Annular Cutter Patents (Class 30/130)
  • Patent number: 10252315
    Abstract: A metal punch assembly for use with a ridged metal sheet includes a base member that defines a plurality of grooves. A plurality of punches are movably connected to the base member and are translatable from a retracted position to an extended position. The grooves formed by the base member are engageable with the ridges on the sheet such that the motion of the apparatus is limited to translation in two opposite directions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2016
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2019
    Assignee: HOROMO, LLC
    Inventor: Howard Moeggenborg
  • Patent number: 10182797
    Abstract: A method for effecting a dermatological biopsy procedure and a hand-held instrument for use in such procedure. The instrument has a pen-like housing with an aperture and a biopsy site marker. A syringe for dispensing an anesthetic to a selected marked biopsy site on a patient's skin and a biopsy-sampling blade such as a skin punch or scraper and a wound closure device for closing the biopsy wound with a suture, adhesive or cauterant are contained within the housing. The aperture of the instrument is placed directly against the marked biopsy site and the syringe, biopsy blade and wound closure device are controlled to alternately extend and retract through the aperture and operatively effect anesthetic dispensing, biopsy sampling and wound closure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2019
    Inventor: Aton Holzer
  • Patent number: 9474986
    Abstract: A block-forming toy includes a plunger, a mold and an ejector plate. The plunger includes a shaft that passes through a barrel. The two pieces are able to move with respect to one another. Each piece connects to either the mold or the ejector plate, using male and female locking mechanisms. Subsequent to assembling the toy, the mold may be filled and packed with a moldable material. By pulling the plunger up to move the mold upwards relative to the ejector plate, and thus relative to the casted article, the block-forming toy may be used to easily remove the formed block of moldable material from the mold. A variety of mold shapes may be used to create additional blocks to form structures of moldable material. Examples of moldable material include sand and snow.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2016
    Assignee: Openloop Inc.
    Inventor: Colin Boyd Drylie
  • Patent number: 9314235
    Abstract: A surgical tool includes a shaft for receiving implants. The shaft defines a non-linear track. The tool includes a deployment member movable along the track to deploy the implants. An implant includes a body, and a plurality of alternating threads and flutes helically arranged about the body such that the body rotates under a linear applied force. Alternatively, an implant includes a body having a distal end for pound-in advancement into tissue. The body includes a plurality of cone-shaped, stacked barbs. A surgical tool includes two implants. The first implant has forward threads and the second implant has reverse threads. The first implant has threads for rotary advancement into tissue and the second implant is configured for pound-in advancement into tissue. The first and second implants are configured for pound-in advancement into tissue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2016
    Assignee: SMITH & NEPHEW, INC.
    Inventors: Raymond A. Bojarski, George Sikora
  • Patent number: 9220280
    Abstract: An apparatus for cutting and de-molding a dough sheet is described. The apparatus comprises a hollow cutter body, a cutting edge about an opening in the hollow cutter body, a compressible extractor in the hollow cuter body, an ejector, and a stamp with a pattern. The compressible extractor may be actuated between a first and second state. The hollow cutter body is magnetically engaged with the compressible extractor and the compressible extractor is magnetically engaged with the stamp.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2015
    Assignee: MASTRAD, S.A.
    Inventors: Mathieu Lion, Marie Buet
  • Patent number: 8651055
    Abstract: A pet bowl device designed primarily for pet owners comprises a bowl unit and an insert component. The bowl unit comprises an interior and exterior portion, with the insert component being positioned on the interior portion. The insert component comprises a top surface and a bottom surface and a plurality of individual openings positioned in a spaced apart relationship along the top surface. The plurality of individual openings is smaller in diameter than the bowl unit. The individual openings will divide up the serving size of pet food. Thus, the individual openings separate the food into smaller sections, which prevents the pet from opening their mouth wide enough to consume large gulps of food at once. Pets will then be forced to take smaller bites while eating, which slows down the rate at which the pet consumes its food and aids in the prevention of abdominal bloating (GDV).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2014
    Inventors: Sheri J. Dreger, Kenneth W. Dreger
  • Publication number: 20130118017
    Abstract: A motorized apparatus to simultaneously excise, retrieve, temporarily store and transport a sample of material has a hollow clamshell casing with a blended contoured grip for the fingers, a horizontal extension to eliminate slippage when held in a user's hand, and a flange bottom portion from which a removable cutting tool threaded to a drive shaft extends downwards. Within the clamshell casing an electric motor is mounted which drives, via gears, a drive shaft which rotates a cutting tool threaded to the distal end of the drive shaft. The end of the cutting tool, distal from the clamshell casing, forms a cutting edge circumscribing a circular region. An ejection rod slides reciprocally within the cutting tool between a stowed position and an expulsion position.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2010
    Publication date: May 16, 2013
    Applicant: GE HEALTHCARE BIO-SCIENCES CORP.
    Inventor: Joel S. Harris
  • Patent number: 6789468
    Abstract: A device for forming a fruit kabob from uniform sections of fruit including melons comprises an elongate, preferably transparent, shaping tube. In one embodiment, the shaping tube is of cylindrical configuration and in another embodiment the shaping tube is of generally rectangular configuration. An elongate plunger is positioned in the shaping tube and moveable therein. The shaping tube has a cutting edge at its front end and when pressed successively into fruit forming uniform sections of fruit within the tube. A skewer is inserted into the shaping tube and through the side of the plunger to impale the cut fruit sections thereon whereby when the plunger is advanced, the impaled fruit sections and skewer will be expelled from the shaping tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 20, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 14, 2004
    Inventor: Harvey Rosen
  • Patent number: 6769181
    Abstract: Apparatus is provided for removing a crimped ring from plastic tubing installed over the nipple of a fitting. A supporting jaw radially supports the crimped ring while a chisel cuts the ring on a tangential path. One embodiment uses pair of levers joined and pivoted intermediate their ends. One lever forms the supporting jaw while the other forms the chisel. When actuated, the cutting jaw cuts the ring on a path tangent to the inside circumference of the ring, thereby avoiding injury to the fitting, the fitting therefore being reusable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2004
    Inventors: Michael L. Scheuerman, Darren L. Wendzina
  • Patent number: 6655032
    Abstract: A pumpkin cutting apparatus includes a tubular shaft and a cutter releasably coupled to one end thereof, the cutter having a continuous side wall capable of cutting a pumpkin and retaining the cut portion. A plunger shaft extending through the tubular shaft and slides upwardly therethrough and extends through a top opening as the cutter cuts into a pumpkin. Once a cut is complete, the plunger shaft may be pushed back down into the tubular shaft so as to eject the cut portion from the cutter. The apparatus includes an elastomeric shell for surrounding and stabilizing a pumpkin. A transparent dome defining an aperture is selectively situated atop the shell. The tubular shaft and aperture have complementary threads so that the shaft may be rotated to force the cutter into the pumpkin, the cutter being rotatably coupled to the tubular shaft so as not to rotate therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2003
    Inventors: Vicki L. Thompson, Tyler T. Harrell
  • Patent number: 6457238
    Abstract: An eating utensil with a spoon shell fastened to a handle enables handicapped people, who have, e.g., only one usable hand, to reduce in size pieces of food, e.g., meat, by cutting into bite-sized pieces. To achieve this, the spoon shell (1, 31) and the handle (6) are of a two-part design. The spoon shell (1) has a first shell part (2) with a first handle shaft (4) and a second shell part (3) with a second handle shaft (5). The respective shell parts (2, 3) and handle shafts (4, 5), which are rigidly connected to one another, are connected to one another by a scissor hinge (7) and can be moved against one another in a scissor-like manner. The shell parts (2, 3) have cutting edges (8, 9) cooperating in a scissor-like manner.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2002
    Inventors: Michael Maier, Thomas Maier, Thilo Schauer
  • Patent number: 6032368
    Abstract: A hand held coring device for removing the core from a piece of fruit such as an apple, pear, or the like is disclosed. The device is constructed of a tube having a wall, a central bore, first and second ends, and at least two slots defined within the wall of the tube. The slots preferably extend from the first end of the tube to an area proximate to the second end. Additionally, the second end has a cutting edge for penetrating and cutting the fruit. The present corer has a plunger which is slidably positioned within the central bore of the tube and is linked, via at least two tab connectors, to an outer ring slidably positioned about a portion of the exterior of the tube. A movable guard to protect the cutting edge at the second end, where the guard includes the outer ring slidably positioned about a portion of the exterior of the tube is also featured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 27, 1998
    Date of Patent: March 7, 2000
    Assignee: The Pampered Chef, Ltd.
    Inventors: Daiying Huang, Diane Subsits, David May
  • Patent number: 5966819
    Abstract: A new meat scraping tool for easily dislodging meat by pressing a button. The inventive device includes a handle. A plurality of generally cylindrical stationary blade members arranged in a concentric configuration are included. The stationary blade members have coextensive end portions extending inwardly of an end of the handle. The stationary blade members each have a blunt upper edge and a sharp lower edge. A plurality of generally cylindrical pivoting blade members each are positioned in an abutting relationship with an interior surface of respective stationary blade members. The pivoting blade members have coextensive end portions extending inwardly of the end of the handle. The pivoting blade members each have a blunt upper edge and a sharp lower edge. The pivoting blade members are pivotable with respect to the stationary blade members.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 19, 1999
    Inventor: David R. Coleman
  • Patent number: 5490853
    Abstract: An orthopedic bone plug cutter for cutting a customized bone plug for use with prosthesis having stems of complex geometry, such as a cruciate stem. The bone plug cutter comprises an anvil which supports a piece of bone obtained intraoperatively. A specialized cutting head is forced against the anvil by a parallel jaw clamp. The cutting head can then be removed from the clamp and the bone plug extruded from the cutter with a plunger.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1994
    Date of Patent: February 13, 1996
    Assignee: Intermedics Orthopedics, Inc.
    Inventors: Brian D. Burkinshaw, John L. Wheeler
  • Patent number: 5481803
    Abstract: A safety peeler including a short cylindrical shell having a closed exterior portion and an open interior portion with a cylindrical extension extending therefrom including an external threaded portion and an exterior surface therebetween with a top edge and a bottom edge; a rectangular tab with an upper edge, a lower edge being in communication with the top portion of the shell and four vertical sides being equally spaced from the top edge of the exterior surface of the shell, the upper edge capable of cutting away the skin of a citrus fruit; a long cylinder being hollow having an interior opening with a top edge, an exterior opening with a bottom edge and an exterior surface and an internal wall therebetween including an internal threaded portion being adjacent to the top edge of the interior opening, the internal threaded portion capable of engaging the external threaded portion of the cylindrical shell; a cylindrical tapered edge having an upper edge in communication with the bottom edge of the exterior o
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 9, 1996
    Inventors: Ort S. Guthrie, Mindy K. Guthrie
  • Patent number: 5303473
    Abstract: A device for cutting and engaging a doughy material having a deformable consistency, forming a material, transferring the shape from a first location to a second location and disengaging the shape. The device includes a cutting edge carried by a housing for cutting an outline of the shape, a plunger for positively engaging a cut surface of the material to aid in transferring the material from a first location to a second location, recesses and raised shapes located on the plunger for imprinting an exposed surface of the material and aiding in engaging the material, and a handle connected to the plunger for manually actuating the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: April 19, 1994
    Assignee: Superior Piston Ring Corporation
    Inventor: Robert F. Sadler
  • Patent number: 5157836
    Abstract: A tool is described for separating a core, a rind and flesh of a fruit, in particular a pineapple, including, at least, a cylindrical corer which is provided at one end with a cutting edge and at the other end with a handle or other driving member, such as a motor. In the tool there is provided, close to the cutting edge of the corer at least one flesh cutter extending radially thereon and provided with at least one cutting edge, the shape of the flesh cutter being chosen such that upon rotating of the tool, it executes a helical movement with a predetermined pitch, and in that at the end of the flesh cutter, opposite the end fixed to the corer, there is provided, at least locally, a rind cutter extending parallel to the corer and provided with at least one cutting edge. Further an auxiliary screw connected with the corer may be present to at least partially determine the pitch of the tool.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 30, 1991
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1992
    Assignee: Chiquita Tropical Fruit Company, B.V.
    Inventors: Antonius P. Aulbers, Bernard W. Been, Paul I. d'Hond, German E. Knoppers
  • Patent number: 4843716
    Abstract: A food shaping cutter for making canapes, hors d'oeuvres and the like having an elongated hollow body with a tapered cutting edge and a piston within said body for ejecting cut food therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 1980
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1989
    Assignee: L.K. Manufacturing Corp.
    Inventor: Robert S. Lutzker
  • Patent number: 4792299
    Abstract: A biscuit cutter having at least one cutting element defined by a hexagonally oriented cutting edge which taper upwardly and inwardly to form a circular biscuit forming cavity and which cutting element may be cooperatively seated within a mold so as to uniformly cut substantially all of the dough placed within the mold into uniform circular shapes without leaving any waste dough to be reworked or reprocessed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 1987
    Date of Patent: December 20, 1988
    Inventor: Charles N. McCaffrey
  • Patent number: 4733469
    Abstract: An extractor for an increment borer, which consists of a tubular body having internally a cylindric portion, which at its forward end 3 transforms to a conic portion 6, and which borer on its outer surface is provided with bore threads. The extractor 2 comprises a cylindric tube, the outer diameter of which corresponds to the inner diameter of the increment borer 1, and the inner diameter of which corresponds to the smallest diameter of the increment borer 1 at the forward end 3 thereof. An indent 11, preferably a V-shaped indent, or a slit is located in the wall of the forward end 9 of the extractor 2, so that said forward end 9 is deformed plastically when this end is pressed against the said conic portion 6 of the increment borer 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 29, 1988
    Assignee: Ingenjorsfirman I. Haglof AB
    Inventor: Ingvar Haglof
  • Patent number: 4691602
    Abstract: A piercing punch and ejection assembly has a piercing punch member provided with a bore in its point thickness section. The ejector member, included in the assembly, comprises a conical helical spring of rectangular cross section that is installed into the blind hole bore of the punch member.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1981
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1987
    Inventor: Edward Schlueter
  • Patent number: 4690047
    Abstract: The tool comprises two substantially annular and coaxial blades, an inner one and an outer one respectively, each of which has a frontal cutting edge, and a handgrip for enabling the blades to be pushed into the fruit and possibly rotated so as to separate the core and the skin from the fleshy part through the action of the cutting edge of the inner blade and the cutting edge of the outer blade, respectively. Each blade has associated elongate parts for connecting it to the handgrip which, together with the blades themselves, constitute regions of a single tubular body substantially free from roughness.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1986
    Date of Patent: September 1, 1987
    Assignee: Metallurgiche Balzano S.p.A.
    Inventor: Savino Balzano
  • Patent number: 4606716
    Abstract: A cutter comprising a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shapes with a closely-fitting mold surrounding the cutter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 1984
    Date of Patent: August 19, 1986
    Inventor: Charles N. McCaffrey
  • Patent number: 4596073
    Abstract: An apple corer having four molded plastic components are fitted together to form the invention. They are a hollow cutting tube, a core remover slidable along the cutting tube, a handle attached at the end of the cutting tube, and a compression plug inserted at the same end for locking the handle in place. The tip of the cutting tube has serrated teeth for smooth boring into the apple. In operation, the handle is oscillated while applying pressure to it. This causes the cutting tube to bore through the apple. The tube is removed from the apple and the resulting core left in the tube is ejected by sliding the core remover towards the tip of the cutter. The corer can also be used for partial removal of the apple core when stuffed apples are desired. In this situation prongs are attached to the end of the core remover. The cutter is bored partially into the apple, the core remover is slid against the face of the apple causing the prongs to impale the apple and hold the core in place.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1986
    Inventor: Howard H. Ewald
  • Patent number: 4584769
    Abstract: An extractor for an increment borer (1), which increment borer (1) consists of a tubular body having internally a cylindric portion, which transforms to a conic portion (6), and which on the outside is provided with bore threads (4). According to the invention, an end piece (10) is provided for being attached to and detached from the rearward end of the blade (9). The end piece comprises a sleeve (12) and a domed nut (14), each of which are provided with threads (13,15) arranged so, that the sleeve (12) and domed nut (14) are axially movable relative to another. The end piece (10) further comprises an oblong conic locking pin (16) intended to be inserted together with the rearward end of the blade (9) into an axial through hole in the sleeve (12). The domed nut (14) is intended at its threading on the sleeve (12) to axially move the locking pin (16), which thereby is pressed against the blade (9) located between the locking pin (16) and the wall of said hole of the sleeve (12).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1986
    Assignee: Ingenjorsfirman I. Hagloff AB
    Inventor: Ingvar Haglof
  • Patent number: 4546545
    Abstract: A pineapple cutter is provided with a cylindrical body 1 having a cutter edge 1a at the circumference end portion of the lower end, a pair of handles 5, 5 connected to the outer surface of said cylindrical body, a pressing sheet mounted on the inner portion of said cylindrical body 3 slidably in the vertical direction, and a pushing member secured to the upper portion of the cylindrical body connected with the pressing sheet.A pineapple is cut by being inserted into said cylindrical body 1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 30, 1983
    Date of Patent: October 15, 1985
    Inventor: Tsugutoshi Hirano
  • Patent number: 4543053
    Abstract: A tool for forming a folded pastry from rolled-out dough. The pastry tool includes a frame having an edge for cutting the dough, the cutting edge being formed in the shape of the peripheral outline of a pair of circles intersecting at two points. The two points of intersection define a line along which the dough, cut out by the tool, may be folded. Further, one of the circular sections of the frame is made larger than the other of the circular sections to allow that portion of the dough formed by the larger of the circular frame sections to overlap the smaller circular section of dough while accommodating a filling therebetween. The pastry tool also includes a sealing flange extending inwardly from said frame a distance above the cutting edge to simultaneously seal and trim two layers of dough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 1984
    Date of Patent: September 24, 1985
    Inventor: Henry E. Jasniewski
  • Patent number: 4507866
    Abstract: A device for removing a portion of a roll, comprising an elongated hollow shaft having a handle at one end thereof. The other end is formed into two separated jaws, with one jaw extending beyond the other jaw. The edges of the jaws are sharpened and serrated. The device is inserted in an elongated roll, wiggled within the roll, and a portion of the soft interior of the roll is then removed. Sandwich filling, such as hot meat balls, luncheon meats, cheese, vegetables, or any mixture of the same, is then inserted into the roll, and tamped in place. The invention also contemplates the method of removing a portion of the roll and filling the roll to form a sandwich.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1983
    Date of Patent: April 2, 1985
    Inventor: Paul Rimmeir
  • Patent number: 4443176
    Abstract: A food mold having a rectangular body having sides and an upper mounting plate is disclosed. A dislodging plate is disposed within the body in a plane parallel with the mounting plate. A central shaft is connected to the dislodging plate and extends upward above the mounting plate. The shaft is positioned within an encircling depth control means. The depth control includes a sleeve in communication with the mounting plate and which contains depth indicators whereby a projection on the central shaft engages the desired depth indicator and controls the depth of the mold. A depth control selector is connected to the central shaft to rotate it so the projection engages the desired depth indicator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 1981
    Date of Patent: April 17, 1984
    Inventor: Nick Battistone
  • Patent number: 4352242
    Abstract: A gourmet press for producing hors d'oeuvres and similar snacks in the form of morsels of various foods stacked on a skewer. The press is a tubular device with a sharpened end which is pressed into various foods such as cheese, meat, bread, fruit and the like to cut out portions of such foods. Cut portions of food stack successively inside the tube and, when the required stack is complete, a skewer is inserted through the stack. The skewered stack is then ejected by a finger operated plunger mounted in the tube.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 1981
    Date of Patent: October 5, 1982
    Inventor: Catherine Plet
  • Patent number: 4296659
    Abstract: A Jack-O-Lantern forming method for cutting facial feature openings (14) in a pumpkin (12). At least one pumpkin die element (26) having a closed contour sidewall element (32) is provided. The sidewall element (32) has a lower edge (36) adapted for contiguous interface with the pumpkin outer surface contour (16). Additionally, the pumpkin die element (26) has an upper edge (38) adapted to be impact loaded for displacing the pumpkin die element (26) through a wall (22) of the pumpkin (12). The die element (26) is impacted on the upper edge (38) and displaced through the wall (22) to provide a plug element which is removable and is contoured in the form of one of the facial feature openings (14). Through use of a number of differently contoured die elements (26), a wide variety of facial feature contour openings (14) may be provided in a minimal time reference frame.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 27, 1981
    Inventor: Christopher A. Nauman
  • Patent number: 4234375
    Abstract: This invention relates to a vacuum created by a plunger to suck up a disc cut by the razor-edged nozzle of said applicator, and thereafter mechanical-plunger pushing said cut disc into a golf ball cavity. The material cut into disc shape to be disposed in said golf ball cavities being a planar diffraction grating.In order to aid in the game of playing golf, a diffraction grating is disposed in one or more pre-selected cavities of a golf ball. The diffraction grating aids the golf player to steady his aim on the ball during the swing of the golf club.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1980
    Inventor: Richard Ciccarello
  • Patent number: 4204577
    Abstract: An apparatus for guiding a golf hole cutter when constructing holes on a golf putting green in such a manner that the ground surrounding the hole remains level and the area surrounding the hole is protected from markings and indentations caused by the feet of the greenskeeper.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 27, 1980
    Inventor: L. Dalton Bittle
  • Patent number: 4190050
    Abstract: A trephine instrument for use in surgical removal of a cornea includes a cylindrical blade mounted on an elongate handle. The blade is power-driven and an actuating element is operable for selectively extending and retracting the blade. In a second embodiment, an ultrasonic source powers the blade. Further, the blade is detachably connected to the handle so that it may serve as a storage container for a cornea. In both embodiments, the handle includes offset portions so that a surgeon may grip the instrument with both hands and position the blade adjacent an eye.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1977
    Date of Patent: February 26, 1980
    Inventor: Paul F. Bailey
  • Patent number: 4074426
    Abstract: A threaded blade holder for cutting an opening in a flexible externally threaded closure element on a pail or container. The holder comprises a hollow internally threaded tubular body. A retaining member, comprising a pointed spike, is slideably disposed in a central aperture in the top of the tubular body to perforate the closure element and to relieve internal pressure in the pail through space between loosely fitting threads on the blade holder and the closure element. A pointed cutting blade, having a single cutting edge, extends downwardly from the top of the tubular body such that rotation of the tubular body onto the externally threaded closure element of the pail causes the blade to engage the upper surface of the closure element to cut a circular hole therein. However, the blade does not cut into material adjacent the periphery of the hole when the tubular element is removed from the externally threaded closure element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 1976
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1978
    Inventor: Michael W. Brandt