By Suspension Of Metal Oxide Or Hydroxide Particles In Liquid Patents (Class 423/225)
  • Patent number: 7628966
    Abstract: The present invention is a process for removing hydrogen sulfide gas from natural gas by contacting a flow of sour natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide gas with a scavenging agent including a group IIA metal hydroxide such as calcium hydroxide for a sufficient amount of time to form calcium sulfide and water to yield natural gas that is substantially depleted of hydrogen sulfide gas. Sour natural gas may be percolated through a column containing a scavenging agent such as calcium hydroxide suspended as a fine particulate in water or a bed of dry calcium hydroxide granules. The scavenging agent may be periodically or continuously replenished with fresh scavenging agent rich in the selected group IIA metal hydroxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 24, 2004
    Date of Patent: December 8, 2009
    Assignee: American Energies Corporation, Inc.
    Inventor: Michael Wayne Sigel
  • Patent number: 7591985
    Abstract: In one aspect, the crude gas is contacted with a cold caustic solution to reduce levels of carbon dioxide and water. The partially purified gas is chilled in direct-contact with a hydrogen refrigerant to induce homogenous condensation of water impurity. Liquid and ice particles formed by lower temperatures are removed across an aerosol phase separating medium to produce a cooled and partially purified gas mixture which is further dried and de-carbonated across a zeolitic molecular sieve adsorbent to achieve very low concentrations of moisture and carbon dioxide in the bulk gas. In one aspect, the purified gas mixture obtained is partially liquefied, phase-separated and distilled to obtain germanium hydride, digermanium hexahydride and hydrogen gas as products. A portion of the hydrogen product can be compressed, chilled and re-used as a direct-contact refrigerant in the purification process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 22, 2009
    Assignee: Metaloid Precursors, Inc.
    Inventor: Mathias Tezock
  • Patent number: 7550127
    Abstract: A method for effectively absorbing and removing CO2 in an exhaust gas generated during an industrial process for reducing the amount of CO2 that is exhausted into the atmosphere. The exhaust gas containing CO2 is blown into an agglomerate of solid particles containing CaO and/or Ca(OH)2 so that the CO2 is in contact with the agglomerate for fixing the CO2 in the exhaust gas as CaCO3, thereby reducing the CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas. Preferably, the solid particles contain water, and more preferably, the solid particles contain surface adhesive water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2009
    Assignee: JFE Steel Corporation
    Inventors: Tatsuhito Takahashi, Tsuneo Isoo, Makoto Kato, Haruyoshi Tanabe
  • Publication number: 20090087898
    Abstract: The instant invention presents improved means for sequestering COX and/or NOX in the aqueous phase of a gas scrubber. The instant invention presents means for the scrubbing of COX and/or NOX gas by chemically assimilating at least one of COX and NOX. The instant invention presents means for concentrating the COX and/or the NOX in the aqueous phase by creating a metal salt comprising the COX and/or the NOX. To control salt deposition, the instant invention presents means of chemical dispersion so that salt deposition can be controlled and the aqueous phase can become an efficient and effective carrier of the COX and/or the NOX. Means of controlling sulfide and sulfate emissions are presented incorporating sulfur consuming bacteria.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 8, 2008
    Publication date: April 2, 2009
    Inventors: Richard Alan Haase, Candice Marie Haase
  • Patent number: 7488461
    Abstract: An exhaust gas treatment system is provided that can sufficiently remove pollutants such as SO3 contained in combustion exhaust gas at low cost. In the exhaust gas treatment system for removing pollutants such as SO3 contained in combustion exhaust gas, there is provided dissolved salt aqueous solution sprays 35A, 35B, and 35C, that spray an Na2SO4 aqueous solution obtained from desulfurization effluent of a wet desulfurization system, into a flue though which the combustion exhaust gas flows.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2006
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2009
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiromitsu Nagayasu, Yasutoshi Ueda, Morio Kagami, Toshihide Noguchi
  • Patent number: 7476372
    Abstract: A method for reducing acid gases in a flue gas, the method comprising reacting biosolids comprising a scrubbing agent with a flue gas comprising an acid gas, thereby reducing the amount of acid gas in the flue gas is disclosed. Also disclosed is a flue gas scrubbing process comprising: combusting a fossil fuel and biosolids comprising a scrubbing agent, thereby producing a flue gas comprising an acid gas, wherein the flue gas has a reduced amount of acid gas compared with flue gas produced from the combustion of the fossil filet alone. A flue gas scrubbing process comprising providing a stream of biosolids that includes a hydroxide or an oxide of a Group IA or IIA element, providing a flue gas comprising an acid gas, and reacting the biosolids stream with the flue gas so as to reduce the amount of acid gas in the flue gas is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2009
    Assignee: Holloman Corporation
    Inventor: Eric Prim
  • Patent number: 7427383
    Abstract: A method and system for removing hydrogen sulfide from gaseous process streams, such as sour gas streams are disclosed and described. A gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide can be contacted with an aqueous silicon-containing composition under high shear conditions to form a sweetened gaseous product. The gaseous product has significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide content and recovered liquid and solid filtrates are generally non-toxic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2006
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2008
    Assignee: Nestco LLC
    Inventor: Ignacio Cisneros
  • Patent number: 7378068
    Abstract: The present invention includes a process for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from hydrogen sulfide gas containing gaseous streams. In one embodiment, the process comprises feeding a sulfide ion containing solution to an oxidation unit. The method further comprises feeding an oxidizing gas to the oxidation unit and contacting the sulfide ion containing solution with the oxidizing gas under sufficient conditions to form a polysulfide solution comprising polysulfide and hydroxide ions. In addition, the process comprises mixing the polysulfide containing solution with a hydrogen sulfide gas under conditions sufficient for absorption of hydrogen sulfide and precipitation of sulfur from the polysulfide containing solution. In some embodiments, the process comprises separating the precipitated sulfur from liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 1, 2005
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2008
    Assignee: ConocoPhillips Company
    Inventors: Zhenhua Mao, Shang Y. Chen
  • Publication number: 20070280868
    Abstract: A method and system for removing hydrogen sulfide from gaseous process streams, such as sour gas streams are disclosed and described. A gaseous stream containing hydrogen sulfide can be contacted with an aqueous silicon-containing composition under high shear conditions to form a sweetened gaseous product. The gaseous product has significantly reduced hydrogen sulfide content and recovered liquid and solid filtrates are generally non-toxic.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 5, 2006
    Publication date: December 6, 2007
    Inventor: Ignacio Cisneros
  • Patent number: 7282189
    Abstract: Methods for reducing and eliminating carbon dioxide from the emissions of solid fuel fired power plants, particularly coal fired power plants, and to sequester the carbon dioxide, typically by using existing equipment. In some embodiments, the methods involve pyrolyzing the solid fuel to remove volatile matter and using the volatile matter to produce hydrogen. Additionally, the methods may involve burning the solid fuel or pyrolized solid fuel at very fuel rich stoichiometric conditions. Sequestration may include the production of a carbon dioxide-containing solution and the pumping of the solution into the ground, particularly in areas high in limestone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2004
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2007
    Inventor: Bert Zauderer
  • Patent number: 7005115
    Abstract: A gas combustion treatment method for the combustion treatment of an ammonia-containing gas and a hydrogen sulfide-containing gas, the method comprising a first combustion treatment step in which the ammonia-containing gas, together with a fuel, is introduced and burned; a nitrogen oxide reduction step downstream of the first combustion treatment step, in which a portion of the hydrogen sulfide-containing gas or the ammonia-containing gas is introduced and the nitrogen oxides produced in the first combustion treatment step are reduced in a reducing atmosphere; and a second combustion treatment step downstream of the nitrogen oxide reduction step, in which the remaining hydrogen sulfide-containing gas, together with air, is introduced and burned. The present invention provides a combustion apparatus suitable for use as a combustion furnace for off-gases resulting from the wet purification of coal gasification gas.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 28, 2006
    Assignees: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Ryoen Technical Service Corp.
    Inventors: Masahiro Harada, Makoto Susaki, Kazuo Ishida, Hajime Nagano, Masahiro Hirano, Hiroshi Suzumura, Shintaro Honjo, Yoshinori Koyama, Katsuhiko Yokohama, Mitsugi Suehiro
  • Publication number: 20040258592
    Abstract: An alternative process whereby the calcium sulphide formed in an IGCC system from calcium oxide and/or calcium carbonate can be safely and more or less quantitatively converted by reaction with carbon dioxide to calcium carbonate and/or calcium oxide together with sulphur dioxide. The calcium oxide and/or calcium carbonate can be reused in the IGCC system, and the sulphur dioxide can be converted to a useful product, such as sulphuric acid. One result of this process is that since the furnace ashes do not contain a significant level of calcium sulphide, they can be safely disposed of in a land fill site.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 23, 2003
    Publication date: December 23, 2004
    Inventors: Edward J. Anthony, Kuanrong Qiu
  • Patent number: 6800259
    Abstract: Methods to control hydrogen sulfide and/or arsine emissions are described. The method involves adding at least one copper compound (such as a copper(II) compound) to the material, such as material containing sulfur in a sufficient amount to control said emissions. The material that is treated with the copper compound(s) is preferably an ore, such as a valve metal containing ore.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 5, 2004
    Assignee: Cabot Corporation
    Inventor: Robert A. Hard
  • Publication number: 20040109802
    Abstract: A process of using sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions to remove SO3 and other acidic gases or vapors from a flue gas without substantially decreasing the amount of sulfur dioxide also present in the flue gas. Very limited quantities of such solutions are injected into the flue gas in a manner that achieves a controlled droplet size, such that the solution dries on contact with the flue gas and the resulting dry particles of sodium carbonate/bicarbonate are sufficiently small as to have adequate surface area for reacting with SO3, as well as any H2 SO4 and, to some extent, HCl vapors in the flue gas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 5, 2002
    Publication date: June 10, 2004
    Inventors: Frank B. Meserole, Robert E. Moser, James H. Wilhelm
  • Publication number: 20030103885
    Abstract: BF3 CO2 or both are removed from a mixture containing these gases with B2H6 by contacting the mixture with an inorganic hydroxide such as LiOH. B2H6 is synthesized by contacting BF3 with KBH4.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 12, 2002
    Publication date: June 5, 2003
    Applicant: Honeywell Intellectual Properties, Inc.
    Inventor: Dalbir S. Rajoria
  • Patent number: 6030591
    Abstract: A process for recovery of fluorocompound gas from an effluent gas stream containing the fluorocompound gas and other gas components, in which at least one of the other gas components is removed, e.g., by oxidation or contacting of the effluent stream with a dry material such as an adsorbent or scrubber medium, to yield a first effluent gas mixture containing the fluorocompound gas. The fluorocompound gas is removed from the first effluent gas mixture and recovered as a concentrated fluorocompound gas, by a process such as cryogenic processing, membrane separation, and/or adsorption.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 29, 2000
    Assignee: ATMI Ecosys Corporation
    Inventors: Glenn M. Tom, H. Eric Fisher, W. Karl Olander
  • Patent number: 5993760
    Abstract: A process for removing parts-per-million quantities of unwanted species such as oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide and water from a cryogenically produced nitrogen gas stream using an oxygen removal step prior to a nickel-based catalytic adsorption step in order to eliminate the need for hydrogen regeneration in either step. Ultrapure nitrogen heated to less than 500.degree. C. is used to purge and hold the beds used for unwanted species removal, eliminating the need for hydrogen regeneration thus reducing the regeneration cycle time and cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 1997
    Date of Patent: November 30, 1999
    Assignee: Air Products and Chemicals, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas Hsiao-Ling Hsiung, John Bruce Wallace, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5853681
    Abstract: Absorbents, suitable for absorbing sulphur compounds such as hydrogen sulphide from gases and liquids, in the form of shaped units having an average size within the range 1-10 mm and containing at least 75% by weight of an absorbent material comprising copper carbonate, basic copper carbonate, and/or copper hydroxide. The units preferably have a bulk density of at least 0.9 kg/l, especially at least 1.2 kg/l. The units are preferably agglomerates containing a small amount of a binder such as a cement and may also contain a proportion of alumina to catalyse hydrolysis of carbon-containing sulphur compounds such as carbonyl sulphide or carbon disulphide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1998
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries PLC
    Inventors: Patrick John Denny, Peter John Herbert Carnell, Brian Peter Williams, Cathy Anne Woodroffe, Peter Wood
  • Patent number: 5700438
    Abstract: A process for removing H2S and mercaptans from gas streams. The process comprises contacting such gas streams with an aqueous solution of copper complex of a water soluble amine to form water insoluble copper sulfide and regenerate free water soluble amine. The copper sulfide is removed from the system and recovered. Lastly, additional copper complex of the water soluble amine is formed by reacting the regenerated water soluble amine with a copper compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 5, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1997
    Inventor: John C. Miller
  • Patent number: 5508012
    Abstract: A method is provided for the regeneration of a scavenging compound that has been reacted with hydrogen sulfide. Regeneration is accomplished through the use of calcium oxides and sodium hydroxide. Sodium sulfide is recovered from the regeneration process in a commercially useful form. Calcium oxides are also regenerated in the process, allowing for minimal or no chemical waste.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 1994
    Date of Patent: April 16, 1996
    Assignee: Quaker Chemical Corporation
    Inventor: Edward A. Trauffer
  • Patent number: 5417946
    Abstract: A process for removing Total Reduced Sulfur compounds from a gaseous stream such as those containing natural gas, industrial gas, and digester gas by oxidation with a fine flocculent acidic catalyst slurry which is regenerable during the process by pH adjustment in the absence of added heat. The catalyst slurry comprises MnO.sub.2, Mn.sub.2 O.sub.3, and Mn.sub.3 O.sub.4 having pH in the range from about 0.5 to about 6.5 and is prepared by oxidizing a divalent manganous salt in an aqueous solution having a pH in the range from about 8.0 to about 13.5 with an oxygen-containing gaseous stream.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1993
    Date of Patent: May 23, 1995
    Assignee: Shell Oil Company
    Inventors: Charles C. Chou, Chaoliang Yao
  • Patent number: 5205908
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a process for the separation of sulphur and sodium compounds from a hot process gas generated during gasification of spent liquor from the kraft pulping industry, through contact with hydrogen sulphide ion and hydroxide ion containing alkaline liquids in two or more stages, whereby the process gas in a first stage passes through a venturi throat and/or liquid trap where it is brought into contact with an alkaline washing liquid, whereby melt droplets in the process gas are separated from the gas flow and drawn off as an aqueous solution, whereby the process gas in a subsequent washing stage is brought into contact with a finely dispersed washing liquid containing hydroxide ions and hydrogen sulphide ions with a molar ratio greater than 4:1.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 1991
    Date of Patent: April 27, 1993
    Assignee: Chemrec Aktiebolag
    Inventors: Lars Stigsson, Nils Bernhard
  • Patent number: 5147620
    Abstract: A process for removing hydrogen sulfide from natural gas and other gas streams. By passing a natural gas or other gas stream having a hydrogen sulfide (H.sub.2 S) component through an aqueous solution of copper (II) ions (Cu.sup.++), the hydrogen sulfide component is converted to copper sulfide (CuS). The copper (II) ion solution is prepared by admixing powdered copper (Cu) with an aqueous solution of nitric acid (HNO.sub.3). The copper (II) ion solution is regenerated from the copper sulfide by treatment with nitric acid which liberates nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The nitrogen dioxide is used to generate nitric acid for the copper sulfide regeneration stage. In another aspect, a reaction vessel is provided which includes a centrally disposed circulation tube that enhances the mass transfer and circulation characteristics of gas purification processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1992
    Assignee: Linko Enterprises, Inc.
    Inventor: Istvan K. Rozsa
  • Patent number: 5100633
    Abstract: Method of treatment of a hot exhaust gas stream containing acid forming pollutants to produce a scrubbed exhaust and useful or benign by-products. The gas stream is first passed through a heat exchanger and then reacted with an aqueous, alkaline scrubbing solution. After the reaction the solution, now containing dissolved salts with a precipitate of any insolubles, is passed through the heat exchanger wherein it is heated by the gas stream to remove water therefrom, thereby crystallizing the dissolved salts, and wherein it serves to cool and dehumidify the gas stream in a manner to remove heat and collect water therefrom prior to its reacting with the scrubbing solution. Any remaining insolubles are non-toxic or useful, e.g. as cement kiln feed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 1990
    Date of Patent: March 31, 1992
    Assignee: Passamaquoddy Technology Limited Partnership
    Inventor: Garrett L. Morrison
  • Patent number: 5096690
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for manufacturing silver halide grains wherein a water-soluble silver salt solution and a water-soluble halide solution are separately introduced within a hollow cylindrical structure open at each end which is rotatable mounted about its longitudinal axis within a reaction vessel containing a colloidal aqueous solution. The colloidal aqueous solution within the cylindrical structure is stirred and mixed during the addition of the silver salt solution and halide solution and the silver halide grains which form within the cylindrical structure are immediately discharged into the colloidal aqueous solution between the outer circumference of the cylindrical structure and the reaction vessel through slits in the circumference of the cylindrical structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 17, 1992
    Assignee: Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Hirokazu Saito
  • Patent number: 4968488
    Abstract: An integrated system for the derivation of useful energy from impure steam and/or use in connection therewith, said steam containing both hydrogen sulfide and an alkaline acting component, such as ammonia, while producing liquid-phase and gaseous-phase effluents from condensation of the impure steam and substantially reducing the emission of sulfur-containing compounds to the environment. Treatment of such effluents to selectively react or bind alkaline acting components in the liquid-phase results in an augmented concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gaseous-phase and its depletion in the liquid-phase. The gaseous-phase comprising noncondensable gas contaminants and uncondensed water vapor is separated from the liquid-phase steam condensate and treated to remove hydrogen sulfide to produce an environmentally acceptable vent gas which may be discharged to the atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 1984
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1990
    Inventor: Jerome S. Spevack
  • Patent number: 4968502
    Abstract: The invention described herein discloses the use of silica gel as a catalyst for the efficient oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur by nitric oxide. Concomitantly, this catalyst also promotes the hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide to carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, which then can be oxidized further by nitric oxide in the same reactor to produce elemental a sulfur. This process is designed for application in coal combustion and coal-gasification processes as a replacement for the presently available and practiced expensive methods and means for gas purification and catalytic liquid-phase conversion of these gases to sulfur.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 1989
    Date of Patent: November 6, 1990
    Assignee: Tennessee Valley Authority
    Inventor: Robert J. Radel
  • Patent number: 4961805
    Abstract: A preheater assembly for softening a selected portion of plastic stock material prior to severing and edge sealing is disclosed. The preheater assembly includes a pair of opposed preheaters, each having a heater tip connected to a source of heated air. The air flows through the tip to maintain it at a preselected temperature. The preheaters are mounted on opposite sides of the stock material for motion toward the material to engage it on opposite sides to heat and soften it, and away from the material to release it. Clamp elements engage the stock material during the heating and softening process.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1990
    Assignee: Com-Pac International, Inc.
    Inventor: Lester D. Siebert
  • Patent number: 4923688
    Abstract: A wet scrubber process for removing Total Reduced Sulfur compounds and non-magnetic entrained particulates from an industrial gas is described which employs an aqueous absorbent slurry containing manganese dioxide absorbent particles. Scrubbing of the industrial gas with the absorbent slurry is followed by regeneration and recirculation of the aqueous absorbent slurry and magnetic separation to recover the non-magnetic entrained particulates separate from the manganese dioxide absorbent particles which are recycled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 1985
    Date of Patent: May 8, 1990
    Inventor: Joseph Iannicelli
  • Patent number: 4921682
    Abstract: Processes for the removal of hydrogen sulphide from gas streams and for the regeneration of spent scrubbing liquor used in an absorber to remove hydrogen sulphide from a gas stream, are disclosed. In the former process, hydrogen sulphide is removed by five-valent oxovanadium which is simultaneously reduced to its four-valent state, the precipitation of which is prevented by having a sufficiently high concentration of total alkalinity present in the scrubbing solution. In the latter process the four-valent oxovanadium is oxidized to its five-valent state, preferably by an oxygen-containing gas, and a suffficently high concentration of total alkalinity is provided in the scrubbing liquor to yield a desired re-oxidation rate of the four-valent oxovanadium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 1, 1990
    Assignee: Sasol Operations (Pty) Ltd.
    Inventors: Robert De Haan, Mark E. Dry, Flemming H. Dressler, Horst J. F. A. Hesse, Sonet Vermaire
  • Patent number: 4919914
    Abstract: Hydrogen sulphide is removed from gas streams in rapid and efficient manner by oxidation to sulphur. The process is effected by intimately contacting the hydrogen sulphide in the gas stream with oxygen in an aqueous medium containing a hydrogen sulphide-oxidizing catalyst to effect oxidation of the hydrogen sulphide to sulphur, and transporting the sulphur particles to the surface of the aqueous medium. The sulphur particles collect on the surface of the aqueous medium and may be removed therefrom continuously or intermittently.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 14, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1990
    Assignee: 780863 Ontario Limited
    Inventors: James W. Smith, Robert A. Barton, Cyril H. Knight, deceased
  • Patent number: 4919904
    Abstract: Disclosed are primary sterically hindered aminoacids for use as promoters for alkali metal salts in acid gas scrubbing. The primary sterically hindered aminoacid is selected from 1-amino-cyclopentane carboxylic acid and those represented by the formula: ##STR1## where R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are independently selected from CH.sub.3, C.sub.2 H.sub.5, and C.sub.3 H.sub.7 ; R.sub.3 and R.sub.4 are independently selected from hydrogen and CH.sub.3 ; and n is 0, 2, or 3.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 1988
    Date of Patent: April 24, 1990
    Assignee: Exxon Research and Engineering Company
    Inventors: Larry J. Shulik, Guido Sartori, W. S. Winston Ho, Warren Thaler, George E. Milliman
  • Patent number: 4835043
    Abstract: Adding sodium sulfite in the slurry of the iron oxide slurry process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,246,244, eliminates excessive foaming on start-up, stabilizes the suspension of the oxide particles in the slurry, lessens clogging of reacted particles, which otherwise interferes with cleaning out the reactor vessel, and so materially buffers the slurry as to minimize corrosion of the reactor vessel and piping. Further, adding small amounts of oxygen to the gas stream, which would be expected to cause corrosion, does not do so; instead it prolongs the usefulness of the reactant oxide particles and affords increased acid-stability to the reaction products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 10, 1986
    Date of Patent: May 30, 1989
    Inventors: Irwin Fox, Alvin Samuels
  • Patent number: 4729835
    Abstract: Organic sulphides are extremely malodorous compounds that are found in gaseous or aqueous effluents from many industries such as paper and pulp manufacture, hydrocarbon refinering, tanneries, and in the synthesis of organic sulphur compounds. Their removal is necessary before such effluents can be discharged into the environment.In the present invention their removal is effected using hydrogen peroxide at a pH controlled to pH 8.5 to 11.5 and in the presence of a catalytic amount of a soluble tungstate. Such a process is especially applicable to the removal of dialkyl disulphides, which are regarded as being especially difficult to remove oxidatively. In especially preferred conditions, the pH is about pH 11 and about 3-4 moles H.sub.2 O.sub.2 is used per mole equivalent of sulphur, in the presence of at least 20 ppm sodium tungstate (as W).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 24, 1986
    Date of Patent: March 8, 1988
    Assignee: Interox Chemicals Limited
    Inventors: Alastair McNeillie, David B. Mobbs
  • Patent number: 4722766
    Abstract: Materials are described which not only extinguish fires or suppress explosions but also remove at least part of any carbon monoxide which may remain after such prior extinguishing or explosion suppressing. Examples of suitable fire extinguishants and explosion suppressants are halocarbons such as bromotrifluoromethane. The carbon monoxide removing substance may comprise Hopcalite catalysts. Other examples of suitable substances are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1988
    Assignee: Graviner Limited
    Inventor: David J. Spring
  • Patent number: 4722799
    Abstract: A desulphurization apparatus and method for natural gas in which red iron oxide is reacted with the sulphur compounds found in natural gas to remove these compounds from the gas. The treating solution is then recycled to regenerate the red iron oxide solution with elemental sulphur formed as a byproduct for removal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 1985
    Date of Patent: February 2, 1988
    Inventors: Clifford L. Ashbrook, Douglas B. Scarborough
  • Patent number: 4716027
    Abstract: This invention relates to an apparatus and method for simultaneously scrubbing acidic exhaust gases and removing metal salts from alkaline waste dust from a cement plant or the like thereby producing useful products from what would otherwise be wasted. In essence the two wastes are combined in water and the resulting solution and precipitate separated in a tank. The solution is useful both to cool incoming waste gas and as a fertilizer, whilst the precipitate is suitable as kiln feed stock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1986
    Date of Patent: December 29, 1987
    Assignee: Passamaquoddy Tribe, A Sovereign Indian tribe recognized by the Government of The United States of America
    Inventor: Garrett L. Morrison
  • Patent number: 4696802
    Abstract: Geothermal wells are drilled and the raw steam containing H.sub.2 S gas and debris that is released is treated with an aqueous solution containing ferric chelate and one or more water soluble cationic polymeric catalysts to remove substantially all of the H.sub.2 S and the debris is removed in a settling zone. The polymeric catalysts accelerate the oxidation of sulfide ions to sulfur solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1987
    Assignee: The Dow Chemical Company
    Inventor: Stephen A. Bedell
  • Patent number: 4596698
    Abstract: Certain impure steams, especially those from geothermal sources, are contaminated with gaseous substances such as hydrogen sulfide, ammomia, carbon dioxide, substances comprising boron, arsenic and mercury, other gases, as well as finely divided particulate solid matter in a form resembling dust or smoke. These contaminants reduce the efficiency of the steam as a heat transfer fluid and are detrimental to equipment utilizing steam as an energy source. Furthermore, discharges from the utilization of such impure steams result in pollution of the environment or necessitate expensive requirements for limiting the same. The present invention describes apparatus wherein so contaminated steam is selectively processed at superatmospheric pressure for removing one or more of said contaminants and, after reduction of its energy content by pressure reduction and/or condensation of the steam, gases substantially free of hydrogen sulfide are discharged to the atmosphere.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: June 24, 1986
    Assignee: Deuterium Corporation
    Inventor: Jerome S. Spevack
  • Patent number: 4505776
    Abstract: A composition is provided which comprises an aqueous alkaline solution of a metal salt and black liquor, the metal salt being selected from the group consisting of iron, chromium, cobalt and nickel salts. This composition is useful in a process described for absorption of hydrogen sulfide from flue gas, followed by subsequent oxidation of dissolved sulfide to thiosulfate, if desired. The presence of the metal ions and black liquor synergistically catalyzes the overall reaction of absorption of hydrogen sulfide, followed by oxidation of the sulfide. Preferably, prior to scrubbing to remove hydrogen sulfide with the solution, the flue gas is first cooled to near its dew point, and then scrubbed with water to remove particulates. Additionally, the effluent flue gas from the absorption step is usefully scrubbed with water to recover heat, following which it is used to scrub condensates from a kraft pulp mill. The metal salt in the solution is preferably an iron salt at a concentration of about 0.002 M.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 1982
    Date of Patent: March 19, 1985
    Assignee: Wescam Services Inc.
    Inventor: Francis E. Murray
  • Patent number: 4470961
    Abstract: Certain impure steams, especially those from geothermal sources, are polluted with hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, carbon dioxide, other gases, and finely divided particulate solid matter in a form resembling dust or smoke. These contaminants reduce the efficiency of the steam as a heat transfer fluid, are detrimental to equipment utilizing steam as an energy source, and result in environmental pollution or expensive requirements for limiting the same. Herein so polluted steam is selectively processed in the gaseous state to remove hydrogen sulfide therefrom, with or without removing other pollutants, to recover valuable materials therefrom, and to improve the utility of the steam as an energy source. This is done by contacting a flow of the steam with aqueous fluid reactant media comprising one or more reactive compounds of certain metals electropositive with respect to hydrogen. The valuable materials subsequently may be recovered from said media as useful byproducts. The reactant compounds may be recycled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 11, 1984
    Assignee: Deuterium Corporation
    Inventor: Jerome S. Spevack
  • Patent number: 4469668
    Abstract: An integrated system for the derivation of useful energy from impure steam and/or for use in connection therewith, said steam containing both hydrogen sulfide and an alkaline acting component, such as ammonia, while producing liquid-phase and gaseous-phase effluents from condensation of the impure steam and substantially reducing the emission of sulfur-containing compounds to the environment. Treatment of such effluents to selectively react or bind alkaline acting components in the liquid-phase results in an augmented concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the gaseous-phase and its depletion in the liquid-phase. The gaseous-phase comprising noncondensable gas contaminants and uncondensed water vapor is separated from the liquid-phase steam condensate and treated to remove hydrogen sulfide to produce an environmentally acceptable vent gas which the in part is employed in said treatment of the liquid-phase effluent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1982
    Date of Patent: September 4, 1984
    Inventor: Jerome S. Spevack
  • Patent number: 4400361
    Abstract: A process for removing hydrogen sulfide from sour gas streams is provided wherein the sour gas is passed in cocurrent flow relationship with a liquid alkaline absorption solution containing a vanadium-boron complex characterized by the properties of reacting with the H.sub.2 S thereby oxidizing [HS.sup.- ] to elemental sulfur in conjunction with reduction of the vanadium while the boron constituent is functional to inhibit formation of insoluble vanadium sulfide compounds. Regeneration of the absorption medium by contact with an oxygen containing gas is enhanced by the provision of an iron-polyamine organic acid oxidation catalyst in the absorption liquid. The process is a direct replacement for and may be operated far more economically than conventional Stretford processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1982
    Date of Patent: August 23, 1983
    Assignee: Purtec Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Ronald E. Shafer
  • Patent number: 4337229
    Abstract: A method for the treatment of an effluent gaseous stream from a Kraft Recovery Boiler or the like. The effluent stream passes through a venturi section where nucleation of the particulates is initiated and larger particles collected. Subsequently, the stream flows from the venturi section with the nucleated particulates and is scrubbed to remove the particulates, TRS and sulfur dioxide. A portion of the bottoms from the packed section is recycled back to the venturi section as 15-25% dissolved solids by weight. The total solids of the liquid stream in the venturi section is maintained at 1-5% above saturation. Further concentration of a slipstream is achieved by cyclonic separation or filtration. The pH in the venturi section is controlled to agglomerate the suspended solids. The bottoms from the venturi section are subsequently concentrated externally to the venturi section to between 40-60% solids.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1980
    Date of Patent: June 29, 1982
    Assignee: Teller Environmental Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Aaron J. Teller
  • Patent number: 4324298
    Abstract: Iron oxide particles having a high surface area, a high kinetic K value and composed substantially of amorphous Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and crystalline Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 are drilling mud additives suitable for scavenging hydrogen sulfide. Such particles do not adversely affect the rheological properties of the mud and when reacted with hydrogen sulfide form reaction products which are acid stable. Upon completion of drilling, the drilling mud containing these iron oxide particles and their reaction products with H.sub.2 S may be left in place between the inner casing and the formation wall or the outer casing as a packer fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 1980
    Date of Patent: April 13, 1982
    Assignee: Ironite Products Company
    Inventor: Irwin Fox
  • Patent number: 4276271
    Abstract: An aqueous solution of a zinc salt is used to selectively remove hydrogen sulfide from a gas mixture. An insoluble basic zinc compound is added to the solution to regenerate, or replenish, the salt. A dispersant is added to both decrease the surface tension of the liquid and reduce the degree of hydration of the basic compound, thereby retarding significantly the agglomeration, settling and loss of the basic zinc compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 1979
    Date of Patent: June 30, 1981
    Assignee: Combustion Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: William P. Manning, Stephen J. Rehm, Jeffrey L. Schmuhl
  • Patent number: 4246243
    Abstract: Iron rich dusts created during steelmaking, as in the basic oxygen and open hearth processes, are useful for scavenging hydrogen sulfide. For example, basic oxygen furnace dusts, which are in more abundant supply, are found to consist of fine, nearly spherical particles of iron oxide whose crystalline composition comprises Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4 (major portion) and Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 (minor portion) as seen by X-ray diffraction. Their great surface area makes them highly reactive to hydrogen sulfide gas. Their reaction yields unexpected products, namely, free sulfur and iron hydroxides. According to the present invention such iron rich dusts are used in water slurries through which sour hydrocarbon gas is bubbled, and in water based drilling muds to scavenge hydrogen sulfide encountered in well drilling.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 27, 1978
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1981
    Inventor: Irwin Fox
  • Patent number: 4246244
    Abstract: A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 containing a crystalline phase of Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4 and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 1979
    Date of Patent: January 20, 1981
    Assignee: Gas Sweetener, Inc.
    Inventor: Irwin Fox
  • Patent number: 4244930
    Abstract: Wet separation at high temperatures of acidic impurities from gases. The gases are scrubbed with a melt of an alkali metal compound in which a solid alkaline earth metal compound is dispersed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 1979
    Date of Patent: January 13, 1981
    Inventor: Ekkehard Weber
  • Patent number: RE33031
    Abstract: This invention relates to an apparatus and method for simultaneously scrubbing acidic exhaust gases and removing metal salts from alkaline waste dust from a cement plant or the like thereby producing useful products from what would otherwise be wasted. In essence the two wastes are combined in water and the resulting solution and precipitate separated in a tank. The solution is useful both to cool incoming waste gas and as a fertilizer, whilst the precipitate is suitable as kiln feed stock.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 1988
    Date of Patent: August 22, 1989
    Assignee: Passamaquoddy Tribe, A Sovereign Indian tribe recognized by the Government of The United States of America
    Inventor: Garrett L. Morrison