Photomultiplier Patents (Class 313/532)
  • Patent number: 10741371
    Abstract: An electron tube module includes an electron tube and a casing. The electron tube includes a vacuum container with a light transmitting substrate, a photocathode provided in an inner surface of the light transmitting substrate, an anode, and a prism. The prism includes a first surface bonded to an outer surface of the light transmitting substrate, a second surface inclined with respect to the first surface, and a third surface which further reflects light incident to the photocathode through the prism and the light transmitting substrate and reflected at an interface between the photocathode and a vacuum space so that the light is incident to the photocathode again. The casing includes a ceiling wall provided with an opening. The second surface is parallel to the ceiling wall. At least a part of the second surface is exposed to outside through the opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2020
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2020
    Assignee: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
    Inventors: Ginji Sugiura, Yasumasa Matsuoka, Shunsuke Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 10431441
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube for use in an imaging plate scanner. In one embodiment, the photomultiplier tube includes a housing having a window; a focusing electrode located in the housing; an electron multiplier dynode located in the housing; an anode; a cathode and a memory storing parameters. Another embodiment provides An imaging plate scanner including a photomultiplier tube having a window, an anode, and a cathode; a light source positioned to radiate light on the anode or cathode; and an electronic processor communicatively coupled to the light source and configured to generate a supply voltage value for the photomultiplier tube, activate the light source and determine an output current of the anode or of the cathode, and generate an error message if the output current deviates from an expected current range. A power supply is electrically connected to the electronic processor and configured to generate the supply voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2019
    Assignee: PALODEX GROUP OY
    Inventors: Jorma Honkala, Ari Hannu Tapio Koskikallio, Kaapo Paulanto, Doan Ha Nguyen
  • Patent number: 10262847
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube (PMT) suitable for detecting a photon, comprising: an electron ejector configured for emitting primary electrons in response to an incident photon; a detector configured for collecting electrons and providing an output signal representative of the incident photon; and a series of vertical electrodes between the electron ejector and the detector, wherein each of the vertical electrodes is configured for emitting secondary electrons in response to incident electrons, and each of the vertical electrodes is parallel to a straight line connecting the electron ejector and the detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 2015
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2019
    Assignee: SHENZHEN GENORIVISION TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Peiyan Cao, Yurun Liu
  • Patent number: 10186406
    Abstract: A multi-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector assembly includes a photocathode. The detector assembly includes a first dynode channel including a first set of dynode pathways. The first set of dynode pathways include a plurality of dynode stages configured to receive a first portion of the photoelectrons and direct a first amplified photoelectron current onto a first anode. The detector assembly includes an additional dynode channel including an additional set of dynode pathways. The additional set of dynode pathways includes a plurality of dynode stages configured to receive an additional portion of the photoelectrons and direct an additional amplified photoelectron current onto an additional anode. The detector assembly includes a grid configured to direct the first portion of the photoelectrons to one or more of the first set of pathways and an additional portion of the photoelectrons to one or more of the additional set of pathways.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 16, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2019
    Assignee: KLA—Tencor Corporation
    Inventor: Derek Mackay
  • Patent number: 9543130
    Abstract: An internal portion of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) having a reflective photocathode array, and a method for manufacturing the same, are provided. The internal portion of the PMT comprises the reflective photocathode array and at least one dynode structure corresponding to the array of reflective photocathodes. Each reflective photocathode receives light and from the light, generates photoelectrons which then travel towards the at least one dynode structure. Upon the photoelectrons making contact with the at least one dynode structure, the photoelectrons are multiplied.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 5, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2017
    Assignee: KLA-Tencor Corporation
    Inventor: Derek Cameron Mackay
  • Patent number: 9514920
    Abstract: An electron multiplier body including a main body portion, an electron incidence portion, and a channel, in which the channel includes a first inner surface and a second inner surface facing each other, the first inner surface includes a convex first bent portion and a concave second bent portion, and a plurality of first inclined surfaces, the second inner surface includes a convex third bent portion and a concave fourth bent portion, and a plurality of second inclined surfaces, and an interval between a tip of the first bent portion and a tip of the third bent portion, a distance between the first inclined surface and the second inclined surfaces facing each other, an angle between a pair of first inclined surfaces defining the first bent portion, and a length of the channel satisfy predetermined expressions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2016
    Assignee: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
    Inventors: Shinya Hattori, Motohiro Suyama, Hiroshi Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 9460899
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a structure for making it possible to easily realize high detection accuracy and fine processing, and a method of manufacturing the same. The photomultiplier comprises an enclosure having an inside kept in a vacuum state, whereas a photocathode emitting electrons in response to incident light, an electron multiplier section multiplying in a cascading manner the electron emitted from the photocathode, and an anode for taking out a secondary electron generated in the electron multiplier section are arranged in the enclosure. A part of the enclosure is constructed by a glass substrate having a flat part, whereas each of the electron multiplier section and anode is two-dimensionally arranged on the flat part in the glass substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 2015
    Date of Patent: October 4, 2016
    Assignee: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Akihiro Kageyama, Keisuke Inoue, Masuo Ito
  • Patent number: 9437406
    Abstract: A photomultiplier according to an embodiment of the present invention has a sealed container the interior of which is maintained in a vacuum state, and an electron multiplier unit housed in the sealed container, and the sealed container is partly constructed of ceramic side tubes, on the assumption that the photomultiplier is used under high-temperature, high-pressure environments. The photomultiplier further has a structure for fixing an installation position of the electron multiplier unit relative to the sealed container, for improvement in anti-vibration performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2016
    Assignee: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
    Inventors: Tomohiro Ishizu, Tetsuya Fujita, Takahiro Suzuki
  • Publication number: 20140111085
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a structure for making it possible to easily realize high detection accuracy and fine processing, and a method of manufacturing the same. The photomultiplier comprises an enclosure having an inside kept in a vacuum state, whereas a photocathode emitting electrons in response to incident light, an electron multiplier section multiplying in a cascading manner the electron emitted from the photocathode, and an anode for taking out a secondary electron generated in the electron multiplier section are arranged in the enclosure. A part of the enclosure is constructed by a glass substrate having a flat part, whereas each of the electron multiplier section and anode is two-dimensionally arranged on the flat part in the glass substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2013
    Publication date: April 24, 2014
    Applicant: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki KYUSHIMA, Hideki SHIMOI, Akihiro KAGEYAMA, Keisuke INOUE, Masuo ITO
  • Patent number: 8643258
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a structure for making it possible to easily realize high detection accuracy and fine processing, and a method of manufacturing the same. The photomultiplier comprises an enclosure having an inside kept in a vacuum state, whereas a photocathode emitting electrons in response to incident light, an electron multiplier section multiplying in a cascading manner the electron emitted from the photocathode, and an anode for taking out a secondary electron generated in the electron multiplier section are arranged in the enclosure. A part of the enclosure is constructed by a glass substrate having a flat part, whereas each of the electron multiplier section and anode is two-dimensionally arranged on the flat part in the glass substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 4, 2014
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Akihiro Kageyama, Keisuke Inoue, Masuo Ito
  • Patent number: 8618457
    Abstract: A method of measuring an anode current in an electron-multiplier device having an anode, a cathode, dynodes and a voltage divider network for applying voltages to the dynodes, which method includes applying an HV positive voltage to the anode and intermediate voltages to the dynodes, the cathode being at or near circuit ground potential, conducting dynode currents through or in parallel to the voltage divider to a point substantially at cathode potential, and deriving from those currents a current representative of the anode current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: ET Enterprises Limited
    Inventor: Anthony George Wright
  • Publication number: 20130299703
    Abstract: The invention provides a switchable photomultiplier switchable between a detecting state and a non-detecting state including a cathode upon which incident radiation is arranged to impinge. The photomultiplier also includes a series of dynodes arranged to amplify a current created at the cathode upon detection of photoradiation. The invention also provides a detection system arranged to detect radiation-emitting material in an object. The system includes a detector switchable between a detecting state in which the detector is arranged to detect radiation and a non-detecting state in which the detector is arranged to not detect radiation. The system further includes a controller arranged to control switching of the detector between the states such that the detector is switched to the non-detecting state whilst an external radiation source is irradiating the object.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 25, 2013
    Publication date: November 14, 2013
    Inventor: Edward James Morton
  • Patent number: 8552377
    Abstract: This invention provides a design to process a large range of detection beam current at low noise with a single detector. With such a design, the detection system can generate up to 1010 gain and maximum signal output at more than mini Ampere (mA) level. A condenser lens is configured to increase bandwidth of the detector that scan speed can be enhanced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2013
    Assignee: Hermes Microvision, Inc.
    Inventors: Yi-Xiang Wang, Joe Wang, Weiming Ren
  • Patent number: 8471444
    Abstract: An electron multiplying structure for use in a vacuum tube using electron multiplying comprises an input face to be oriented in a facing relationship with an entrance window of the vacuum tube, an output face to be oriented in a facing relationship with a detection surface of the vacuum tube, as well as an ion barrier membrane for shielding off stray ions. The vacuum tube uses electron multiplying having a photocathode capable of releasing electrons into the vacuum chamber when exposed to light, electric field device for accelerating the released electrons from the photocathode towards an anode spaced apart from the photocathode in a facing relationship, as well as an electron multiplying structure. An ion barrier membrane is used in a vacuum tube and/or an electron multiplying structure. The ion barrier membrane is composed of at least one atomic layer containing graphene.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: Photonis Netherlands B.V.
    Inventor: Jan Van Spijker
  • Patent number: 8410415
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides an ion detector for improving the effect of electric field for pulling in an ion to be detected to a first-stage electrode of a secondary electron multiplier (SEM), and improving the effect of a stray light reduction. In one example embodiment, an ion detector includes a SEM, and a lead-in electrode for pulling in an ion to a first-stage electrode side of the SEM. At least one of the area of the lead-in electrode and a potential difference between the lead-in electrode and neighboring electrodes of the lead-in electrode, the neighboring electrode being an electrode not of the SEM, is set so that the light amount of internal-stray light generated inside the detector entering the first-stage electrode is not more than that of external-stray light generated outside the detector entering the first-stage electrode, when an ion is introduced into the detector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 21, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Assignee: Canon Anelva Corporation
    Inventors: Megumi Nakamura, Yoshiro Shiokawa, Qiang Peng
  • Patent number: 8354791
    Abstract: The photomultiplier tube 1 is provided with an upper frame 2 and a lower frame 4 which are arranged so as to oppose each other, with the respective opposing surfaces 20a, 40a made with an insulating material, a side wall part 3 which constitutes a casing together with the frames 2, 4, a plurality of stages of electron multiplying parts 33 which are arrayed so as to be spaced away sequentially from a first end side to a second end side on the opposing surface 40a of the lower frame 4, a photocathode 41 which is installed on the first end side so as to be spaced away from the electron multiplying parts 33, converting incident light from outside to photoelectrons, an anode part 34 which is installed on the second end side so as to be spaced away from the electron multiplying parts 33 to take out electrons multiplied by the electron multiplying parts 33 as a signal, and a wall-like electrode 32 which is arranged so as to enclose the photocathode 41 when viewed from a direction directly opposite to an opposing sur
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2013
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hideki Shimoi, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 8324807
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube including a photocathode, an electron multiplier, an electron collector, and a power lead, wherein the photocathode and the electron multiplier are disposed in a sealed transparent vacuum envelope, the electron collector and the power lead are connected with an external circuit outside the vacuum envelope, the photocathode is formed on the entire inner surface of the vacuum envelope, and the electron multiplier is located on the internal center of the vacuum envelope to receive photoelectrons from the photocathode in all directions for electrons multiplication. Because the effective photocathode area is increased, the detection efficiency of unit light-receiving area is improved.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Assignee: Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Inventors: Yi fang Wang, Sen Qian, Tian chi Zhao, Jun Cao
  • Patent number: 8294107
    Abstract: Disclosed is a low-luminance imaging device using a silicon photomultiplier, which includes a first optical portion for collecting incident light, the silicon photomultiplier including a plurality of microcells so that photons of collected light are converted into photoelectrons which are then multiplied, a phosphor screen for converting the multiplied photoelectrons into photons, a second optical portion for transferring the converted photons, and an image sensor for picking-up the transferred photons thus obtaining an image, so that the imaging device has a high photomultiplication factor thereby obtaining an image having good image quality even at low luminance and achieving a low bias voltage and a small size.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2012
    Assignee: Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd
    Inventors: Sung yong An, Ki Yeol Park, Dong Sik Yoo
  • Patent number: 8242694
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a structure for making it possible to easily realize high detection accuracy and fine processing, and a method of manufacturing the same. The photomultiplier comprises an enclosure having an inside kept in a vacuum state, whereas a photocathode emitting electrons in response to incident light, an electron multiplier section multiplying in a cascading manner the electron emitted from the photocathode, and an anode for taking out a secondary electron generated in the electron multiplier section are arranged in the enclosure. A part of the enclosure is constructed by a glass substrate having a flat part, whereas each of the electron multiplier section and anode is two-dimensionally arranged on the flat part in the glass substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2012
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Akihiro Kageyama, Keisuke Inoue, Masuo Ito
  • Patent number: 8212475
    Abstract: In the photocathode, an underlayer made of a crystalline material containing La2O3 is provided between a supporting substrate and a photoelectron emission layer, and is in contact with the photoelectron emission layer. Therefore, for example, at the time of heat treatment in a manufacturing process of the photocathode, dispersion to the supporting substrate side of an alkali metal contained in the photoelectron emission layer is suppressed. Further, it is assumed that this underlayer functions so as to reverse the direction of, out of photoelectrons e? generated within the photoelectron emission layer, photoelectrons traveling toward the supporting substrate side to the side opposite thereto.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 3, 2012
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Shinichi Yamashita, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Hiroshi Komiyama
  • Publication number: 20120019132
    Abstract: a photomultiplier tube including a photocathode, an electron multiplier, an electron collector, and a power lead, wherein the photocathode and the electron multiplier are disposed in a sealed transparent vacuum envelope, the electron collector and the power lead are connected with an external circuit outside the vacuum envelope, the photocathode is formed on the entire inner surface of the vacuum envelope, and the electron multiplier is located on the internal center of the vacuum envelope to receive photoelectrons from the photocathode in all directions for electrons multiplication. Because the effective photocathode area is increased, the detection efficiency of unit light-receiving area is improved.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 20, 2009
    Publication date: January 26, 2012
    Applicant: INSTITUTE OF HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS, CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
    Inventors: Yi fang Wang, Sen Qian, Tian chi Zhao, Jun Cao
  • Publication number: 20110260608
    Abstract: An image intensifier tube includes a microchannel plate (MCP) having conductive input and output surfaces disposed in a housing. A conductive lower support is in electrical contact with the output surface of the MCP, and a conductive upper support is disposed above the input surface of the MCP. A shape memory alloy (SMA) lockdown is disposed between the input surface of the MCP and the upper support. The SMA lockdown is configured to provide a lockdown for the MCP in the housing. An SMA upper surface is configured to provide an axial force against the upper support, and an SMA lower surface is in contact with the input surface of the MCP.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 26, 2010
    Publication date: October 27, 2011
    Applicant: ITT MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES, INC.
    Inventors: Steven David Rosine, Khang V. Nguyen, Michael Scott Mills
  • Patent number: 8022606
    Abstract: An electron multiplier that can easily obtain characteristics according to a purpose is provided. By bonding a marginal portion 23 of an MCP 2 and a marginal portion 33 of an MCP 3 to each other via a conductive spacer layer 7, a gap 12 is formed between channel portions 22, 32. Therefore, when the electron multiplier is used for a purpose that requires a particularly high gain, by adjusting the thickness of the spacer layer 7, the gain can be increased by increasing the gap 12. In addition, when the electron multiplier is used for a purpose that requires an increase in gain as well as time characteristics, by adjusting the thickness of the spacer layer 7, the size of the gap 12 can be adjusted so that desired characteristics are obtained. Consequently, by only adjusting the thickness of the spacer layer 7, characteristics according to the purpose can be easily obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Akio Suzuki, Etsuo Iizuka, Akihiro Kageyama, Motohiro Suyama
  • Patent number: 7990064
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier that realizes significant improvement of response time properties with a structure enabling mass production. In the sealed container, a photocathode, a dynode unit including at least one dynode set, and preferably dynode sets of two series, a focusing electrode unit arranged between the photocathode and the dynode unit are housed. The focusing electrode unit is set to the same potential as the second dynode arranged at a position where secondary electrons from said first dynode, which emits secondary electrons in response to incidence of photoelectrons, arrive, and is provided with partitioning plates partitioning the second dynode into two in a longitudinal direction of the second dynode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2006
    Date of Patent: August 2, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Takayuki Ohmura, Teruhiko Yamaguchi
  • Patent number: 7977878
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a structure for making it possible to easily realize high detection accuracy and fine processing, and a method of manufacturing the same. The photomultiplier comprises an enclosure having an inside kept in a vacuum state, whereas a photocathode emitting electrons in response to incident light, an electron multiplier section multiplying in a cascading manner the electron emitted from the photocathode, and an anode for taking out a secondary electron generated in the electron multiplier section are arranged in the enclosure. A part of the enclosure is constructed by a glass substrate having a flat part, whereas each of the electron multiplier section and anode is two-dimensionally arranged on the flat part in the glass substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2005
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Akihiro Kageyama, Keisuke Inoue, Masuo Ito
  • Patent number: 7940005
    Abstract: A photocathode for an image intensifier tube includes a faceplate, a glass plate disposed opposite the faceplate, and a span having one end attached to the glass plate and the other end attached to the faceplate for forming a sealed chamber between the faceplate and the glass plate. A semiconductor layer is bonded to a surface of the glass plate, where the surface is disposed outside of the sealed chamber. The semiconductor layer forms a photocathode. A thermal electric cooler (TEC) is disposed inside the sealed chamber for cooling the photocathode. The faceplate is formed from sapphire material. The glass plate is formed from high conductivity glass. The span is formed from either high conductivity glass or low conductivity glass. The faceplate and the glass plate form a path for light to impinge upon the semiconductor layer, and the photocathode of the semiconductor layer is configured to convert the light into electrons for emission toward an electron gain device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2011
    Assignee: ITT Manufacturing Enterprises, Inc.
    Inventor: Arlynn Walter Smith
  • Patent number: 7928657
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a fine configuration capable of realizing stable detection accuracy. The photomultiplier has a housing whose inside is maintained vacuum, and a photocathode, an electron-multiplier section, and an anode are disposed in the housing. In particular, one or more control electrodes disposed in an internal space of the housing which surrounds the electron-multiplier section and the anode are electrically connected via one or more connection parts extending from an electron emission terminal of the electron-multiplier section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Hitoshi Kishita, Suenori Kimura, Yuji Masuda, Takayuki Ohmura
  • Patent number: 7919921
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a fine structure capable of realizing high multiplication efficiency. The photomultiplier comprises a housing whose inside is maintained vacuum, and, on a device mounting surface which is a part of an inner wall surface defining an internal space of the housing, a photocathode serving as a reflection type photocathode, an electron-multiplier section, an anode, and a voltage distributing section are disposed integrally. In particular, the electron-multiplier section is constituted by dynodes at multiple stages cascade-multiplying photoelectrons from the photocathode, and the voltage distributing section, which applies corresponding voltages to the dynodes at the respective stages respectively, is on the same surface together with the electron-multiplier section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Hitoshi Kishita, Suenori Kimura, Yuji Masuda, Takayuki Ohmura
  • Patent number: 7906754
    Abstract: A vacuum vessel (18) is configured by hermetically joining a faceplate (13) with one end of a side tube (15) and hermetically joining a stem (50) with another end via a ring-shaped side tube (37). Within the vacuum vessel (18), a focus electrode (17), dynodes (Dy1-Dy9), an anode (25), and a dynode (Dy10) are arranged from the side of a photocathode (14) provided to the faceplate (13). The dynode (Dy10) is supported on spacers (33) and a positioning protrusion (31) provided on the stem (50). The anode (25) is placed on support members (21). The focus electrode (17), the dynodes (Dy1-Dy9), and the anode (25) are stacked with inter-layer members (23) interposed therebetween, the inter-layer members (23) being located coaxially with the support members (21), to ensure high anti-vibration performance. Because the anode (25) and the dynode (Dy10) have no insulating body therebetween, light emission is suppressed and noises can be reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hideki Shimoi, Kazuhiro Hara, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 7906725
    Abstract: An object is to sufficiently keep the airtightness in a vacuum container even when it is made smaller. A photomultiplier tube 1 comprises a flat sheet-like lower substrate 4, a casing-like frame 3b erected on the lower substrate 4, an upper substrate 2 including a frame 3a airtightly joined to an opening part of the frame 3b while holding a low-melting metal therebetween, and a frame-like projection 25b arranged in parallel with the frame 3b on the inner side of the frame 3b on the lower substrate 4.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K. K.
    Inventors: Hideki Shimoi, Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 7902509
    Abstract: A vacuum vessel is configured by hermetically joining a faceplate to one end of a side tube and a stem to the other end via a tubular member. A photocathode, a focusing electrode, dynodes, a drawing electrode, and anodes are arranged within the vacuum vessel. The dynodes and the anodes have a plurality of channels in association with each other. The drawing electrode is placed on electrically-conductive supporting pins penetrating the stem. The dynodes are stacked with insulating members interposed between one another. Since the supporting pins and the insulating members are arranged coaxially, each electrode can be fixed by applying pressure in z-axis direction. At the same time, emission of light between the anodes and the drawing electrode can be suppressed, thereby enabling noise to be reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hideki Shimoi, Katsuma Nagai, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 7888647
    Abstract: X-ray detector assemblies and related computed tomography systems are provided. In this regard, a representative X-ray detector assembly includes: a scintillator assembly having a scintillation component and an optical fiber; the scintillation component being operative to emit light responsive to X-rays being incident thereon; the optical fiber being positioned to receive light emitted from the scintillation component.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2011
    Assignee: United Technologies Corp.
    Inventors: Rodney H. Warner, Royce McKim
  • Patent number: 7880385
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier having a fine structure capable of realizing high detection accuracy by effectively suppressing cross talk among electron-multiplier channels. The photomultiplier comprises a housing whose inside is maintained vacuum, and, in the housing, a photocathode, an electron-multiplier section, and anodes are disposed. The electron-multiplier section has groove portions for cascade-multiplying photoelectrons as electron-multiplier channels, and the anodes are constituted by channel electrodes corresponding to the groove portions respectively defined by wall parts. In particular, at least parts of the respective channel electrodes are located in spaces sandwiched between pairs of wall parts defining the corresponding groove portions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Hitoshi Kishita, Suenori Kimura, Yuji Masuda, Takayuki Ohmura
  • Patent number: 7876033
    Abstract: An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a stem portion made of quartz and formed with an opening; a lid portion connected to the stem portion via a joining member made of aluminum so as to seal the opening, having a recess portion depressed to a vacuum side in the opening, and made of Kovar; a voltage applying section arranged in the vacuum vessel; and wiring for electrically connecting the voltage applying section and the lid portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Tomohiro Ishizu, Yasuyuki Egawa, Atsuhito Fukasawa, Motohiro Suyama
  • Patent number: 7867807
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a manufacturing method of obtaining a photoelectric converting device which can sufficiently maintain airtightness of a housing space for photocathode without degradation of the characteristics of the photocathode. In accordance with the manufacturing method, on the side wall end face of a lower frame and a bonding portion of an upper frame forming an envelope of the photoelectric converting device, a multilayered metal film of chromium and nickel is formed. In a vacuum space decompressed to a predetermined degree of vacuum and having a temperature not more than the melting point of indium, these upper and lower frames introduced therein are brought into close contact with each other with a predetermined pressure while sandwiching indium wire members, and accordingly, an envelope having a housing space whose airtightness is sufficiently maintained is obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hitoshi Kishita, Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Keisuke Inoue
  • Patent number: 7855510
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube includes: a cathode, a plurality of dynodes, and an electron lens forming electrode. The cathode emits electrons in response to incident light. The plurality of dynodes multiplies electrons emitted from the cathode. The electron lens forming the electrode is disposed in a prescribed position in relation to an edge of a first dynode positioned in a first stage from the cathode and an edge of a second dynode positioned in a second stage from the cathode, and smoothes an equipotential surface in a space between the first dynode and the second dynode along a longitudinal direction of the first dynode. This structure improves time resolution in response to incident light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 21, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Takayuki Ohmura, Suenori Kimura, Masuo Ito
  • Patent number: 7847232
    Abstract: A vacuum vessel is configured by hermetically joining a faceplate to one end of a side tube and a stem to the other end via a tubular member. A photocathode, a focusing electrode, dynodes, a drawing electrode, and anodes are arranged within the vacuum vessel. The tubular member is disposed on the periphery of the stem, and supporting pins and lead pins penetrate and are fixed to an extending section that protrudes from the tubular member. The supporting pins and the lead pins are arranged in cutout portions of the dynodes and the drawing electrode, thereby allowing effective areas of each electrode to be enlarged. Further, protuberant sections are formed on the connecting sections of each pin with the stem, thereby facilitating thickness control of the stem.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hideki Shimoi, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 7821203
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier that realizes significant improvement of response time properties with a structure enabling mass production. The photomultiplier comprises a sealed container, and the sealed container includes a hollow body section, extending along a tube axis, and a faceplate. The faceplate has a light incidence surface and a light emission surface on which a photocathode is formed. In particular, the light emission surface is constituted by a flat region, and a curved-surface processed region that is positioned at a periphery of the flat region and that includes edges of the light emission surface. A surface shape of the peripheral region of the light emission surface of the faceplate is thus intentionally changed in order to adjust the angles of emission of photoelectrons from the photocathode positioned at the peripheral region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 26, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Takayuki Ohmura, Suenori Kimura, Masuo Ito, Teruhiko Yamaguchi
  • Patent number: 7812298
    Abstract: The invention relates to a photomultiplier (10) with a fastening device, where the photomultiplier (10) has a solid cylindrical body, particularly a glass body (11), and a tubular jacket, a light inlet (12) on the front end and connecting contacts (14) on the back end, and where the fastening device has a socket (20) on the front end and a plug contact (30) resting on the connecting contacts (14) on the back end, and where a force-fitting and form-fitting connection is produced between the plug contact (30) and the socket (20) by means of a connecting component (40).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2010
    Assignee: Vega Grieshaber KG
    Inventors: Frank Becherer, Winfried Rauer, Ralf Körnle
  • Patent number: 7812532
    Abstract: A vacuum vessel is configured by hermetically joining a faceplate to one end of a side tube and a stem to the other end via a tubular member. A photocathode, a focusing electrode, dynodes, a drawing electrode, and anodes are arranged within the vacuum vessel. The dynodes and the anodes have a plurality of channels in association with each other. Each electrode has cutout portions that overlap in a stacking direction, and supporting pins and lead pins are arranged in the cutout portions. A bridge is provided in a concave section arranged between unit anodes, and the bridge is cut off after the anode plate is placed on stem pins. Effective areas of each electrode and the anode are secured sufficiently, thereby allowing electrons to be detected efficiently.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hideki Shimoi, Koji Nagura, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Publication number: 20100253218
    Abstract: In the photocathode, an underlayer made of a crystalline material containing La2O3 is provided between a supporting substrate and a photoelectron emission layer, and is in contact with the photoelectron emission layer. Therefore, for example, at the time of heat treatment in a manufacturing process of the photocathode, dispersion to the supporting substrate side of an alkali metal contained in the photoelectron emission layer is suppressed. Further, it is assumed that this underlayer functions so as to reverse the direction of, out of photoelectrons e— generated within the photoelectron emission layer, photoelectrons traveling toward the supporting substrate side to the side opposite thereto.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 1, 2010
    Publication date: October 7, 2010
    Applicant: HAMAMATSU PHOTONICS K.K
    Inventors: Shinichi YAMASHITA, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Hiroshi Komiyama
  • Patent number: 7786445
    Abstract: A side tube includes a tube head, a funnel-shaped connection neck, and a tube main body, which are arranged along a tube axis and which are integrated together into the side tube. The size of a cross section of the tube head perpendicular to the tube axis is larger than the size of a cross section of the tube main body perpendicular to the tube axis. The radius of curvature of rounded corners of the tube head is smaller than the radius of curvature of rounded corners of the tube main body. The length of the tube head along the tube axis is shorter than the length of the tube main body along the tube axis. One surface of a faceplate is connected to the tube head. A photocathode is formed on the surface of the faceplate in its area located inside the tube head.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 31, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Teruhiko Yamaguchi, Suenori Kimura, Minoru Suzuki, Yoshitaka Nakamura
  • Patent number: 7772771
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an alkali metal generating agent and others for formation of a photo-cathode or a secondary-electron emitting surface capable of stably generating an alkali metal. The alkali metal generating agent is used in formation of a photo-cathode for emitting a photoelectron corresponding to incident light, or in formation of a secondary-electron emitting surface for emitting secondary electrons corresponding to an incident electron. Particularly, the alkali metal generating agent contains at least an oxidizer comprising at least one vanadate with an alkali metal ion as a counter cation, and a reducer for reducing the ion. An alkali metal generating device comprises at least the alkali metal generating agent and a case housing it, and the case is provided with a discharge port for discharging the vapor of the alkali metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 16, 2004
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Takashi Watanabe, Yoshiro Akai, Shirou Sakai
  • Patent number: 7741759
    Abstract: A photomultiplier tube 1 is an electron tube comprising an envelope 5 including a frame 3b having at least one end part formed with an opening and an upper substrate 2 airtightly joined to the opening, and a photocathode 6 contained within the envelope 5, the photocathode 6 emitting a photoelectron into the envelope 5 in response to light incident thereon from the outside; wherein multilayer metal films 10b, 10a each constituted by a metal film made of titanium, a metal film made of platinum, and a metal film made of gold laminated in this order are formed at the opening and the joint part between the upper substrate 2 and opening; and wherein the frame 3b and upper side substrate 2 are joined to each other by holding a joint layer 14 containing indium between the respective multilayer metal films 10b, 10a.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 22, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Sugiyama, Keisuke Inoue, Hitoshi Kishita, Hideki Shimoi, Hiroyuki Kyushima
  • Patent number: 7687992
    Abstract: A gating large area hybrid photomultiplier tube that includes an envelope, a photocathode for emitting electrons in correspondence with incident light entering the envelope, a collecting anode having a semiconductor device which has an electron incident surface for receiving photoelectrons emitted from the photocathode, a gating grid for gating the photoelectrons emitted from the photocathode, an electron optical system for focusing and directing the photoelectrons generated by the photocathode toward the electron incident surface, and an ion target for collecting positive ions from the photoelectrons. The envelope has a first opening and a second opening; the photocathode is disposed at the first opening, while the collecting anode is disposed at the second opening of the envelope.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2010
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Vincent Michael Contarino, Pavlo Molchanov
  • Publication number: 20100066245
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electron multiplying structure for use in a vacuum tube using electron multiplying, the electron multiplying structure comprising an input face intended to be oriented in a facing relationship with an entrance window of the vacuum tube, an output face intended to be oriented in a facing relationship with a detection surface of the vacuum tube, as well as an ion barrier membrane for shielding off stray ions. The invention also relates to an vacuum tube using electron multiplying having a photocathode capable of releasing electrons into said vacuum chamber when exposed to light, electric field means for accelerating said released electrons from said photocathode towards an anode spaced apart from said photocathode in a facing relationship, as well as an electron multiplying structure according to the invention disposed in said vacuum chamber between said photocathode and said anode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 14, 2009
    Publication date: March 18, 2010
    Inventor: Jan VAN SPIJKER
  • Patent number: 7667400
    Abstract: Back-illuminated silicon photomultipliers having a substrate of a first conductivity type having front and back sides, a matrix of regions of a second conductivity type in the substrate, a matrix of regions of the first conductivity type under the matrix of regions of the second conductivity type and adjacent the back side of the substrate, with the bottom of the matrix of regions of the second conductivity type forming a p/n junction with the substrate or a matrix of regions of the second conductivity type, the matrix of regions of the first conductivity type having a higher conductivity than the substrate, a common anode formed by a uniform layer of the first conductivity type of higher conductivity than the substrate on the back side of the substrate. Preferably a plurality of trenches filed with an opaque material are provided in the back side of the substrate, the substrate preferably having a thickness of less than approximately 150 um.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2010
    Assignee: Array Optronix, Inc.
    Inventor: Alexander O. Goushcha
  • Patent number: 7667399
    Abstract: A large area hybrid photomultiplier tube that includes a photocathode for emitting photoelectrons in correspondence with incident light, a semiconductor device having an electron incident surface for receiving photoelectrons from the photocathode, and a cone shaped container. The container has a first opening and a second opening. The photocathode is disposed at the first opening, and the semiconductor device is disposed at the second opening.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: February 23, 2010
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Vincent Michael Contarino, Pavlo Molchanov
  • Patent number: 7649163
    Abstract: An extension line of a tube axis of a photomultiplier tube is shifted from the center of gravity position of a front surface of a housing, which allows a space to be formed at an opposite side in the housing. A signal processing board is arranged in this space, and a high-voltage generating circuit board is fixed on the extension line of the tube axis, and thus the interior space of a housing can be effectively used. Since the signal processing board can be made adjacent to a tube wall of the photomultiplier tube, even when the length in a tube axis direction of the signal processing board is long, it becomes possible to house the same in the housing. Therefore, it becomes possible to achieve miniaturization.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 1, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 19, 2010
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventor: Takanori Nakaya
  • Patent number: 7602122
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a photomultiplier of a fine structure that realizes a high multiplier efficiency. The photomultiplier comprises an outer casing whose interior is maintained at vacuum, and, in the outer case, a photocathode that emits photoelectrons in response to incident light, an electron multiplier section that performs cascade multiplication of the photoelectrons emitted from the photocathode, and an anode for taking out secondary electrons, which are generated at the electron multiplier section, are arranged. In particular, groove portions for performing cascade multiplication of electrons from the photocathode are provided in the electron multiplier section, and on the respective surfaces of each pair of wall portions that define the groove portions are provided with one or more protrusions each having a secondary electron emitting surface formed on the surface thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2009
    Assignee: Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kyushima, Hideki Shimoi, Akihiro Kageyama, Keisuke Inoue, Masuo Ito