treatment chamber, and at least one way for setting the pH value of the electrolyte being provided before the treatment chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Kennametal Inc.
    Inventors: Rainer Huss, Patrick Matt, Rene Wodrich, Ulrich Franz Burmester
  • Publication number: 20140144781
    Abstract: An apparatus for electroplating a layer of metal onto the surface of a wafer includes an auxiliary electrode that is configured to function both as an auxiliary cathode and an auxiliary anode during the course of electroplating. The apparatus further includes an ionic current collimator (e.g., a focus ring) configured to direct ionic current from the main anode to central portions of the wafer. The provided configuration effectively redistributes ionic current in the plating system allowing plating of uniform metal layers and mitigating the terminal effect. In one example, the auxiliary electrode functions as an auxiliary cathode in the beginning of electroplating when the terminal effect is pronounced, and subsequently is anodically biased.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 30, 2013
    Publication date: May 29, 2014
    Applicant: Lam Research Corporation
    Inventor: Zhian He
  • Patent number: 8670211
    Abstract: A method and system plates CoFeX, where X is an insertion metal. The method and system include providing a plating solution including hydroxymethyl-p-tolylsulfone (HPT). The plating solution being configured to provide a CoFeX film having a high saturation magnetic flux density of greater than 2.3 Tesla and not more than 3 weight percent of X. The method and system also include plating the CoFeX film on a substrate in the plating solution. In some aspects, the plated CoFeX film may be used in structures such as main poles of a magnetic recording head.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignee: Western Digital (Fremont), LLC
    Inventors: Ming Sun, Jose A. Medina, Keith Y. Sasaki, Ming Jiang
  • Publication number: 20140037919
    Abstract: A component made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic is described, consisting of or comprising a matrix material (M) and carbon fibers embedded into the matrix material (M), wherein the component has at least one surface portion (A), having one or a plurality of exposed regions of the carbon fibers, characterized in that the exposed regions(s) of the carbon fibers is or are selectively coated with a layer (S). A process for producing such a component and also an assembly comprising such a component and one or a plurality of further components comprising or consisting of a material such as steel, iron, copper, magnesium or aluminum or alloys thereof are also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 24, 2012
    Publication date: February 6, 2014
    Inventors: Peter Plagemann, Andreas Brinkmann, Anja Zockoll, Armin Fangmeier, Rouven Kott, Simone Schroeder, Thomas Lemckau
  • Patent number: 8623194
    Abstract: Disclosed are embodiments of an electroplating system and an associated electroplating method that allow for depositing of metal alloys with a uniform plate thickness and with the means to alter dynamically the alloy composition. Specifically, by using multiple anodes, each with different types of soluble metals, the system and method avoid the need for periodic plating bath replacement and also allow the ratio of metals within the deposited alloy to be selectively varied by applying different voltages to the different metals. The system and method further avoids the uneven current density and potential distribution and, thus, the non-uniform plating thicknesses exhibited by prior art methods by selectively varying the shape and placement of the anodes within the plating bath. Additionally, the system and method allows for fine tuning of the plating thickness by using electrically insulating selectively placed prescribed baffles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Charles L. Arvin, Raschid J. Bezama, Harry D. Cox, Krystyna W. Semkow
  • Patent number: 8623193
    Abstract: A substantially uniform layer of a metal is electroplated onto a work piece having a seed layer thereon. This is accomplished by employing a “high resistance ionic current source,” which solves the terminal problem by placing a highly resistive membrane (e.g., a microporous ceramic or fretted glass element) in close proximity to the wafer, thereby swamping the system's resistance. The membrane thereby approximates a constant current source. By keeping the wafer close to the membrane surface, the ionic resistance from the top of the membrane to the surface is much less than the ionic path resistance to the wafer edge, substantially compensating for the sheet resistance in the thin metal film and directing additional current over the center and middle of the wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T Mayer, Jonathan D. Reid
  • Publication number: 20130327650
    Abstract: An apparatus for electroplating a layer of metal onto the surface of a wafer includes an ionically resistive ionically permeable element located in close proximity of the wafer and an auxiliary cathode located between the anode and the ionically resistive ionically permeable element. The ionically resistive ionically permeable element serves to modulate ionic current at the wafer surface. The auxiliary cathode is configured to shape the current distribution from the anode. The provided configuration effectively redistributes ionic current in the plating system allowing plating of uniform metal layers and mitigating the terminal effect.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 31, 2013
    Publication date: December 12, 2013
    Inventors: Steven Mayer, Jingbin Feng, Zhian He, Jonathan Reid, Seshasayee Varadarajan
  • Patent number: 8518224
    Abstract: The present invention provides a plating apparatus with multiple anode zones and cathode zones. The electrolyte flow field within each zone is controlled individually with independent flow control devices. A gas bubble collector whose surface is made into pleated channels is implemented for gas removal by collecting small bubbles, coalescing them, and releasing the residual gas. A buffer zone built within the gas bubble collector further allows unstable microscopic bubbles to dissolve.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2013
    Assignee: ACM Research (Shanghai) Inc.
    Inventors: Yue Ma, Xi Wang, Yunwen Huang, Zhenxu Pang, Voha Nuch, David Wang
  • Patent number: 8512540
    Abstract: An objective of this invention is to reliably form a plating film. The following two steps are sequentially conducted: a first step of connecting a film-formation surface of a wafer 109 to a cathode electrode 107, making the film-formation surface inclined from the surface of a plating solution 103 and immersing the wafer 109 into the plating solution 103 with applying a first current between the cathode electrode 107 and an Cu anode electrode 105 disposed in the plating solution 103, and second step of, after immersing the film-formation surface in the plating solution 103, applying a second current between the cathode electrode 107 and the Cu anode electrode 105 to form a metal film on the film-formation surface by electrolytic plating. In the first step, the first current is controlled on the basis of an inclination angle between the liquid surface and the film-formation surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2013
    Assignee: Renesas Electronics Corporation
    Inventors: Akira Furuya, Yasuaki Tsuchiya
  • Patent number: 8512543
    Abstract: A method of fluid processing a semiconductor workpiece, including disposing a workpiece holder with a housing capable of containing a fluid, the workpiece holder retaining the workpiece, providing an agitation system connected to the housing and comprising a member disposed within the housing adjacent the workpiece holder, and agitating the fluid by moving the member substantially parallel to a surface of the workpiece with a non-uniform oscillatory motion, the non-uniform oscillatory motion being a series of substantially continuous geometrically asymmetric oscillations wherein each consecutive oscillation of the series is geometrically asymmetric having at least two substantially continuous opposing strokes wherein reversal positions of each substantially continuous stroke of the substantially continuous asymmetric oscillation are disposed asymmetrically with respect to a center point of each immediately preceding substantially continuous stroke of the oscillation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 20, 2013
    Assignee: Tel Nexx, Inc.
    Inventors: Arthur Keigler, John Harrell, Zhenqiu Liu, Qunwei Wu
  • Patent number: 8496790
    Abstract: An electrochemical processor may include a head having a rotor configured to hold a workpiece, with the head moveable to position the rotor in a vessel. Inner and outer anodes are in inner and outer anolyte chambers within the vessel. An upper cup in the vessel, has a curved upper surface and inner and outer catholyte chambers. A current thief is located adjacent to the curved upper surface. Annular slots in the curved upper curved surface connect into passageways, such as tubes, leading into the outer catholyte chamber. Membranes may separate the inner and outer anolyte chambers from the inner and outer catholyte chambers, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2013
    Assignee: APPLIED Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory J. Wilson, Paul R. McHugh
  • Patent number: 8496789
    Abstract: An electrochemical processor may include a head having a rotor configured to hold a workpiece, with the head moveable to position the rotor in a vessel. Inner and outer anodes are in inner and outer anolyte chambers within the vessel. An upper cup in the vessel, has a curved upper surface and inner and outer catholyte chambers. A current thief is located adjacent to the curved upper surface. Annular slots in the curved upper curved surface connect into passageways, such as tubes, leading into the outer catholyte chamber. Membranes may separate the inner and outer anolyte chambers from the inner and outer catholyte chambers, respectively.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 30, 2013
    Assignee: APPLIED Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Paul R. McHugh, Gregory J. Wilson, Kyle M. Hanson
  • Patent number: 8486234
    Abstract: A plating apparatus can form a bump having a flat top or can form a metal film having a good in-plane uniformity even when the plating of a plating object (substrate) is carried out under high-current density conditions. The plating apparatus includes a plating tank for holding a plating solution; an anode to be immersed in the plating solution in the plating tank; a holder for holding a plating object and disposing the plating object at a position opposite the anode; a paddle, disposed between the anode and the plating object held by the holder, which reciprocates parallel to the plating object to stir the plating solution; and a control section for controlling a paddle drive section which drives the paddle. The control section controls the paddle drive section so that the paddle moves at a velocity whose average absolute value is 70 cm/sec to 100 cm/sec.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Nobutoshi Saito, Jumpei Fujikata, Tadaaki Yamamoto, Kenji Kamimura
  • Patent number: 8475636
    Abstract: An apparatus for electroplating a layer of metal onto the surface of a wafer includes an ionically resistive ionically permeable element located in close proximity of the wafer and an auxiliary cathode located between the anode and the ionically resistive ionically permeable element. The ionically resistive ionically permeable element serves to modulate ionic current at the wafer surface. The auxiliary cathode is configured to shape the current distribution from the anode. The provided configuration effectively redistributes ionic current in the plating system allowing plating of uniform metal layers and mitigating the terminal effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven Mayer, Jingbin Feng, Zhian He, Jonathan Reid, Seshasayee Varadarajan
  • Patent number: 8475644
    Abstract: An apparatus for electroplating a layer of metal onto the surface of a wafer includes an ionically resistive ionically permeable element located in close proximity of the wafer and an auxiliary cathode located between the anode and the ionically resistive ionically permeable element. The ionically resistive ionically permeable element serves to modulate ionic current at the wafer surface. The auxiliary cathode is configured to shape the current distribution from the anode. The provided configuration effectively redistributes ionic current in the plating system allowing plating of uniform metal layers and mitigating the terminal effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven Mayer, Jingbin Feng, Zhian He, Jonathan Reid, Seshasayee Varadarajan
  • Publication number: 20130161197
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a substrate plating apparatus, including: a constant current device supplying power; cathode hangers that includes a plurality of clamps holding substrates, hall current sensors mounted on each of the clamps to detect current information, and wireless communication modules connected with the hall current sensors to wirelessly transmit the current information to the outside; a current rail mounted with the plurality of cathode hangers above a plating bath and connected with the constant current device; and an anode unit extending from the constant current device and dipped in a plating solution of the plating bath.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2012
    Publication date: June 27, 2013
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRO-MECHANICS CO., LTD.
    Inventor: SAMSUNG ELECTRO-MECHANICS CO., LTD.
  • Publication number: 20130153432
    Abstract: There is disclosed a system and method for applying an amorphous NiP alloy coating on pipes and rods, particularly for use in the oil and gas industries to inhibit corrosion, In an embodiment, the method comprises applying an amorphous nickel phosphorus or NiP alloy coating to pipes and rods for use in oil and gas industries, comprising; preparing a Watt's type nickel phosphorus (NiP) plating bath solution utilizing a Watt's type nickel electrolyte containing hypophosphorous acid; maintaining the plating bath solution temperature at between 120° F. and 170° F. adjusted to regulate phosphorus content over 11%; regulating a pH level of the plating bath solution between 1.0 and 3.0 utilizing sulphuric acid; and controlling the cathode current density in the range of 10-100 amps/sq/ft.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 2, 2012
    Publication date: June 20, 2013
    Inventor: Robert Jones
  • Publication number: 20130137242
    Abstract: Methods, systems, and apparatus for plating a metal onto a work piece are described. In one aspect, an apparatus includes a plating chamber, a substrate holder, an anode chamber housing an anode, an ionically resistive ionically permeable element positioned between a substrate and the anode chamber during electroplating, an auxiliary cathode located between the anode and the ionically resistive ionically permeable element, and an insulating shield with an opening in its central region. The insulating shield may be movable with respect to the ionically resistive ionically permeable element to vary a distance between the shield and the ionically resistive ionically permeable element during electroplating.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 28, 2012
    Publication date: May 30, 2013
    Inventors: Zhian HE, David W. PORTER, Jonathan D. REID, Frederick D. WILMOT
  • Publication number: 20130062209
    Abstract: An electroplating apparatus including a plating tank for containing a plating electrolyte. A counter electrode, e.g., anode, is present in a first portion of the plating tank. A cathode system is present in a second portion of the plating tank. The cathode system includes a working electrode and a thief electrode. The thief electrode is present between the working electrode and the counter electrode. The thief electrode includes an exterior face that is in contact with the plating electrolyte that is offset from the plating surface of the working electrode. In one embodiment, the thief electrode overlaps a portion of the working electrode about the perimeter of the working electrode. In one embodiment, a method is provided of using the aforementioned electroplating apparatus that provides increased uniformity in the plating thickness.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 12, 2012
    Publication date: March 14, 2013
    Applicant: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Charles L. Arvin, Raschid J. Bezama, Glen N. Biggs, Hariklia Deligianni, Tracy A. Tong
  • Publication number: 20130056360
    Abstract: A method for forming an oxide film by plasma electrolytic oxidation includes a first step of placing an anode, which is a substrate with a conductive nitride film, and a cathode into an electrolyte of which the temperature range is from 20° C. to 100° C., and a second step of applying a voltage ranging from 50 V to 1000 V to the anode and cathode to finally form an oxide film on a surface of the conductive nitride film of the anode. The oxide film can be formed more rapidly than the prior art and has excellent crystallinity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 7, 2011
    Publication date: March 7, 2013
    Inventors: Fu-Hsing LU, Jhu-Ling Zeng, Huan-Ping Teng
  • Publication number: 20130026042
    Abstract: A titanium dioxide coating method is disclosed. An electrolyte containing Ti3+, an oxidant, and at least one of NO3? and NO2? is provided for an electrodeposition device, wherein the oxidant is configured for essentially oxidizing Ti3+ into Ti4+. A substrate is immersed into the electrolyte and electrically connected to the electrodeposition device. A cathodic current is applied to the substrate via the electrodeposition device for reduction of NO2? or NO3?. A titanium dioxide film is thus formed on the surface of the substrate. The thickness, porosity, and morphology of the titanium dioxide film can be controlled by varying the electroplating parameters, and relatively uniform deposits on various substrates of complex shapes can be obtained by use of low cost instruments. The resultant structure of Ti4+ species oxidized from Ti3+ by the oxidant can be used to control the deposition rate of TiO2.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 28, 2012
    Publication date: January 31, 2013
    Applicant: NATIONAL TSING HUA UNIVERSITY
    Inventor: NATIONAL TSING HUA UNIVERSITY
  • Publication number: 20120305403
    Abstract: An electrical chemical plating process is provided. A semiconductor structure is provided in an electrical plating platform. A pre-electrical-plating step is performed wherein the pre-electrical-plating step is carried out under a fixed voltage environment and lasts for 0.2 to 0.5 seconds after the current is above the threshold current of the electrical plating platform. After the pre-electrical-plating step, a first electrical plating step is performed on the semiconductor structure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 6, 2011
    Publication date: December 6, 2012
    Inventors: Chun-Ling Lin, Yen-Liang Lu, Chi-Mao Hsu, Chin-Fu Lin, Chun-Hung Chen, Tsun-Min Cheng, Meng-Hong Tsai
  • Publication number: 20120305404
    Abstract: An apparatus for fluid processing at least one workpiece is provided. The apparatus includes a housing configured to hold a fluid, a workpiece holder disposed within the housing and configured to retain the at least one workpiece and an electric field shield plate disposed within the housing adjacent each of the at least one workpiece, the electric field shield plate having at least one contoured area configured to vary a distance between the electric field shield plate and a surface of the workpiece in a space between the at least one contoured area and a corresponding portion of the surface of the workpiece.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 11, 2012
    Publication date: December 6, 2012
    Inventor: Arthur Keigler
  • Patent number: 8323471
    Abstract: A method of automatic deposition profile targeting for electrochemically depositing copper with a position-dependent controllable plating tool including the steps of depositing copper on a patterned product wafer, measuring an actual thickness profile of the deposited copper and generating respective measurement data, feeding the measurement data to an advanced process control (APC) model and calculating individual corrections for plating parameters in the position-dependent controllable plating tool.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas Ortleb, Markus Nopper, Dirk Wollstein
  • Patent number: 8313631
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for electrochemically processing microfeature wafers. The apparatus can have a vessel including a processing zone in which a microfeature wafer is positioned for electrochemical processing. The apparatus further includes at least one counter electrode in the vessel that can operate as an anode or a cathode depending upon the particular plating or electropolishing application. The apparatus further includes a supplementary electrode and a supplementary virtual electrode. The supplementary electrode is configured to operate independently from the counter electrode in the vessel, and it can be a thief electrode and/or a de-plating electrode depending upon the type of process. The supplementary electrode can further be used as another counter electrode during a portion of a plating cycle or polishing cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Applied Materials Inc.
    Inventors: Paul R. McHugh, Gregory J. Wilson, Daniel J. Woodruff
  • Patent number: 8308930
    Abstract: Techniques for manufacturing carbon nanotube (CNT) ropes are provided. In some embodiments, a CNT rope manufacturing method optionally includes preparing a metal tip, preparing a CNT colloid solution, immersing the metal tip into the CNT colloid solution; and withdrawing the metal tip from the CNT colloid solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Assignee: SNU R&DB Foundation
    Inventors: Yong Hyup Kim, Tae June Kang, Eui Yun Jang
  • Patent number: 8308931
    Abstract: An apparatus for electroplating a layer of metal on the surface of a wafer includes an ionically resistive ionically permeable element located in close proximity of the wafer (preferably within 5 mm of the wafer surface) which serves to modulate ionic current at the wafer surface, and a second cathode configured to divert a portion of current from the wafer surface. The ionically resistive ionically permeable element in a preferred embodiment is a disk made of a resistive material having a plurality of perforations formed therein, such that perforations do not form communicating channels within the body of the disk. The provided configuration effectively redistributes ionic current in the plating system allowing plating of uniform metal layers and mitigating the terminal effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan Reid, Bryan Buckalew, Zhian He, Seyang Park, Seshasayee Varadarajan, Bryan Pennington, Thomas Ponnuswamy, Patrick Breling, Glenn Ibarreta, Steven Mayer
  • Publication number: 20120279863
    Abstract: A supply of metal parts are electroplated by progressively transferring the parts with a computer controlled robot into a series of open top tanks containing solutions. The tanks have submerged metal fixtures which temporarily support the parts, and each fixture in the electroplating tank is individually connected to a direct current power source through a corresponding timer switch controlled by the computer so that each part is plated for a precise time period independently of the time the part remains in the plating solution. Each fixture is coated with an insulation material and has a base with metal contact with a removable fixture member having limited metal line contact with the supporting part. A plurality of electroplating lines each include the above components, and common tanks in the lines receive an electroplating solution recirculated through a common filter and service tank where the solution is heated and controlled.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 3, 2011
    Publication date: November 8, 2012
    Inventor: John J. Buschur