Shaped Counterelectrode Patents (Class 205/97)
  • Patent number: 8858774
    Abstract: Methods of electroplating metal on a substrate while controlling azimuthal uniformity, include, in one aspect, providing the substrate to the electroplating apparatus configured for rotating the substrate during electroplating, and electroplating the metal on the substrate while rotating the substrate relative to a shield such that a selected portion of the substrate at a selected azimuthal position dwells in a shielded area for a different amount of time than a second portion of the substrate having the same average arc length and the same average radial position and residing at a different angular (azimuthal) position. For example, a semiconductor wafer substrate can be rotated during electroplating slower or faster, when the selected portion of the substrate passes through the shielded area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 14, 2014
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, David W. Porter, Bryan L. Buckalew, Robert Rash
  • Patent number: 8623193
    Abstract: A substantially uniform layer of a metal is electroplated onto a work piece having a seed layer thereon. This is accomplished by employing a “high resistance ionic current source,” which solves the terminal problem by placing a highly resistive membrane (e.g., a microporous ceramic or fretted glass element) in close proximity to the wafer, thereby swamping the system's resistance. The membrane thereby approximates a constant current source. By keeping the wafer close to the membrane surface, the ionic resistance from the top of the membrane to the surface is much less than the ionic path resistance to the wafer edge, substantially compensating for the sheet resistance in the thin metal film and directing additional current over the center and middle of the wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T Mayer, Jonathan D. Reid
  • Patent number: 8562795
    Abstract: A nanoscale lithographic method in which a reusable conductive mask, having a pattern of conductive surfaces and insulating surfaces, is positioned upon a substrate whose surface contains an electrically responsive resist layer over a buried conductive layer. When an electric field is applied between the conductive mask and buried conductive layer, the resist layer is altered in portions adjacent the conductive areas of the mask. Selective processing is performed on the surface of the substrate, after mask removal, to remove portions of the resist layer according to the pattern transferred from the mask. The substrate may be a target substrate, or the substrate may be utilized for a lithographic masking step of another substrate. In one aspect of the invention the electrodes to which the charge is applied are divided, such as into a plurality of rows and columns wherein any desired pattern may be created without the need to fabricate specific masks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2013
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventor: Yong Chen
  • Patent number: 8329006
    Abstract: An apparatus for establishing more uniform deposition across one or more faces of a workpiece in an electroplating process. The apparatus employs eductors in conjunction with a flow dampener member and other measures to provide a more uniform current distribution and a more uniform metal deposit distribution as reflected in a coefficient of variability that is lower than conventional processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2012
    Assignee: Faraday Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Gebhart, Jenny J. Sun, Phillip O. Miller, E. Jennings Taylor
  • Patent number: 8313631
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for electrochemically processing microfeature wafers. The apparatus can have a vessel including a processing zone in which a microfeature wafer is positioned for electrochemical processing. The apparatus further includes at least one counter electrode in the vessel that can operate as an anode or a cathode depending upon the particular plating or electropolishing application. The apparatus further includes a supplementary electrode and a supplementary virtual electrode. The supplementary electrode is configured to operate independently from the counter electrode in the vessel, and it can be a thief electrode and/or a de-plating electrode depending upon the type of process. The supplementary electrode can further be used as another counter electrode during a portion of a plating cycle or polishing cycle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignee: Applied Materials Inc.
    Inventors: Paul R. McHugh, Gregory J. Wilson, Daniel J. Woodruff
  • Patent number: 8308931
    Abstract: An apparatus for electroplating a layer of metal on the surface of a wafer includes an ionically resistive ionically permeable element located in close proximity of the wafer (preferably within 5 mm of the wafer surface) which serves to modulate ionic current at the wafer surface, and a second cathode configured to divert a portion of current from the wafer surface. The ionically resistive ionically permeable element in a preferred embodiment is a disk made of a resistive material having a plurality of perforations formed therein, such that perforations do not form communicating channels within the body of the disk. The provided configuration effectively redistributes ionic current in the plating system allowing plating of uniform metal layers and mitigating the terminal effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 13, 2012
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Jonathan Reid, Bryan Buckalew, Zhian He, Seyang Park, Seshasayee Varadarajan, Bryan Pennington, Thomas Ponnuswamy, Patrick Breling, Glenn Ibarreta, Steven Mayer
  • Patent number: 8197660
    Abstract: An electro chemical deposition system is described for forming a feature on a semiconductor wafer. The electro chemical deposition is performed by powering electrodes that includes a cathode, an anode and a plurality of electrically independent auxiliary electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 10, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Infineon Technologies AG
    Inventors: Moosung Chae, Bum Ki Moon, Sun-Oo Kim, Danny Pak-Chum Shum
  • Patent number: 8177944
    Abstract: A plating apparatus can form a bump having a flat top or can form a metal film having a good in-plane uniformity even when the plating of a plating object (substrate) is carried out under high-current density conditions. The plating apparatus includes a plating tank for holding a plating solution; an anode to be immersed in the plating solution in the plating tank; a holder for holding a plating object and disposing the plating object at a position opposite the anode; a paddle, disposed between the anode and the plating object held by the holder, which reciprocates parallel to the plating object to stir the plating solution; and a control section for controlling a paddle drive section which drives the paddle. The control section controls the paddle drive section so that the paddle moves at a velocity whose average absolute value is 70 cm/sec to 100 cm/sec.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 15, 2012
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Nobutoshi Saito, Jumpei Fujikata, Tadaaki Yamamoto, Kenji Kamimura
  • Patent number: 8147659
    Abstract: A gated electrode structure for altering a potential and electric field in an electrolyte near at least one working electrode is disclosed. The gated electrode structure may comprise a gate electrode biased appropriately with respect to a working electrode. Applying an appropriate static or dynamic (time varying) gate potential relative to the working electrode modifies the electric potential and field in an interfacial region between the working electrode and the electrolyte, and increases electron emission to and from states in the electrolyte, thereby facilitating an electrochemical, electrolytic or electrosynthetic reaction and reducing electrode overvoltage/overpotential.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 20, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: The Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Rakesh K. Lal, Likun Shen, Umesh Kumar Mishra
  • Patent number: 8147660
    Abstract: A semiconductive counter electrode covers a highly electronically conductive electric current buss. The semiconductive counter electrode is impervious to ion flow. A substrate holder is operable to hold a substrate and to form a thin fluid gap between the semiconductive counter electrode and a substrate surface. A thin liquid electrolyte layer is located in the thin fluid gap. A power supply connected to the electric current buss and a peripheral edge of a conductive substrate surface is able to generate a potential difference between the electric current buss and the semiconductive counter electrode, on one side of the electrolyte layer, and the substrate on the other side. The semiconductive counter electrode provides a substantial resistance in the various current flow paths between the electric current buss and the semiconductive counter electrode, on one side, and the conductive substrate surface, on the other, thereby enhancing control of current distribution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, Jonathan D. Reid
  • Patent number: 8092666
    Abstract: A bumper molding is fabricated by disposing segmented anodes 31 and 32 on surfaces 22 and 24 of a base material 20, which are to be plated, and performing electroplating so as to form metal films on the surfaces 22 and 24, respectively. The curvature of a surface of a concave portion, which is formed in each part of the surfaces 22 and 24 so that the surface of the concave portion is away from the segmented anodes 31 and 32, respectively, is larger than those of other portions at a part serving as a border between the second plated surface 22 and the fourth plated surface 24. Accordingly, the distance from the part serving as the border between the second plated surface 22 and the fourth plated surface 24 to a metal case 50a corresponding to this part is set so as to be shorter than those from each of the other parts to the metal cases 50a and 50b respectively corresponding to the segmented anodes 31 and 32.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2012
    Assignee: Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Ryoji Matsuoka, Muneo Furutani, Masato Nasu, Takeshi Inoue
  • Patent number: 7967969
    Abstract: A substantially uniform layer of a metal is electroplated onto a work piece having a seed layer thereon. This is accomplished by employing a “high resistance ionic current source,” which solves the terminal problem by placing a highly resistive membrane (e.g., a microporous ceramic or fretted glass element) in close proximity to the wafer, thereby swamping the system's resistance. The membrane thereby approximates a constant current source. By keeping the wafer close to the membrane surface, the ionic resistance from the top of the membrane to the surface is much less than the ionic path resistance to the wafer edge, substantially compensating for the sheet resistance in the thin metal film and directing additional current over the center and middle of the wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 13, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 28, 2011
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, Jonathan D. Reid
  • Patent number: 7943032
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an anode for electroplating, which has an anode base and a shield and is characterized in that additive degradation is reduced when it is used in electroplating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2011
    Assignees: Metakem Gesellschaft fur Schichtchemie der Metalle mbH, M.P.C. Micropulse Plating Concepts
    Inventors: Jorg Wurm, Stephane Menard
  • Patent number: 7935240
    Abstract: The present invention generally relates to apparatus and methods for plating conductive materials on a substrate. One embodiment of the present invention provides an apparatus for plating a conductive material on a substrate. The apparatus comprises a fluid basin configured to retain an electrolyte, a contact ring configured to support the substrate and contact the substrate electrically, and an anode assembly disposed in the fluid basin, wherein the anode assembly comprises a plurality of anode elements arranged in rows.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2006
    Date of Patent: May 3, 2011
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Saravjeet Singh, Manoocher Birang, Nicolay Y. Kovarsky, Aron Rosenfeld
  • Publication number: 20100314256
    Abstract: A current-leveling electrode for improving electroplating and electrochemical polishing uniformity in the electrochemical plating or electropolishing of metals on a substrate is disclosed. The current-leveling electrode includes a base electrode and at least one sub-electrode carried by the base electrode. The at least one sub-electrode has a width which is less than a width of the base electrode to impart a generally tapered, stepped or convex configuration to the current-leveling electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 11, 2010
    Publication date: December 16, 2010
    Inventors: Shih-Chieh Chang, Ying-Lang Wang, Kei-Wei Chen, Shih-Ho Lin, Chun-Chang Chen
  • Patent number: 7780837
    Abstract: The present invention relates to electrolytic recovery of metal, and in particular methods and apparatus for producing cathode plates suitable for such electrolytic recovery. The invention provides a method of providing an electrically conductive coating on a cathode plate comprising inverting and submerging an upper portion of the cathode plate in an electrolytic bath adjacent at least one anode and applying a current to electroplate the upper portion of the cathode plate wherein each anode includes: i) a first base portion adapted to be positioned adjacent to a hanger bar of said cathode plate; ii) a second extended portion connected to and extending from the base portion and adapted to be positioned adjacent a blade of the cathode plate wherein the profile of each anode is shaped such that in use, a consistent thickness of coating is electroplated over said hanger bar and cathode blade.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 24, 2010
    Assignee: Xstrata Queensland Limited
    Inventors: Wayne Keith Webb, Joanne Weston, Graham Heferen
  • Patent number: 7771578
    Abstract: In a method for production of a corrosion resistant and/or oxidation resistant coating, at least one metal of the platinum group or an alloy thereof is galvanically deposited onto a surface of a substrate, and thereafter the thusly galvanically coated substrate is aluminized. In a first stage of the galvanic deposition process a current magnitude applied for the galvanizing is increased continuously or step-wise beginning from an initial value up to a maximum value, and in a second stage of the galvanic deposition process the current magnitude applied for the galvanizing is maintained constant at the maximum value. The galvanic deposition of the or each metal of the platinum group or the corresponding alloy may be carried out using an open-celled or open-mesh or porous anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2010
    Assignee: MTU Aero Engines GmbH
    Inventors: Anton Albrecht, Thomas Dautl, Oemer-Refik Oezcan, Horst Pillhoefer
  • Publication number: 20100116672
    Abstract: An apparatus for electroplating a layer of metal onto the surface of a wafer includes an ionically resistive ionically permeable element located in close proximity of the wafer and an auxiliary cathode located between the anode and the ionically resistive ionically permeable element. The ionically resistive ionically permeable element serves to modulate ionic current at the wafer surface. The auxiliary cathode is configured to shape the current distribution from the anode. The provided configuration effectively redistributes ionic current in the plating system allowing plating of uniform metal layers and mitigating the terminal effect.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 9, 2009
    Publication date: May 13, 2010
    Applicant: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven Mayer, Jingbin Feng, Zhian He, Jonathan Reid, Seshasayee Varadarajan
  • Patent number: 7682498
    Abstract: A work piece is electroplated or electroplanarized using an azimuthally asymmetric electrode. The azimuthally asymmetric electrode is rotated with respect to the work piece (i.e., either or both of the work piece and the electrode may be rotating). The azimuthal asymmetry provides a time-of-exposure correction to the current distribution reaching the work piece. In some embodiments, the total current is distributed among a plurality of electrodes in a reaction cell in order to tailor the current distribution in the electrolyte over time. Focusing elements may be used to create “virtual electrode” in proximity to the surface of the work piece to further control the current distribution in the electrolyte during plating or planarization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 23, 2010
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, John S. Drewery
  • Publication number: 20100032304
    Abstract: A substantially uniform layer of a metal is electroplated onto a work piece having a seed layer thereon. This is accomplished by employing a “high resistance ionic current source,” which solves the terminal problem by placing a highly resistive membrane (e.g., a microporous ceramic or fretted glass element) in close proximity to the wafer, thereby swamping the system's resistance. The membrane thereby approximates a constant current source. By keeping the wafer close to the membrane surface, the ionic resistance from the top of the membrane to the surface is much less than the ionic path resistance to the wafer edge, substantially compensating for the sheet resistance in the thin metal film and directing additional current over the center and middle of the wafer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 13, 2009
    Publication date: February 11, 2010
    Applicant: NOVELLUS SYSTEMS, INC.
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, Jonathan D. Reid
  • Patent number: 7553401
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for establishing more uniform deposition across one or more faces of a workpiece in an electroplating process. The apparatus employs eductors in conjunction with a flow dampener member and other measures to provide a more uniform current distribution and a more uniform metal deposit distribution as reflected in a coefficient of variability that is lower than conventional processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2009
    Assignee: Faraday Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Gebhart, Jenny J. Sun, Phillip O. Miller, E. Jennings Taylor
  • Patent number: 7438795
    Abstract: Provided is a polishing apparatus and polishing pad, intended for polishing a substrate, and designed for improved flow and distribution of a polishing composition to the area of interaction between the pad and substrate. In one aspect, a polishing pad is provided having first and second pluralities of unidirectional pores configured to communicate polishing composition between the top and bottom surfaces of the pad. A cyclic flow of composition is established to continuously renew composition to the area of interaction between the pad and the substrate. In another aspect, a polishing apparatus is provided having a polishing composition transfer region between a polishing pad and a platen. Pores disposed through the pad communicate composition from the transfer region to the top surface. To facilitate directing the composition into the pores, the apparatus includes a plurality of protrusions protruding into the transfer region that are aligned with the pores.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2008
    Assignee: Cabot Microelectronics Corp.
    Inventors: Ian W. Wylie, Sriram P. Anjur
  • Patent number: 6919010
    Abstract: A substantially uniform layer of a metal is electroplated onto a work piece having a seed layer thereon. The current of a plating cell is provided from an azimuthally asymmetric anode, which is rotated with respect to the work piece (i.e., either or both of the work piece and the anode may be rotating). The azimuthal asymmetry provides a time-of-exposure correction to the current distribution reaching the work piece, whereby peripheral regions of the work piece see less current than central regions over the period of rotation. In some embodiments, the total current is distributed among a plurality of anodes in the plating cell in order to tailor the current distribution in the plating electrolyte over time. Focusing elements may be used to create “virtual anodes” in proximity to the plating surface of the work piece to further control the current distribution in the electrolyte during plating.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2004
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2005
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Steven T. Mayer
  • Patent number: 6916413
    Abstract: Electroplating station S has a head 1 with anode 2, to one side of which there is located an electrically neutral wall 3. The width of anode 2 is provided to accommodate the width of web 6. Serrations 9 are provided on the anode 2, especially in the area of top surface 8. A passageway 4 for electrolyte 5 is between anode 2 and wall 3. Mesh 11 is located at a throat section 12 of passageway 4 shortly before the start of the guide 7. In addition, mesh 13 is located further upstream in passageway 4 as an alternative and/or as an addition to mesh 11. Guide 7 of wall 3, serrations 9, and meshes 11 and 13 enhance and maximize the production of stream-wise vortices. These vortices cause a substantial increase in the ion flow, which overcomes boundary layers and results in additional deposition of copper onto the web 6.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2005
    Assignee: TDAO Limited
    Inventor: John Michael Lowe
  • Patent number: 6916412
    Abstract: An electrochemical processing chamber which can be modified for treating different workpieces and methods for so modifying electrochemical processing chambers. In one particular embodiment, an electrochemical processing chamber 200 includes a plurality of walls 510 defining a plurality of electrode compartments 520, each electrode compartment having at least one electrode 600 therein, and a virtual electrode unit 530 defining a plurality of flow conduits, with at least one of the flow conduits being in fluid communication with each of the electrode compartments. This first virtual electrode unit 530 may be exchanged for a second virtual electrode unit 540, without modification of any of the electrodes 600, to adapt the processing chamber 200 for treating a different workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2005
    Assignee: Semitool, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel J. Woodruff, Kyle M. Hanson, Steve L. Eudy, Curtis A. Weber, Randy Harris
  • Patent number: 6890413
    Abstract: A process for electroplating metallic features of different density on a surface of a substrate comprises providing an electroplating bath having an anode, immersing the substrate into the electroplating bath, spaced from the anode, the substrate comprising a cathode. Positioned in the electroplating bath between the substrate and the anode, and adjacent to and separated from the substrate surface is a second cathode that includes a wire mesh screening portion having openings of different sizes conforming to the metallic features to be electroplated. The second cathode screening portion has openings of larger size adjacent areas of higher density of features to be electroplated and openings of smaller size adjacent areas of lower density of features to be electroplated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2005
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Tien-Jen Cheng, Todd M. Fowler, Ajay P. Giri, Anton Nenadic, Blessen Samuel, Keith Kwong Hon Wong
  • Patent number: 6852207
    Abstract: In a method for manufacture of prosthetic moulded parts for the dental sector with the aid of galvanic metal deposition, deposition at least partly takes place by pulse current. Deposition is preferably ended in a period of less than 5 hours, particularly within 1 to 2 hours. Deposition preferably takes place in the method of a precious metal or precious metal alloy, particularly gold or a gold alloy. Aqueous gold sulphite baths are more particularly used.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1999
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2005
    Assignee: Wieland Dental + Technik GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventor: Susanne Ruebel
  • Patent number: 6790332
    Abstract: A method for galvanically depositing nickel, cobalt, nickel alloys or cobalt alloys in a galvanic bath includes using electrolytes containing nickel compounds or cobalt compounds. At least one anode and at least one cathode of the bath are subject to periodic current pulses. The IA/IC ratio of the anode current density IA to the cathode current density IC is selected to be greater than 1 and smaller than 1.5, where the anode current density IA and the cathode current density IC are defined as current densities with respect to a deposition body on which deposition occurs during the application of periodic current pulses where the deposition body serves as anode and cathode respectively. The charge ratio QA/QC=TAIA/TCIC of the charge QA, transported during anode pulse of duration TA, to the charge QC transported during a cathode pulse of duration TC, is between 30% and 45%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2004
    Assignee: Astrium GmbH
    Inventors: Rüdiger Ewald, Peter Filke, Michael Heckmann, Wolflgang Keinath, Günter Langel, Anton Schmidt
  • Publication number: 20040115932
    Abstract: A process for electroplating metallic features of different density on a surface of a substrate comprises providing an electroplating bath having an anode, immersing the substrate into the electroplating bath, spaced from the anode, the substrate comprising a cathode. Positioned in the electroplating bath between the substrate and the anode, and adjacent to and separated from the substrate surface is a second cathode that includes a wire mesh screening portion having openings of different sizes conforming to the metallic features to be electroplated. The second cathode screening portion has openings of larger size adjacent areas of higher density of features to be electroplated and openings of smaller size adjacent areas of lower density of features to be electroplated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 11, 2002
    Publication date: June 17, 2004
    Applicant: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Tien-Jen Cheng, Todd M. Fowler, Ajay P. Giri, Anton Nenadic, Blessen Samuel, Keith Kwong Hon Wong
  • Patent number: 6660137
    Abstract: A reactor for electrochemically processing at least one surface of a microelectronic workpiece is set forth. The reactor comprises a reactor head including a workpiece support that has one or more electrical contacts positioned to make electrical contact with the microelectronic workpiece. The reactor also includes a processing container having a plurality of nozzles angularly disposed in a sidewall of a principal fluid flow chamber at a level within the principal fluid flow chamber below a surface of a bath of processing fluid normally contained therein during electrochemical processing. A plurality of anodes are disposed at different elevations in the principal fluid flow chamber so as to place them at difference distances from a microelectronic workpiece under process without an intermediate diffuser between the plurality of anodes and the microelectronic workpiece under process. One or more of the plurality of anodes may be in close proximity to the workpiece under process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 9, 2003
    Assignee: Semitool, Inc.
    Inventors: Gregory J. Wilson, Paul R. McHugh, Kyle M. Hanson
  • Patent number: 6565729
    Abstract: A process for metallization of a workpiece, such as a semiconductor workpiece. In an embodiment, an alkaline electrolytic copper bath is used to electroplate copper onto a seed layer, electroplate copper directly onto a barrier layer material, or enhance an ultra-thin copper seed layer which has been deposited on the barrier layer using a deposition process such as PVD. The resulting copper layer provides an excellent conformal copper coating that fills trenches, vias, and other microstructures in the workpiece. When used for seed layer enhancement, the resulting copper seed layer provide an excellent conformal copper coating that allows the microstructures to be filled with a copper layer having good uniformity using electrochemical deposition techniques. Further, copper layers that are electroplated in the disclosed manner exhibit low sheet resistance and are readily annealed at low temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2003
    Assignee: Semitool, Inc.
    Inventors: Linlin Chen, Gregory J. Wilson, Paul R. McHugh, Robert A. Weaver, Thomas L. Ritzdorf
  • Patent number: 6542784
    Abstract: A plating analysis method is disclosed for electroplating in a system in which resistance of an anode and/or a cathode cannot be neglected. This method comprises giving a three-dimensional Laplace's equation, as a dominant equation, to a region containing a plating solution; discretizing the Laplace's equation by the boundary element method; giving a two-dimensional or three-dimensional Poisson's equation dealing with a flat surface or a curved surface, as a dominant equation, to a region within the anode and/or the cathode; discretizing the Poisson's equation by the boundary element method or the finite element method; and formulating a simultaneous equation of the discretized equations to calculate a current density distribution i and a potential distribution &phgr; in the system. The method can obtain the current density and potential distributions efficiently for a plating problem requiring consideration for the resistance of an electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2003
    Assignee: Ebara Corporation
    Inventors: Kenji Amaya, Shigeru Aoki, Matsuho Miyasaka
  • Patent number: 6500325
    Abstract: A method of plating which improves the uniformity of a plated coating thickness without changing the flow velocity of a feed plating solution. An aperture at a center of a mesh anode electrode of a plating apparatus produces an electric field density distribution between the mesh anode electrode and a wafer that is lower in the central portion of the wafer than at the edge portion of the wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2002
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Katsuya Kosaki, Masahiro Tamaki
  • Patent number: 6495018
    Abstract: A single delivery channel is formed by, and between, inner wall 2 and baffle 3. Electrolyte 5 is pumped up the interior of channel 1 and is directed onto substrate 4 being a cathode maintained at −10 volts. The upper part of the inner wall 2 of channel 1 forms the anode such that electrote is forced between the substrate and the upper horizontal surface of the anode 6. A second baffle 7 is provided in order to assist in collecting and removing electrolyte 5 after impingement with substrate 4, possible for re-use. Contact between the electrolyte 5 and substrate 4 is optimised by providing the electrolyte with a swirling motion as it passes up channel 1. Anode 6 is a solid conducting bar 10, alternatively it is formed of solid rods 11 nor tubes 12.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2002
    Assignee: Technology Development Associate Operations Limited
    Inventor: John Michael Lowe
  • Patent number: 6428672
    Abstract: Disclosed is a technique for manufacturing a Ni—Fe alloy thin foil using a single-step electrodeposition-based plating process without requiring processes such as melting, casting, forging, and rolling. A manufacturing apparatus is provided which includes an electrolyzer adapted to receive an electrolyte containing, as a major component thereof, a solution of nickel and iron compounds, a cathode partially dipped in the electrolyte and arranged in such a fashion that it is rotatable, an anode completely dipped in the electrolyte and arranged in such a fashion that it faces the cathode while being spaced apart from the cathode by a desired distance, and a current supply device adapted to generate a flow of current between the cathode and the anode, whereby a Ni—Fe alloy thin film is electrodeposited to a desired thickness over a surface of the cathode facing the anode, and then peeled off from the surface of the cathode, so that a continuous Ni—Fe alloy thin foil is manufactured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2002
    Assignees: Union Steel Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Korea Institute of Industrial Technology
    Inventors: Janghyun Choi, Taihong Yim, Tak Kang, Heungyeol Lee, Joongbae Lee, Sanghyun Jeon, Yongbum Park
  • Patent number: 6413403
    Abstract: An apparatus capable of assisting in controlling an electrolyte flow and distribution of an electric field, a magnetic field, or an electromagnetic field in order to process a substrate is provided with improved fluid distribution. A support member having a top surface and a bottom surface contains at least one support member electrolyte channel. Each support member electrolyte channel forms a passage between the top surface and the bottom surface and allows the electrolyte to flow therethrough. A pad is attachable to the support member and contains at least one set of pad electrolyte channels also allowing for electrolyte flow therethrough to the substrate. Each support member electrolyte channel is connected to one set of pad electrolyte channels by fluid distribution structure. A method of assisting in control of the electrolyte flow and distribution of the electric field, the magnetic field, or the electromagnetic field, utilizing the apparatus, is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2002
    Assignee: NuTool Inc.
    Inventors: Paul Lindquist, Bulent Basol, Cyprian Uzoh, Homayoun Talieh
  • Patent number: 6344123
    Abstract: A compositionally modulated material electroplated film is deposited by using at least two source metal anodes in an electroplating apparatus, and changing at least one power setting of an electroplating power supply. In order to obtain sharp boundaries between successive layers of the film, voltage can be switched from an electroplating substrate to a dummy electrode immediately before the power setting is changed, in order to allow the electrolyte to equilibrate at a new set of solute concentrations, before electroplating on the substrate is recommenced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2002
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Parijat Bhatnagar
  • Patent number: 6344124
    Abstract: A compositionally modulated material electroplated film is deposited by using at least two source metal anodes in an electroplating apparatus, and changing at least one contact area between an anode an electrolyte. In order to obtain sharp boundaries between successive layers of the film, voltage can be switched from an electroplating substrate to a dummy electrode immediately before the contact area is changed, in order to allow the electrolyte to equilibrate at a new set of solute concentrations, before electroplating on the substrate is recommenced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2002
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Parijat Bhatnagar
  • Patent number: 6296753
    Abstract: A plating apparatus and methodology is disclosed that is particularly useful in improving the plating rate, improving the plating of via holes, improving the uniformity of the plating deposition across the surface of the wafer, and minimizing damage to the wafer. With regard to improving the plating rate and the plating of via holes, the plating apparatus and method immerses a wafer in a plating fluid bath and continuously directs plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer. Immersing the wafer in a plating fluid bath reduces the occurrence of trapped gas pockets within via holes which makes it easier to plate them. The continuous directing of plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer increases the ion concentration gradient which is, in turn, increases the plating rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2001
    Assignee: Technic Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Kaufman, Gary C. Downes, Daniel J. Gramarossa
  • Patent number: 6291080
    Abstract: Copper foil produced on a rotating drum cathode machine, wherein each of the outer edge portions of a web of the foil has a thickness greater than the thickness of the central portion of the web. In the process and apparatus used to electrodeposit the foil on a drum cathode, electric current is passed through an electrolyte to the cathode from outboard edge anodes at a current density greater than the current density passed from a central anode to the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2001
    Assignee: Yates Foll USA, Inc.
    Inventors: Charles B. Yates, George Gaskill
  • Patent number: 6287443
    Abstract: A plating apparatus and methodology is disclosed that is particularly useful in improving the plating rate, improving the plating of via holes, improving the uniformity of the plating deposition across the surface of the wafer, and minimizing damage to the wafer. With regard to improving the plating rate and the plating of via holes, the plating apparatus and method immerses a wafer in a plating fluid bath and continuously directs plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer. Immersing the wafer in a plating fluid bath reduces the occurrence of trapped gas pockets within via holes which makes it easier to plate them. The continuous directing of plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer increases the ion concentration gradient which is, in turn, increases the plating rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 11, 2001
    Assignee: Technic Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Kaufman, Gary C. Downes, Daniel J. Gramarossa
  • Patent number: 6277260
    Abstract: A plating apparatus and methodology is disclosed that is particularly useful in improving the plating rate, improving the plating of via holes, improving the uniformity of the plating deposition across the surface of the wafer, and minimizing damage to the wafer. With regard to improving the plating rate and the plating of via holes, the plating apparatus and method immerses a wafer in a plating fluid bath and continuously directs plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer. Immersing the wafer in a plating fluid bath reduces the occurrence of trapped gas pockets within via holes which makes it easier to plate them. The continuous directing of plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer increases the ion concentration gradient which is, in turn, increases the plating rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2001
    Assignee: Technic Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Kaufman, Gary C. Downes
  • Patent number: 6274024
    Abstract: A plating apparatus and methodology is disclosed that is particularly useful in improving the plating rate, improving the plating of via holes, improving the uniformity of the plating deposition across the surface of the wafer, and minimizing damage to the wafer. With regard to improving the plating rate and the plating of via holes, the plating apparatus and method immerses a wafer in a plating fluid bath and continuously directs plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer. Immersing the wafer in a plating fluid bath reduces the occurrence of trapped gas pockets within via holes which makes it easier to plate them. The continuous directing of plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer increases the ion concentration gradient which is, in turn, increases the plating rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2001
    Assignee: Technic Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Kaufman, Gary C. Downes
  • Patent number: 6274023
    Abstract: A plating apparatus and methodology is disclosed that is particularly useful in improving the plating rate, improving the plating of via holes, improving the uniformnity of the plating deposition across the surface of the wafer, and minimizing damage to the wafer. With regard to improving the plating rate and the plating of via holes, the plating apparatus and method immerses a wafer in a plating fluid bath and continuously directs plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer. Immersing the wafer in a plating fluid bath reduces the occurrence of trapped gas pockets within via holes which makes it easier to plate them. The continuous directing of plating fluid towards the surface of the wafer increases the ion concentration gradient which is, in turn, increases the plating rate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2000
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2001
    Assignee: Technic Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Kaufman, Gary C. Downes
  • Patent number: 6254756
    Abstract: A curved component such as a turbine airfoil, shroud, or combustor centerbody is prepared with a platinum or a platinum-aluminide protective coating over only a portion of the surface thereof. The coating may serve as an environmental coating, or as a bond coat of a thermal barrier coating system. The partial coverage is achieved by depositing platinum only over a portion of the surface of the component, typically including the concave portion in the case of an airfoil, optionally depositing an aluminum layer, and optionally interdiffusing the platinum and aluminum layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1999
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2001
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Antonio F. Maricocchi, Roger D. Wustman, Jonathan P. Clarke, Thomas E. Mantkowski, David G. W. Fargher, Jeffrey A. Conner
  • Patent number: 6251251
    Abstract: An anode assembly including a perforated anode. A perforated anode holder holds the anode. The anode holder includes perforations at least in a bottom wall such that plating solution may flow through perforations in the anode holder and perforations in the anode. An anode isolator separates the anode and a cathode. The anode isolator includes at least one curvilinear surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Cyprian E. Uzoh, Panayotis C. Andricacos, John Owen Dukovic, Robert P. Westerfield, Jr.
  • Patent number: 6224736
    Abstract: The present invention provides an apparatus or a method for forming a thin zinc oxide film on a conductive base member by immersing the conductive base member and a counter electrode in an aqueous solution and supplying a current between the conductive base member and the counter electrode, in which (a) a distance between the counter electrode and the base member is 50 mm or more at an end portion of the counter electrode and is 3 mm to 40 mm at a central portion of the counter electrode, and (b) an end portion of the counter electrode is folded by an angle of −1° to −90° with respect to the conductive base member. Thus the thin zinc oxide film of satisfactory film quality can be formed on the conductive base member for a long time with a satisfactory yield, and inexpensive and stable production of the thin zinc oxide film can be realized.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 1, 2001
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Yusuke Miyamoto
  • Patent number: 6210554
    Abstract: A method of plating which improves the uniformity of a plated coating thickness without changing the flow velocity of a feed plating solution. An aperture at a center of a mesh anode electrode of a plating apparatus produces an electric field density distribution between the mesh anode electrode and a wafer that is lower in the central portion of the wafer than at the edge portion of the wafer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 1999
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2001
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Katsuya Kosaki, Masahiro Tamaki
  • Patent number: 6203685
    Abstract: A transport system for the implementation of electrolytic deposition, coating or etching; and more particularly, an apparatus for selective electrolytic metallization and deposition utilizing a fluid head arrangement. A method is provided for making and maintaining an electrical contact with a product being processed in a transport system employed for selective electrolytic metallization and deposition, coating or etching. The method of making and maintaining an electrical contact with a product being processed may be utilizing a fluid head arrangement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 20, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2001
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Michael Acciai, Steven L. Tisdale
  • Patent number: 6099709
    Abstract: This invention provides an apparatus for producing an electrode foil for use in aluminum electrolytic capacitors with which a high capacitance is obtained while the distortion of the foil and the leakage current can be controlled. At least two electrode plates as cathode are disposed in an electrolytic tank containing an electrolytic solution, and a direct current is supplied between an aluminum foil as anode and the electrode plates. Anodization is conducted continuously by turning the direction of the aluminum foil via rollers and conveying the foil between the electrode plates. During this treatment, the length and the position of the effective sections of the electrode plates are adjusted to keep the length to be at most two-thirds of the distance between an area near the surface of the electrolytic solution and the upper part of the bottom roller, so that the peak value of the anodizing current density appears not at the surface of the electrolytic solution but in the electrolytic solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 8, 2000
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masakazu Tanahashi, Kounosuke Hashio, Mitsuhisa Yoshimura, Daisuke Suzuki, Masanori Okabayashi, Shinji Kabeya