Diffusing Or Passing Through Septum Selective As To Material Of A Component Of Liquid Patents (Class 210/649)
  • Patent number: 6039878
    Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCS) can be removed from surfactant solutions using pervaporation with hydrophobic pervaporation membranes. This process can be used to remove volatile non-laqueous phase liquids from surfactant-based soil washing and soil flushing solutions for recovery of the volatile compounds and reuse of the surfactant. The process of the present invention can also be used to separate VOCs from industrial process streams containing surfactants for in-process recycling and reclamation of the VOCs and/or surfactants. In addition, the process of the present invention can be used to separate VOCs from industrial waste streams containing surfactants for waste volume reduction or for recovery/recycle of the VOCs and/or surfactant.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: March 21, 2000
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Environmental Protection Agency
    Inventors: Subhas Sikdar, Leland Vane
  • Patent number: 5961834
    Abstract: A dilute aqueous solution in microvolume quantity containing water soluble substances is concentrated by placing the solution in a length of hollow fiber whose wall contains pores sized to selectively pass water, while replenishing the fiber volume with additional solution at a rate approximately equal to the rate that the water passes through the fiber wall. A zone of concentrated solution is formed within the fiber, and the concentrated solution is then recoverable from the zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 1997
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1999
    Assignee: Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.
    Inventor: Vilhelm Einar Stellan Hjerten
  • Patent number: 5932104
    Abstract: The invention is to provide a filtration membrane for oleophilic organic liquids, which has reduced filtration resistance and increased filtration efficiency and of which the filtration capacity can be freely designed, to provide a method for producing the membrane, and to provide a method for filtering oleophilic organic liquids. The filtration membrane 3 is made of an oleophilic polymer material having a three-dimensional crosslink structure. The oleophilic polymer material is in a gel-like or dry glue-like condition. The inter-crosslink spaces 10 in the three-dimensional crosslink structure are filled with molecules 2 of an oleophilic organic liquid capable of passing through the spaces. Desirably, the inter-crosslink spaces in the three-dimensional crosslink structure are larger than the molecule of the oleophilic organic liquid but are not larger than 1000 nm in terms of their mean diameter. Also desirably, the oleophilic polymer material is supported by a support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: August 3, 1999
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toyota Chuo Kenkyusho
    Inventor: Masuhiko Kawamura
  • Patent number: 5888829
    Abstract: The present invention describes a family of photolabile caged ionophores. The compounds of the present invention are photolytically cleavable esters of nigericin, ionomycin, A-23187, 4-Br-A-23187 and monensin. The photolysis of the present compounds allows the release of the free ionophore in vivo or in vitro with precise spatial and temporal control. The compounds are useful in the study of ion transport and control in cells and across membranes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 1996
    Date of Patent: March 30, 1999
    Assignee: Molecular Probes, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle R. Gee, Paul J. Millard
  • Patent number: 5868936
    Abstract: The present invention provides an improved affinity membrane device and method for the effective removal of target molecules in plasma. The affinity membrane device is designed for use in an extracorporeal blood circuit and can be employed concurrently with other therapeutic processes for the purification of blood. The device of the present invention consists of hollow fiber membranes having specified dimensions and transfer properties, ligand immobilized to the pore surface of the hollow fibers, and a housing to encase the hollow fibers and allow appropriate entry and exit of the blood. In a preferred embodiment, specific immobilization chemistries are utilized to attach the ligands to the hollow fibers for optimal function.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 1996
    Date of Patent: February 9, 1999
    Assignee: Baxter International Inc.
    Inventors: Norma J. Ofsthun, Paul J. Soltys, Gretchen A. Kunas
  • Patent number: 5866007
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method and apparatus for separating a blood sample having a volume of up to about 20 milliliters into cellular and acellular fractions. The apparatus includes a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture including between about 1-40 wt/vol % mannitol and between about 0.1-15 wt/vol % of plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 1997
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1999
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Peggy A. Whitson, Vaughan L. Clift
  • Patent number: 5843316
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of processing white liquor obtained from the causticization stage of a pulp mill. According to the method, the white liquor, which principally contains sodium hydroxide (6) and sodium sulfide, is oxidized into polysulfide liquor (3), whereby the sodium sulfide is oxidized most advantageously with the help of a catalyst and an oxidizer such as air substantially into sodium polysulfide (7) and sodium thiosulfate. The method according to the invention is characterized in that the sodium hydroxide (6) contained in the white liquor is separated from the white liquor prior to the oxidizing step or from the polysulfide liquor (3) after the oxidizing step either entirely or partly by means of a diffusion dialysis process (4). The invention is further characterized in that the sodium hydroxide (6) separated from the white liquor is returned to the chemical circulation of the pulp mill.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1998
    Assignee: Enso-Gutzeit Oy
    Inventor: Hannu Kurittu
  • Patent number: 5782983
    Abstract: A part still wet with water or an aqueous type detergent adhering to the surface thereof is drain washed in a washing tank using a hydrophobic dewatering cleaning agent. In this operation of dewatering cleaning, the hydrophobic dewatering cleaning agent stored in the washing tank is circulated between the washing tank and a reserve tank to deprive the hydrophobic dewatering cleaning agent of water entrained thereby by means of a concentration type filter inserted in a path laid for the circulation. A hydrophobic filter is mainly used as the concentration type filter. The dewatering cleaning is continued and meanwhile the consequently isolated hydrophobic dewatering cleaning agent is exclusively returned to the washing tank. As a result, the water concentration in the hydrophobic dewatering cleaning agent stored in the washing tank can be constantly kept below a prescribed level.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 21, 1998
    Assignees: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba, Toshiba Silicone Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Minoru Inada, Yasutaka Imajo, Kimiaki Kabuki, Nobuhiro Saitoh
  • Patent number: 5770084
    Abstract: Chiral separations can be enhanced through the use of polymerized chiral micelles. Because polymerized micelles eliminate much of the complex dynamic behavior associated with conventional micelles, polymerized chiral micelles have stronger chiral recognition properties than do otherwise-identical, "conventional" or non-polymerized chiral micelles. Recovery of chiral ligands from polymerized chiral micelles is often easier, as the chiral ligands may typically be recovered by simple extraction with an appropriate organic solvent. By contrast, recovering the solute from a conventional, non-polymerized micellar medium by extraction with an organic solvent frequently results in the formation of troublesome emulsion systems. Polymerized chiral micelle systems are therefore beneficial in both preparative-scale and process-scale separations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: June 23, 1998
    Assignee: Board of Supervisors of Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College
    Inventors: Isiah M. Warner, Jian Wang
  • Patent number: 5723639
    Abstract: A low temperature method for esterifying ammonium- and amine-containing salts is provided whereby the salt is reacted with an alcohol in the presence of heat and a catalyst and then subjected to a dehydration and deamination process using pervaporation.The invention also provides for a method for producing esters of fermentation derived, organic acid salt comprising first cleaving the salt into its cationic part and anionic part, mixing the anionic part with an alcohol to create a mixture; heating the mixture in the presence of a catalyst to create an ester; dehydrating the now heated mixture; and separating the ester from the now-dehydrated mixture.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 16, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 3, 1998
    Assignee: University of Chicago
    Inventors: Rathin Datta, Shih-Perng Tsai
  • Patent number: 5714072
    Abstract: The instant invention is directed to a method of solvent extraction. The steps of the method include: providing a dual-skinned asymmetric membrane; providing a feed containing a solute; and providing a solvent. The feed and the solvent are contacted across the membrane. The solute of the feed is extracted, and forming thereby a raffinate and an extract.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1995
    Date of Patent: February 3, 1998
    Assignee: Hoechst Celanese Corporation
    Inventors: Bradley W. Reed, Kamalesh K. Sirkar
  • Patent number: 5679264
    Abstract: A gas plasma treated porous medium and method of using such a medium to separate or remove materials such as components of biological fluids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1997
    Assignee: PALL Corporation
    Inventor: Thomas Charles Gsell
  • Patent number: 5665238
    Abstract: The present invention provides an apparatus for separating a relatively large volume of blood into cellular and acellular fractions without the need for centrifugation. The apparatus comprises a housing divided by a fibrous filter into a blood sample collection chamber having a volume of at least about 1 milliliter and a serum sample collection chamber. The fibrous filter has a pore size of less than about 3 microns, and is coated with a mixture of mannitol and plasma fraction protein (or an animal or vegetable equivalent thereof). The coating causes the cellular fraction to be trapped by the small pores, leaving the cellular fraction intact on the fibrous filter while the acellular fraction passes through the filter for collection in unaltered form from the serum sample collection chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 9, 1997
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
    Inventors: Peggy A. Whitson, Vaughan L. Clift
  • Patent number: 5626759
    Abstract: A medical device and method for affecting mass transfer between blood and a fluid. In one application, this mass transfer is an oxygenation of the blood. Generally, a membrane which separates the blood and fluid is moved in a predetermined manner and in a direction which is substantially parallel to that of the primary direction of the flow to augment the mass transfer efficiency/rate. Importantly, this movement of the membrane is relative to the blood mass transfer boundary layer which steepens or increases the oxygen concentration gradient and decreases the thickness of the blood mass transfer boundary layer and thereby improves upon the mass transfer efficiency/rate of oxygen into the blood.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1997
    Assignee: Regents of the University of Colorado
    Inventors: William B. Krantz, Robert R. Bilodeau, Roger J. Elgas, Marc E. Voorhees
  • Patent number: 5622626
    Abstract: Methods and devices are disclosed for passing a first parenteral fluid through a first fluid flow path through a fluid treatment arrangement, passing a second parenteral fluid through a separate and isolated second fluid flow path through the fluid treatment arrangement, and passing the first parenteral fluid through the separate and isolated second fluid flow path through the fluid treatment arrangement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 22, 1997
    Assignee: Pall Corporation
    Inventors: Vlado I. Matkovich, Samuel T. Wortham, Thomas J. Bormann
  • Patent number: 5609734
    Abstract: A process for the separation of oxygenated compounds, containing mainly methanol and possibly a minor amount of water and/or dimethyl ether, from a mixture of hydrocarbons containing 3 to 8 carbon atoms containing said oxygenated compounds. The mixture is distilled in a distillation zone (D). A gaseous distillate (line 2) is taken overhead which contains methanol, possibly water, possibly dimethyl ether, and hydrocarbons. The gaseous distillate is separated in a separator (B) and at least one organic liquid phase is recovered (line 6) and sent as a reflux to the head of distillation zone D. An aqueous liquid phase (line 5) may possibly be recovered, also a gaseous phase (line 4). A phase (line 8) is extracted as a side stream from the distillation zone and sent to a permeation zone (PV) comprising at least one membrane which is selectively permeable to methanol; a permeation step is carried out on said phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 11, 1997
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventors: Christian Streicher, Lionel Asselineau
  • Patent number: 5607557
    Abstract: A process for separating a mixture containing mainly ethyl tertio-butyl ether (ETBE), ethanol and C.sub.4 hydrocarbons includes introducing the mixture to be separated into a debutanizer from which the C.sub.4 hydrocarbons are recovered overhead with a fraction of the ethanol, and purified ETBE is recovered as a bottom product; a side stream of an ethanol-rich phase is extracted and sent to a permeation zone in which the dense film of the membrane is constituted by a N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate polymer (DMAEMA) or a copolymer of DMAEMA with N-vinylcaprolactam (NVCL) and/or with N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP); the ethanol-depleted retentate from this permeation zone is returned to the debutanizer and the permeate contains mainly separated ethanol.The process can be integrated into an ETBE production process, in which the ethanol separated during the permeation step is recycled to the etherification reactor. The debutanizer may be replaced by a catalytic distillation column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 28, 1995
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1997
    Assignee: Institut Francais du Petrole
    Inventor: Christian Streicher
  • Patent number: 5562828
    Abstract: Spent acid contaminated with metal salts in a hot solution removed from a metal pickling bath is directed to one side of an anionic membrane to separate acid ions from the metal salt solution by diffusion dialysis through the membrane. Most of the metal salts in the remaining low acidity mother liquor are crystallized by refrigerating the mother liquor. The crystals are dewatered (in a centrifuge, for example) to produce a commercially viable noncorrosive byproduct, and the substantially decontaminated mother liquor is directed to the opposite side of the diffusion membrane, where it receives the acid ions diffusing through the membrane, and is then recycled to the pickling bath. Heat interchange between the hot spent acid solution and the recycled acid lowers the temperature of the spent acid to an optimum value for dialysis while raising the temperature of the recycled acid to close to the bath temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: October 8, 1996
    Inventors: Douglas R. Olsen, Daniel E. Bailey
  • Patent number: 5525235
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method of separating a multiple phase liquid medium comprising a first liquid phase and a second liquid phase wherein the medium is contacted with a first filter, said filter having been wetted by a wetting agent miscible with the first liquid phase but immiscible with the second liquid phase; whereby the first liquid phase passes through the filter, thus obtaining a filtrate substantially free of the second liquid phase. In a preferred embodiment, separation of a multiple phase liquid medium comprising liquid fossil fuel, water and biocatalyst employing one or two filters is disclosed. One filter will preferentially collect either the liquid fossil fuel or aqueous phase as the filtrate. The retentate will then flow to the second filter which will collect the component not removed before, i.e. the aqueous phase or liquid fossil fuel, as the filtrate. The remaining retentate, containing the biocatalyst, can then, preferably, be recycled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1994
    Date of Patent: June 11, 1996
    Assignee: Energy BioSystems Corporation
    Inventors: James C. T. Chen, Daniel J. Monticello
  • Patent number: 5520816
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a water desalination system that can be used in a home or commercial entity which uses a reverse osmosis or nanofilter membrane element in a unique flow configuration which promotes self cleaning of a membrane element to prevent a buildup of salts and minerals on the membrane surface. The systems use the dynamics of water usage in a water service line, not connected to the membrane to flush a recirculation/reservoir tank that feeds the reverse osmosis or nanofilter membrane periodically. The systems also produce little or no waste effluent that must be dumped into a waste system, thereby wasting water and causing an environmental problem.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: May 28, 1996
    Inventor: Theodore A. Kuepper
  • Patent number: 5512181
    Abstract: The-silica content of cooling water blow-down waters is reduced by contacting these waters with a colloidal alumina which adsorbs a portion of the silica. The blow-down is then dialyzed to produce a permeate having a reduced silica content. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the permeate is recycled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 30, 1996
    Assignee: Nalco Chemical Company
    Inventor: Stephen A. Matchett
  • Patent number: 5510035
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method of processing white liquor (3) obtained from the causticization step of a pulp mill, in which method infeed white liquor (3) principally contains sodium hydroxide (6) and sodium sulfide (7). The method according to the invention is characterized in that the sodium hydroxide (6) contained in the white liquor (3) is separated from the white liquor (3) either entirely or partly by means of a diffusion dialysis membrane process (4). The invention is further characterized in that the sodium hydroxide (6) separated from the white liquor (3) is advantageously entirely returned back to the chemical circulation of the pulp mill.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 23, 1996
    Assignee: Enso-Gutzeit Oy
    Inventors: Marjo Toronen, Hannu Kurittu
  • Patent number: 5503749
    Abstract: A process for the purification of aqueous solutions of amine-oxides, characterized in that said solutions are contacted with an aqueous purification solution of an alkali hydroxide and/or ion pair reagent by means of an anion active membrane. By means of the process according to the invention, an efficient separation, particularly of anions of lower carboxylic acids and inorganic acids, can be achieved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 1995
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1996
    Assignee: Lenzinc Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Johann Manner, Heinrich Firgo, Wolfram Kalt, Werner Richardt
  • Patent number: 5498823
    Abstract: This invention relates to a method for effectively separating an unsaturated hydrocarbon from a feedstock containing at least two similar unsaturated hydrocarbons comprising passing the feedstock over one side of an ionopore membrane charged with a facilitator having an affinity for each of the at least two similar unsaturated hydrocarbons and recovering from a second side of the membrane permeate containing predominantly one of the at least two similar unsaturated hydrocarbons, the similar unsaturated hydrocarbons being selected from the group consisting essentially of aromatic, alkene, and diene hydrocarbons.This invention further relates to a method for achieving liquid phase separation of at least two competing components from a feedstock containing the components such that the separation factor for the competing components is at least about 4 times the separation factor calculated when permeating single components using the same membrane and under the same conditions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 12, 1996
    Assignee: Regents of the University of Colorado
    Inventors: Richard D. Noble, Paul M. Thoen, Carl A. Koval
  • Patent number: 5472613
    Abstract: There is disclosed a method for removing a volatile component from a feed or process stream comprising (1) absorbing or adsorbing the volatile component into an absorbent or adsorbent material in an equilibrium process, wherein feed is pumped through a mixture chamber of a device, wherein the device comprises the mixture chamber and a vapor chamber, wherein the mixture chamber comprises a plurality of films comprising absorbent or adsorbent materials, wherein the film is configured to have a first side communicating with the mixture chamber and a second side communicating with the vapor chamber, and (2) removing the volatile component from the absorbent or adsorbent material by applying heat to the mixture chamber and simultaneously applying a gas phase within the vapor chamber such that the volatile component is collected in a gaseous state in the vapor chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 1994
    Date of Patent: December 5, 1995
    Assignee: EnviroSep Inc.
    Inventor: Richard W. Schofield
  • Patent number: 5456842
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for recycling water based workpart cleaning fluid of the type used to wash workparts (B) free of soils, such as emulsified and non-emulsified cutting oils and lubricants, particulate matter and other hydrophobic fluids. A parts washer (12) is provided for cleaning workparts (B) contaminated with soils. The contaminated cleaning fluid is discharged from the parts washer (12) in a slip stream and directed to a process tank (22). The contaminated cleaning fluid is pumped from the process tank (22) to a prefilter (28) where large particles are screened. The cleaning fluid is then directed to regenerated cellulose membrane filters (34) where the water based cleaning fluid and the hydrophilic water soluble substances in the base, i.e., the detergents, are imbibed through the membrane (34) as permeate while the soils pass as retentate. The permeate is returned to the parts washer (12), whereas the retentate is directed back to the process tank (22).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 18, 1994
    Date of Patent: October 10, 1995
    Assignee: Separation Dynamics International, Ltd.
    Inventors: Harry Kibblehouse, Michael Presley, Jared Finney, Harvey Grace
  • Patent number: 5451322
    Abstract: The present invention is a membrane method and apparatus for separating isotopic water constituents from light water. The method involves providing a supported membrane of an aromatic polyphosphazene and pressurizing the water on one side of the membrane thereby forcing the light water through the supported membrane while isotopic water constituents are retained or vice versa. The apparatus of the present invention includes an aromatic polyphosphazene placed on a porous support and means for pressurizing water through the membrane while certain isotopic water constituents are retained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 3, 1994
    Date of Patent: September 19, 1995
    Assignee: Battelle Memorial Institute
    Inventors: David A. Nelson, James B. Duncan, George A. Jensen
  • Patent number: 5416198
    Abstract: A polycationic system for the removal of polyanions from a fluid medium is formed by, first, activating a biocompatible hydroxylated support with an organic sulfonyl chloride, such as p-toluene-sulfonyl chloride, in the presence of a dialkylamino pyridine activation catalyst, such as 4-dimethylamino-pyridine (DMAP). The activated support is then reacted with a polymer having a polyamide backbone with pendent alkyl amine groups, such as poly-L-lysine (PLL), to form C--N bonds between an activated carbon from the hydroxylated polymer and an amine group from the polymeric polyamide. Finally, any unreacted activated sites on the hydroxylated polymer are capped or removed with an effective amount of capping agent such as a mercapto (--SH), hydroxy (--OH) or amino (--NH.sub.2) containing compound which reacts with the unreacted activated sites. The pendent alkyl amines on the polyamide backbone exist, at the appropriate pH, as polycations.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1995
    Assignee: Research Medical, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher G. Anderson, James C. McRea
  • Patent number: 5396019
    Abstract: The present invention includes the use of crosslinked fluorinated polyolefin membranes membranes for the separation of aromatics from saturates, wherein aromatics can contain sulfur and nitrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1993
    Date of Patent: March 7, 1995
    Assignee: Exxon Research Engineering Company
    Inventors: Guido Sartori, Win-Sow W. Ho, Robert E. Noone, Bruce H. Ballinger
  • Patent number: 5318706
    Abstract: A method of preparing hydrofluoric acid of high purity at the point of use by causing molecular diffusion of hydrogen fluoride into ultrapure water through a resin membrane. The high-purity acid is available at the site of use free of contamination that would occur during transport from a site of preparation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 1992
    Date of Patent: June 7, 1994
    Assignee: Hashimoto Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tadahiro Ohmi, Nobuhiro Miki, Matagoro Maeno, Ryozi Hirayama
  • Patent number: 5316682
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for the controlled introduction of submicron-sized bubbles into a fluid stream. The gas-micronizer apparatus of the present invention operates in a manner that maximizes the turbulence of the liquid flow stream at the interface of the porous surface while flowing essentially parallel to the porous surface through which gas enters to form bubbles, thereby ensuring that the gas streams through the pores are dispersed quickly into the bulk liquid flow and/or are of sufficiently small size as to behave as rigid spheres that do not easily coalesce. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is of generally tubular shape with a nominal surface porosity of 25-30%, and an average pore size below 1 micron (and ideally about 0.2 micron). Fluid is provided to the inlet of the membrane element (by means of a pump) through an inwardly tapered approach conduit. An outwardly tapered exit conduit extends from the outlet end of the element, thereby forming a venturi arrangement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 31, 1994
    Assignee: Key Solutions, Inc.
    Inventors: Gene E. Keyser, Ellis O. Barnes
  • Patent number: 5306427
    Abstract: A process is set forth for the separation of one or more, more permeable components from one or more, less permeable components in a feed stream. The process suggests two membrane separation stages in series wherein the feed is introduced into the low pressure side of the first stage, the permeate stream from the first stage is compressed and introduced into the high pressure side of the second stage and wherein the non-permeate stream from the second stage is recycled to the high pressure side of the first stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1993
    Date of Patent: April 26, 1994
    Assignee: Permea, Inc.
    Inventor: Jianguo Xu
  • Patent number: 5294344
    Abstract: Mixtures comprising alcohol/ether/non-linear hydrocarbon are separated using polyester or polyester polyimide copolymer membranes. The mixture is contacted under pervaporation conditions with the membrane and the alcohol selectively permeates through the membrane. In this way alcohol especially C.sub.1 -C.sub.10, preferably C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alcohols can be effectively removed from the synthesis solutions used for the production of high value ethers such as methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or tertiary-amyl methyl ether (TAME) used as octane enhancers in motor fuels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 15, 1994
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Joseph L. Feimer, Charles P. Darnell, W. S. Winston Ho
  • Patent number: 5286387
    Abstract: Apparatus for filtering liquid effluent comprises, in sequence, inlet means, filtration means, and outlet means. Each filtration means comprises at least one disposable sack filter (2, 3, 4, 31) of defined porosity. The open end of each sack filter is attached to an outlet conduit in communication with the inlet means. The opposing closed ends of the sack filters are attached to movable supports to cause agitation of the sack filters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 1993
    Date of Patent: February 15, 1994
    Assignee: Copa Research Limited
    Inventor: David Froud
  • Patent number: 5284588
    Abstract: A method and system are disclosed for allowing significantly increased migration of a molecule across a lipid bilayer membrane. The method includes combining an aqueous solvent medium, in which the lipid bilayer membrane and the molecule are disposed, with a solute. The aqueous solvent medium, the lipid bilayer membrane and the molecule are then exposed to a sufficient partial pressure of the solute to cause the solute to dissolve in the aqueous solvent medium, whereby a significant portion of the solute migrates to the hydrophobic fatty acyl portion of the lipid bilayer membrane. The solute thereby allows a significantly increased migration of the molecule across the lipid bilayer membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 1992
    Date of Patent: February 8, 1994
    Assignees: Trustees of Boston University, General Electric Company
    Inventors: Lee C. Makowski, Hoshang F. Batliwala
  • Patent number: 5271842
    Abstract: A system and method for removing contaminants in a fluid, particularly water from lubricating oil, is provided which may comprise a particulate zeolitic adsorbent in conjunction with a non-porous PTFE barrier that has been modified to be permeable to water and impermeable to oil. Such a system is capable of reducing the level of water in lubricating oil to less than 100 parts per million.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: December 21, 1993
    Assignee: Pall Corporation
    Inventors: Peter J. Degen, Jeffrey K. Chambers, John R. Gerringer
  • Patent number: 5262055
    Abstract: An artificial pancreas system which minimizes the volume of the artificial pancreas by not encapsulating each islet is taught wherein the islets are separated and held within a polymeric matrix which is soluble in an aqueous solution below body temperature but insoluble in aqueous solutions at or above body temperature. The polymer-islet mixture is contained in a pouch having access means such as entry and exit ports. The solubility makes it possible to replace the contents of the pouch by solubilizing the matrix simply by lowering the temperature below the LCST. The pouch is constructed of a biocompatible material permeable to insulin and other substances of similar or lesser molecular weight but is impermeable to cellular and humoral components of the body immune system. The islet-polymer matrix can be functionalized to stimulate insulin secretion from the islets using insulinotropic agents such as sulfonylurea.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 1992
    Date of Patent: November 16, 1993
    Assignee: The University of Utah
    Inventors: You H. Bae, Sun W. Kim
  • Patent number: 5252220
    Abstract: Method and apparatus are provided for accomplishing improved liquid-liquid extraction employing microporous hollow-fiber membranes. A number of possible modes of liquid-liquid extraction are possible according to the invention.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1993
    Assignee: SymBiotech Incorporated
    Inventors: Robert W. Coughlin, Edward M. Davis
  • Patent number: 5252219
    Abstract: A process is set forth for the separation of one or more, more permeable components from one or more, less permeable components in a feed stream. The process suggests two membrane separation stages in series wherein the feed is introduced into the high pressure side of the first stage, the non-permeate stream from the first stage is introduced into the high pressure side of the second stage and wherein the permeate stream from the second stage is compressed and recycled to the low pressure side of the first stage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 18, 1992
    Date of Patent: October 12, 1993
    Assignee: Permea, Inc.
    Inventor: Jianguo Xu
  • Patent number: 5230804
    Abstract: The process for separating off rare metal catalysts used in the preparation of ether-carboxylic acids by catalytic oxidation with a suspended catalyst comprises carrying out a crossflow filtration and pretreating the filter elements used with a medium which is not solid under the treatment conditions and is composed of one or more carboxylic acids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1992
    Date of Patent: July 27, 1993
    Assignee: Hoechst AG
    Inventors: Ernst I. Leupold, Eduard Zeisberger, Manfred Kauffelt, Willi Herzog, Udo Dettmeier, Georg Weichselbaumer
  • Patent number: 5225084
    Abstract: A process for the separation, by sedimentation, of at least one liquid organic component dispersed in a liquid containing mainly organic materials, this organic component and the remaining liquid exhibiting a difference in density. In order to reduce considerably the standing time, it is proposed that the liquid be passed before sedimentation through a fiber bed that the organic component and the remaining liquid have different surface tensions with respect to the fiber bed, that the temperature of the liquid and the concentration of the organic component to be separated are such that, in the equilibrium state, at least two liquid phases form, and that the rate of flow of the liquid through the fiber bed lies below a maximum value dependent on the surface tension of the organic component with respect of the fiber bed and on the difference in density and surface tension between the remaining liquid and the organic component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 17, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 6, 1993
    Assignee: Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft auf Aktien
    Inventors: Georg Assmann, Bernhard Gutsche, Wilhelm Johannisbauer, Richard Ridinger, Jean Rigal, Rene Armengaud, Bernard Cormary
  • Patent number: 5217618
    Abstract: A plasma purification treatment which removes disease ailment causing constituents in the plasma of a patient suffering from diseases caused by those ailment causing constituents in this patient's plasma by plasma exchange made by sampling of plasma from the patient and returning the plasma sampled from the patient and purified by removing the ailment causing constituents to the patient; sampling an appropriate volume of plasma within 12% of the patient's whole circulating blood at the first time and gradually increased volume from the second time on until it reaches a predetermined target volume of plasma exchange, returning the sampled plasma at the previous time and purified.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 26, 1991
    Date of Patent: June 8, 1993
    Assignee: Terumo Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Masahide Murakoshi
  • Patent number: 5209838
    Abstract: A process is described for purifying an oil-containing liquid to remove aqueous and solid impurities which comprises passing said liquid through a permeable inorganic membrane previously treated by contacting the membrane with an organic reactant selected from the group consisting of a phosphonic acid, a phosphinic acid, a monocarboxylic acid, a dicarboxylic acid, a boronic acid, a phosphoric acid ester and a precursor which decomposes upon contact with said inorganic membrane to form one of said organic reactants whereby the treated membrane is capable of separating aqueous and solid impurities from hydrocarbons in the oil-containing liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 1991
    Date of Patent: May 11, 1993
    Assignee: Aluminum Company of America
    Inventors: William C. Sleppy, Larry F. Wieserman, Kenneth M. Thomas, Kenneth P. Goodboy
  • Patent number: 5183571
    Abstract: A multilayer membrane is composed of a carrier layer, a porous supporting layer and a separating layer. The carrier layer consists of fibers of polyamide, polyvinylidene difluoride, polyester or glass; the porous supporting layer consists of a polysulfone, polyvinylidene difluoride, polyethersulfone, polyimide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane, polyacrylonitrile or polyether imide; the separating layer consists of polyvinyl alcohol. The separating layer is nonporous and has a structure having a high microcrystalline content. A process of manufacturing that membrane is also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 1991
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1993
    Assignee: Metallgesellschaft Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Peter Hanel, Harald Helmrich, Ulrich Sander
  • Patent number: 5180496
    Abstract: The present invention describes a method for the synthesis of unsaturated aliphatic polyesters, their crosslinking by thermal treatment and the use of the corresponding crosslinked membranes to separate aromatics from saturates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 19, 1993
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Guido Sartori, W. S. Winston Ho, Robert E. Noone
  • Patent number: 5177296
    Abstract: The present invention describes a method for the synthesis of saturated aliphatic polyesters by reaction of saturated or aromatic diacid chlorides with oligomeric aliphatic polyester diols, a method to thermally crosslink membranes prepared from the above saturated aliphatic polyesters, and the use of the crosslinked membranes to separate aromatics from saturates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 1992
    Date of Patent: January 5, 1993
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Guido Sartori, W. S. Winston Ho, Bruce H. Ballinger
  • Patent number: 5152899
    Abstract: Salts of organic carboxylic acids can be separated from non-salt organic compounds using a semipermeable membrane consisting of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer or a salt of such a polymer, by bringing a solution of the salts and the organic compounds in a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkanol into contact with one side of the membrane and having the pure solvent on the opposite side of the membrane. The process can be used, for example, in purification processes or for recovering reactants from reaction residues.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 6, 1992
    Assignee: Ciba-Geigy Corporation
    Inventors: Joseph Berger, Thomas Feldkamp, Friedrich Lohse, Manfred Muller
  • Patent number: 5128042
    Abstract: Non-brackish water can be produced from the brackish water or brine containing at least 500 ppm total dissolved solids coproduced in many active hydrocarbon product wells and found in many inactive gas wells. The brackish water or brine is desalinated producing non-brackish water, preferably, potable water. A preferred method of desalination is by reverse osmosis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 27, 1991
    Date of Patent: July 7, 1992
    Assignee: Union Oil Company of California
    Inventor: Donald M. Fenton
  • Patent number: 5098573
    Abstract: A binary process for the concentration and recovery of contaminants from an aqueous environment by submerging lipids (11) inside of a thin non-porous polymeric film enclosure (10) in an aqueous environment (13) to concentrate the contaminants in the lipids (11) and polymeric film (10); and, recovering contaminants or impurities from the first part or from other contaiminated lipids or biogenic extracts by sumberging the polymeric film enclosed materials (10) in a solvent medium (16).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 24, 1992
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Interior
    Inventors: James N. Huckins, Jon A. Lebo, Mark W. Tubergen, Gamini K. Manuweera, Virginia L. Gibson, Jimmie D. Perry
  • Patent number: 5096590
    Abstract: Provided is a multistage method and apparatus for concentrating a solution by reverse osmosis, comprising the steps and means for: maximizing the concentration of absolute in a solution in a multistage apparatus having only standard capacity pumps, including steps of providing first concentrating means for concentrating a solution to a first concentration, said first concentrating means comprising at least one concentrating unit which positioned upstream with respect to a direction in which a solution to be concentrated flows, and providing second concentrating means for concentrating the solution that has been concentrated by first concentrating means to a second concentration which is higher than said first concentrating means comprising at least one concentrating unit which is positioned downstream with respect to said direction; said concentrating units comprising consisting essentially of respective membrane modules and respective standard capacity pumps, the membrane module of the concentrating unit of
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 1991
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1992
    Assignees: Director of National Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Kagome Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Atsuo Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Hiroshi Nabetani, Yasunori Yamada, Tsutomu Ohmori