Coating Is Selenium, Tellurium, Or Compound Thereof Patents (Class 427/76)
  • Patent number: 9575423
    Abstract: An electrophotographic photosensitive member has a photosensitive layer. The photosensitive layer is a multi-layer photosensitive layer having a charge transport layer being an outermost layer or a single-layer photosensitive layer. The amount of silica particles contained in the photosensitive layer is at least 0.5 parts by mass and no greater than 15 parts by mass relative to 100 parts by mass of a binder resin contained in the photosensitive layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 6, 2015
    Date of Patent: February 21, 2017
    Assignee: KYOCERA Document Solutions Inc.
    Inventors: Jun Azuma, Kensuke Okawa, Akihiko Ogata, Takahiro Oki
  • Patent number: 9105797
    Abstract: An ink includes a solution of selenium in ethylene diamine solvent and a solution of at least one metal salt selected from the group consisting of an indium salt or a gallium salt in at least one solvent including an organic amide. The organic amide can include dimethylformamide. The organic amide can include N-methylpyrrolidone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 4, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2015
    Assignee: Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC
    Inventors: Calvin J. Curtis, Peter A. Hersh, Alexander Miedaner, Susan Habas, Maikel van Hest, David S. Ginley
  • Patent number: 8894826
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for forming a thin film of a copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS)-type material are disclosed. The method includes providing first and second targets in a common sputtering chamber. The first target includes a source of CIGS material, such as an approximately stoichiometric polycrystalline CIGS material, and the second target includes a chalcogen, such as selenium, sulfur, tellurium, or a combination of these elements. The second target provides an excess of chalcogen in the chamber. This can compensate, at least in part, for the loss of chalcogen from the CIGS-source in the first target, resulting in a thin film with a controlled stoichiometry which provides effective light absorption when used in a solar cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 17, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 25, 2014
    Inventors: Jesse A. Frantz, Jasbinder S. Sanghera, Robel Y. Bekele, Vinh Q Nguyen, Ishwar D. Aggarwal, Allan J. Bruce, Michael Cyrus, Sergey V. Frolov
  • Publication number: 20140246088
    Abstract: A process for the preparation of a thin film having at least one layer of a predetermined thickness not exceeding 5 microns is provided such that the integrity of the thin film is preserved. The process for the preparation of such a thin film comprises the step of rolling at least one sheet. The step of rolling is preceded by a step of stacking at least one sheet on a substrate having a predetermined thickness. The process of stacking preferably includes the step of bonding at least one sheet to a substrate. The sheet is a metal, alloy or a combination thereof, the metal and the alloy being of metals selected from the groups IB, IIB, IIIA, IVA, IVB, VB and VIB.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 23, 2012
    Publication date: September 4, 2014
    Applicant: RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LIMITED
    Inventors: Uday Agarwal, Swanand Patil
  • Patent number: 8809678
    Abstract: CIGS absorber layers fabricated using coated semiconducting nanoparticles and/or quantum dots are disclosed. Core nanoparticles and/or quantum dots containing one or more elements from group 13 and/or IIIA and/or VIA may be coated with one or more layers containing elements group IB, IIIA or VIA. Using nanoparticles with a defined surface area, a layer thickness could be tuned to give the proper stoichiometric ratio, and/or crystal phase, and/or size, and/or shape. The coated nanoparticles could then be placed in a dispersant for use as an ink, paste, or paint. By appropriate coating of the core nanoparticles, the resulting coated nanoparticles can have the desired elements intermixed within the size scale of the nanoparticle, while the phase can be controlled by tuning the stoichiometry, and the stoichiometry of the coated nanoparticle may be tuned by controlling the thickness of the coating(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2014
    Assignee: aeris CAPITAL Sustainable IP Ltd.
    Inventors: Brian M. Sager, Dong Yu, Matthew R. Robinson
  • Patent number: 8715775
    Abstract: Processes for making a photovoltaic layer on a substrate by depositing a first layer of an ink onto the substrate, wherein the ink contains one or more compounds having the formula MB(ER)3, wherein MB is In, Ga, or Al, E is S or Se, and depositing a second layer of one or more copper chalcogenides or a CIGS material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 6, 2014
    Assignee: Precursor Energetics, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle L. Fujdala, Zhongliang Zhu, Wayne A. Chomitz, Matthew C. Kuchta
  • Patent number: 8709917
    Abstract: A selenium/Group 3a ink, comprising (a) a selenium/Group 3a complex which comprises a combination of, as initial components: a selenium component comprising selenium; a carboxylic acid component having a formula R—COOH, wherein R is selected from a C1-10 alkyl, C1-10 haloalkyl and a C1-10 mercaptoalkyl; a Group 3a complex, comprising at least one Group 3a material selected from aluminum, indium, gallium and thallium complexed with a multidentate ligand; and, (b) a liquid carrier; wherein the selenium/Group 3a complex is stably dispersed in the liquid carrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2014
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials LLC
    Inventors: Kevin Calzia, David Mosley, David L. Thorsen
  • Patent number: 8709860
    Abstract: The object is to improve the conversion efficiency of a photoelectric conversion device. This object can be achieved by a photoelectric conversion device including an electrode and a semiconductor layer which is provided on one main surface of the electrode and contains a I-III-VI group compound semiconductor, wherein the semiconductor layer includes a connection layer that is located at a position on the one main surface side of the electrode and has a tendency that, the closer to the one main surface, the greater a quotient obtained by dividing an amount of substance of a I-B group element by an amount of substance of a III-B group element becomes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2014
    Assignee: KYOCERA Corporation
    Inventors: Shintaro Kubo, Rui Kamada, Yusuke Miyamichi, Shuji Nakazawa
  • Patent number: 8673401
    Abstract: A method for depositing gallium using a gallium ink, comprising, as initial components: a gallium component comprising gallium; a stabilizing component; an additive; and, a liquid carrier; is provided comprising applying the gallium ink on the substrate; heating the applied gallium ink to eliminate the additive and the liquid carrier, depositing gallium on the substrate; and, optionally, annealing the deposited gallium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 18, 2014
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials LLC
    Inventors: David Mosley, David Thorsen
  • Patent number: 8632851
    Abstract: A method of forming an compound semiconductor thin film of chalcopyrite structure includes the steps of heating up elemental VI powder in a first chamber to produce VI vapor flux. The VI vapor flow is introduced into a second chamber and an Argon plasma is utilized to crack large molecular VI fractions to generate small VI species. The small molecule VI species are homogeneously deposited on the metallic I-III precursor layers and the precursor film is sealed into a graphite box and transferred to an annealing chamber to create an absorber layer with a large grain size and good crystalline structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2014
    Assignee: Sun Harmonics Ltd
    Inventors: Yuhang Ren, Zhi Huang, Paifeng Luo, Kai Shum
  • Patent number: 8617642
    Abstract: A preparation method of a CIS-based or CIGS-based thin film for a light absorption layer of a solar cell, which uses a paste prepared by mixing precursors of Cu, In, Se, and optional Ga in a solvent, minimizes the raw material loss, does not produce a toxic gas during the process, and is suitable for producing a large scale film at a low production cost.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Science and Technology
    Inventors: Oh-shim Joo, Byoung Koun Min, Kwang Deog Jung, Jun-haeng Lee
  • Patent number: 8609182
    Abstract: Improved methods and apparatus for forming thin-film layers of chalcogenide on a substrate web. Solutions containing the reactants for the chalcogenide layer may be contained substantially to the front surface of the web, controlling the boundaries of the reaction and avoiding undesired deposition of chalcogenide upon the back side of the web.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 4, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2013
    Assignee: Global Solar Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Jeffrey S. Britt, Scot Albright, Urs Schoop
  • Patent number: 8585936
    Abstract: This invention includes processes for making a photovoltaic absorber layer having a predetermined stoichiometry on a substrate by depositing a precursor having the predetermined stoichiometry onto the substrate and converting the deposited precursor into a photovoltaic absorber material. This invention further includes processes for making a photovoltaic absorber layer having a predetermined stoichiometry on a substrate by (a) providing a polymeric precursor having the predetermined stoichiometry; (b) providing a substrate; (c) depositing the precursor onto the substrate; and (d) heating the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignee: Precursor Energetics, Inc.
    Inventors: Kyle L. Fujdala, Wayne A. Chomitz, Zhongliang Zhu, Matthew C. Kuchta, Qinglan Huang
  • Patent number: 8574685
    Abstract: A thin film and a method of making a thin film. The thin film comprises a patterned substrate, a smooth film of electric field tuned quantum dots solution positioned on the patterned substrate, and a thin layer of metal positioned on the thin film. The method begins by drop-casting a quantum dots solution onto a patterned substrate to create a thin film. While the quantum dots solution is drying, a linearly increasing electric filed is applied. The thin film is then placed in a deposition chamber and a thin layer of metal is deposited onto the thin film. Also included are a method of measuring the photoinduced charge transfer (PCT) rate in a quantum dot nanocomposite film and methods of forming a Shottky barrier on a transparent ITO electrode of a quantum dot film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: University of South Florida
    Inventors: Jason Lewis, Xiaomei Jiang
  • Patent number: 8557326
    Abstract: A method for manufacturing polycarbonate solar cells. The method is designed to adapt many techniques used in the compact disc manufacturing industry to the manufacture of polycarbonate solar cells. The method comprises: creating a polycarbonate substrate for a solar cell; depositing a low resistivity cathodic contact layer on the polycarbonate substrate; depositing a photonic energy absorbing layer with a sputter chamber comprising a quaternary CIGS sputter target; using a modulated high intensity pulsed xenon flashlamp; depositing a buffer layer; depositing a highly resistive transmissive intrinsic layer; depositing a transmissive contact oxide window layer; adding anodic contacts to one of the layers; depositing an anti-reflective coating layer; and encapsulating the solar cell to provide environmental protection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 15, 2013
    Inventor: Arthur Don Harmala
  • Patent number: 8551558
    Abstract: Photovoltaic devices and techniques for enhancing efficiency thereof are provided. In one aspect, a photovoltaic device is provided. The photovoltaic device comprises a photocell having a photoactive layer and a non-photoactive layer adjacent to the photoactive layer so as to form a heterojunction between the photoactive layer and the non-photoactive layer; and a plurality of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures on one or more surfaces of the photoactive layer. The plurality of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures are configured to act as a scattering media for incident light. The plurality of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures can also be configured to create an optical resonance effect in the incident light.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2013
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Supratik Guha, Oki Gunawan
  • Patent number: 8545944
    Abstract: The present invention relates generally to production of photoelectric grade films or cells from semiconductor powders or dust. In one embodiment, the present invention provides a method for producing a photoelectric grade film from a semiconductor powder. The method includes providing a substrate, coating the substrate with a layer of the semiconductor powder and moving the substrate with the layer of the semiconductor powder under an energy source at a predefined rate, wherein the predefined rate is sufficient to melt the semiconductor powder by the energy source and to cool the substrate such that substantially all impurities are moved to an edge of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: SRI International
    Inventor: Angel Sanjurjo
  • Patent number: 8541048
    Abstract: An absorber layer of a photovoltaic device may be formed on an aluminum or metallized polymer foil substrate. A nascent absorber layer containing one or more elements of group IB and one or more elements of group IIIA is formed on the substrate. The nascent absorber layer and/or substrate is then rapidly heated from an ambient temperature to an average plateau temperature range of between about 200° C. and about 600° C. and maintained in the average plateau temperature range 1 to 30 minutes after which the temperature is reduced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 24, 2013
    Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
    Inventors: Craig Leidholm, Brent Bollman
  • Patent number: 8440498
    Abstract: Methods and devices are provided for forming thin-films from solid group IIIA-based particles. In one embodiment of the present invention, a method is described comprising of providing a first material comprising an alloy of a) a group IIIA-based material and b) at least one other material. The material may be included in an amount sufficient so that no liquid phase of the alloy is present within the first material in a temperature range between room temperature and a deposition or pre-deposition temperature higher than room temperature, wherein the group IIIA-based material is otherwise liquid in that temperature range. The other material may be a group IA material. A precursor material may be formulated comprising a) particles of the first material and b) particles containing at least one element from the group consisting of: group IB, IIIA, VIA element, alloys containing any of the foregoing elements, or combinations thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2013
    Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew R. Robinson, Chris Eberspacher, Jeroen K. J. Van Duren
  • Patent number: 8414961
    Abstract: Methods and devices are provided for improved photovoltaic devices. In one embodiment, a method is provided for forming a photovoltaic device. The method comprises processing a precursor layer in one or more steps to form a photovoltaic absorber layer; depositing a smoothing layer to fill gaps and depression in the absorber layer to reduce a roughness of the absorber layer; adding an insulating layer over the smooth layer; and forming a web-like layer of conductive material over the insulating layer. By way of nonlimiting example, the web-like layer of conductive material comprises a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In some embodiments, the absorber layer is a group IB-IIIA-VIA absorber layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2013
    Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew R. Robinson, Chris Eberspacher
  • Patent number: 8410004
    Abstract: In one example embodiment, a method includes depositing one or more thin-film layers onto a substrate. More particularly, at least one of the thin-film layers comprises at least one electropositive material and at least one of the thin-film layers comprises at least one chalcogen material suitable for forming a chalcogenide material with the electropositive material. The method further includes annealing the one or more deposited thin-film layers at an average heating rate of or exceeding 1 degree Celsius per second. The method may also include cooling the annealed one or more thin-film layers at an average cooling rate of or exceeding 0.1 degrees Celsius per second.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Assignee: Zetta Research and Development LLC—AQT Series
    Inventors: Erol Girt, Mariana Rodica Munteanu
  • Patent number: 8372485
    Abstract: A gallium ink is provided, comprising, as initial components: a gallium component comprising gallium; a stabilizing component; an additive; and, a liquid carrier; wherein the gallium ink is a stable dispersion. Also provided are methods of preparing the gallium ink and for using the gallium ink in the preparation of semiconductor films (e.g., in the deposition of a CIGS layer for use in photovoltaic devices).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2013
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials LLC
    Inventors: David Mosley, David Thorsen
  • Patent number: 8318240
    Abstract: The present inventions relate to methods and apparatus for detecting and mechanically removing defects and a surrounding portion of the photovoltaic layer and the substrate in a thin film solar cell such as a Group IBIIIAVIA compound thin film solar cell to improve its efficiency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: SoloPower, Inc.
    Inventors: Geordie Zapalac, David Soltz, Bulent M. Basol
  • Patent number: 8277894
    Abstract: A selenium ink comprising selenium stably dispersed in a liquid medium is provided, wherein the selenium ink is hydrazine free and hydrazinium free. Also provided are methods of preparing the selenium ink and of using the selenium ink to deposit selenium on a substrate for use in the manufacture of a variety of chalcogenide containing semiconductor materials, such as, thin film transistors (TFTs), light emitting diodes (LEDs); and photo responsive devices (e.g., electrophotography (e.g., laser printers and copiers), rectifiers, photographic exposure meters and photo voltaic cells) and chalcogenide containing phase change memory materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2009
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Assignee: Rohm and Haas Electronic Materials LLC
    Inventors: David Mosley, Kevin Calzia
  • Publication number: 20120181440
    Abstract: A paste for a photoelectric conversion layer used in an X-ray detector includes photoconductive particles, an organic polymer binder, a first organic solvent to dissolve the organic polymer binder, and a second organic solvent. The second organic solvent has a boiling point in a range of between about 150° C. and about 210° C., inclusive.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 27, 2011
    Publication date: July 19, 2012
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Sun-il Kim, Jae-chul Park, Chang-jung Kim, Sang-wook Kim
  • Publication number: 20120145244
    Abstract: A photoreceptive layer including heterogeneous dyes is provided. The dye fill density is enhanced and light absorption is achieved at a broad wavelength range, which enables the beneficial utilization of the photoreceptive layer in a dye-sensitized solar cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 23, 2012
    Publication date: June 14, 2012
    Inventors: Won-cheol Jung, Kyung-sang Cho, Jung-gyu Nam, Sang-cheol Park
  • Patent number: 8197885
    Abstract: A method for producing a metal article according to one embodiment may include: Providing a supply of a sodium/molybdenum composite metal powder; compacting the sodium/molybdenum composite metal powder under sufficient pressure to form a preformed article; placing the preformed article in a sealed container; raising the temperature of the sealed container to a temperature that is lower than a sintering temperature of molybdenum; and subjecting the sealed container to an isostatic pressure for a time sufficient to increase the density of the article to at least about 90% of theoretical density.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Climax Engineered Materials, LLC
    Inventors: Dave Honecker, Christopher Michaluk, Carl Cox, James Cole
  • Patent number: 8198123
    Abstract: Improved methods and apparatus for forming thin-film layers of semiconductor material absorber layers on a substrate web. According to the present teachings, a semiconductor layer may be formed in a multi-zone process whereby various layers are deposited sequentially onto a moving substrate web.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Global Solar Energy, Inc.
    Inventors: Jeffrey S. Britt, Scott Wiedeman
  • Patent number: 8193442
    Abstract: CIGS absorber layers fabricated using coated semiconducting nanoparticles and/or quantum dots are disclosed. Core nanoparticles and/or quantum dots containing one or more elements from group IB and/or IIIA and/or VIA may be coated with one or more layers containing elements group IB, IIIA or VIA. Using nanoparticles with a defined surface area, a layer thickness could be tuned to give the proper stoichiometric ratio, and/or crystal phase, and/or size, and/or shape. The coated nanoparticles could then be placed in a dispersant for use as an ink, paste, or paint. By appropriate coating of the core nanoparticles, the resulting coated nanoparticles can have the desired elements intermixed within the size scale of the nanoparticle, while the phase can be controlled by tuning the stochiometry, and the stoichiometry of the coated nanoparticle may be tuned by controlling the thickness of the coating(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2012
    Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
    Inventors: Brian M. Sager, Dong Yu, Matthew R. Robinson
  • Patent number: 8158204
    Abstract: For making ceramic or oxidic layers (CL/OL) on substrates (S), the method according to the invention therefore provides that following application (I) and drying (II) of a suitable precursor (P) the formed precursor layer (PLD) is gassed (III) with a moist reactant gas (RG) for conversion into a corresponding hydroxide or complex layer (HL) and then thermally treated (IV) for forming a ceramic or oxidic layer (CL/OL). For the alternative production of other chalcogenidic layers of increased material conversion additional gassing is carried out with a reactant gas containing chalcogen hydrogen. Metallic layers may alternatively be made by use of a reducing reactant gas. The methods in accordance with the invention may be used wherever surfaces, even those of shaded structures, must be protected or modified or provided with functional layers, particularly in solar and materials technology.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 6, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2012
    Assignee: Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin Fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH
    Inventors: Christian-Herbert Fischer, Martha Christina Lux-Steiner, Hans-Juergen Baecker
  • Patent number: 8110428
    Abstract: A method is provided for producing a thin-film photovoltaic device. The method includes forming on a substrate a first thin-film absorber layer using a first deposition process. A second thin-film absorber layer is formed on the first thin-film absorber layer using a second deposition process different from the first deposition process. The first and second thin-film absorber layers are each photovoltaically active regions and the second thin-film absorber layer has a smaller concentration of defects than the first thin-film absorber layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 25, 2008
    Date of Patent: February 7, 2012
    Assignee: Sunlight Photonics Inc.
    Inventors: Sergey Frolov, Allan James Bruce, Michael Cyrus
  • Patent number: 8088309
    Abstract: An ink for forming CIGS photovoltaic cell active layers is disclosed along with methods for making the ink, methods for making the active layers and a solar cell made with the active layer. The ink contains a mixture of nanoparticles of elements of groups IB, IIIA and (optionally) VIA. The particles are in a desired particle size range of between about 1 nm and about 500 nm in diameter, where a majority of the mass of the particles comprises particles ranging in size from no more than about 40% above or below an average particle size or, if the average particle size is less than about 5 nanometers, from no more than about 2 nanometers above or below the average particle size. The use of such ink avoids the need to expose the material to an H2Se gas during the construction of a photovoltaic cell and allows more uniform melting during film annealing, more uniform intermixing of nanoparticles, and allows higher quality absorber films to be formed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 3, 2012
    Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
    Inventors: Dong Yu, Jacqueline Fidanza, Brian M. Sager
  • Patent number: 8071419
    Abstract: Methods and devices are provided for forming thin-films from solid group IIIA-based particles. In one embodiment of the present invention, a method is described comprising of providing a first material comprising an alloy of a) a group IIIA-based material and b) at least one other material. The material may be included in an amount sufficient so that no liquid phase of the alloy is present within the first material in a temperature range between room temperature and a deposition or pre-deposition temperature higher than room temperature, wherein the group IIIA-based material is otherwise liquid in that temperature range. The other material may be a group IA material. A precursor material may be formulated comprising a) particles of the first material and b) particles containing at least one element from the group consisting of: group IB, IIIA, VIA element, alloys containing any of the foregoing elements, or combinations thereof. The temperature range described above may be between about 20° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2011
    Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew R. Robinson, Chris Eberspacher, Jeroen K. J. Van Duren
  • Patent number: 8057781
    Abstract: The invention provides a fabrication method for a chalcopyrite powder. The fabrication method includes: (a) mixing a Group IB compound and a Group IIIA compound in a solvent; (b) drying or precipitating the solution of step (a) to obtain a precursor containing Group IB and Group IIIA elements; (c) mixing a solution or powder containing a Group VIA compound with the precursor; and (d) heating the mixture of step (c) to obtain the chalcopyrite powder.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2011
    Assignee: National Taiwan University
    Inventors: Chung-Hsin Lu, Chung-Hsien Wu, Szu-Chia Chien, Zhi-Liang Liu
  • Patent number: 8034317
    Abstract: A composition of matter, includes a plurality of anisotropic nanoparticles that are in physical contact with one another, each of the plurality of anisotropic nanoparticles having a) a first dimension that is substantially different than both a second dimension and a third dimension and b) a non-random nanoparticle crystallographic orientation that is substantially aligned with the first direction. The plurality a anisotropic nanoparticles are substantially aligned with respect to each other to define a substantially close packed dense layer having a non-random shared crystallographic orientation that is substantially aligned with a basal plane of the substantially close packed dense layer. The plurality of anisotropic nanoparticles includes a member selected from the group consisting of (In,Ga)y(S,Se)1-y, an In2Se3 stable wurtzite structure that defines a hexagonal rod nanoparticle, Cux(Se)1-x and Cu(In,Ga)y(S,Se)1-y.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 11, 2011
    Assignee: Heliovolt Corporation
    Inventor: Billy J. Stanbery
  • Patent number: 8012546
    Abstract: A method for producing a semiconductor film having a chalcopyrite structure including a Ib group element, a IIIb group element and a VIb group element including selenium, the method including cracking selenium with plasma to generate radical selenium, and using the radical selenium in the process of forming the semiconductor film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2011
    Assignee: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
    Inventors: Shogo Ishizuka, Shigeru Niki, Keiichiro Sakurai, Akimasa Yamada, Koji Matsubara
  • Patent number: 7955586
    Abstract: A method for preparing III-VI2 nanoparticles and a thin film of polycrystalline light absorber layers. The method for preparing I-III-VI2 nanoparticles comprises the steps of: (a1) preparing a mixed solution by mixing each element from groups I, III and VI in the periodic table with a solvent; (a2) sonicating the mixed solution; (a3) separating the solvent from the sonicated mixed solution; and (a4) drying the product resulted from the above step (a3) to obtain nanoparticles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 17, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2011
    Assignee: Sungkyunkwan University Foundation For Corporate Collaboration
    Inventors: Duk-Young Jung, Jae Eok Han, Juyeon Chang
  • Patent number: 7939048
    Abstract: Methods for assemblies of anisotropic nanoparticles which includes forming a substantially close packed dense layer by assembling a plurality of anisotropic nanoparticles, each of the plurality of anisotropic nanoparticles having a) a first dimension that is substantially different than both a second dimension and a third dimension and b) a non-random nanoparticle crystallographic orientation that is substantially aligned with the first direction, wherein assembling includes mechanically interacting the plurality of anisotropic nanoparticles by imposing a delocalized force that defines a direction that is substantially perpendicular to a basal plane of the substantially closed packed dense layer; and imposing a fluctuating force to which the anisotropic nanoparticles respond, which is sufficient to overcome a short range weak attractive force between members of the plurality of anisotropic nanoparticles with respect to anisotropic nanoparticles that are not substantially overlapping.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2011
    Assignee: HelioVolt Corporation
    Inventor: Billy J. Stanbery
  • Publication number: 20110094557
    Abstract: A method of depositing a kesterite film which includes a compound of the formula: Cu2?xZn1+ySn(S1?zSez)4+q, wherein 0?x?1; 0?y?1; 0?z?1; ?1?q?1. The method includes contacting hydrazine, a source of Cu, and a source of at least one of S and Se forming solution A; contacting hydrazine, a source of Sn, a source of at least one of S and Se, and a source of Zn forming dispersion B; mixing solution A and dispersion B under conditions sufficient to form a dispersion which includes Zn-containing solid particles; applying the dispersion onto a substrate to form a thin layer of the dispersion on the substrate; and annealing at a temperature, pressure, and length of time sufficient to form the kesterite film. An annealing composition and a photovoltaic device including the kesterite film formed by the above method are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 27, 2009
    Publication date: April 28, 2011
    Applicant: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: David B. Mitzi, Teodor K. Todorov
  • Publication number: 20110083730
    Abstract: The present invention relates to substrates coated with films comprising compounds of general formula (I) below: and also to the process for manufacturing them and to their use as anode interface layer in electronic devices. The present invention also relates to organic electroluminescent diodes (OLED), polymeric electroluminescent diodes (PLED), organic field-effect transistors (OFET) and organic solar cells (OSC) comprising a substrate according to the invention, to specific organic solar cells and to the process for manufacturing them. Compounds of formula (I) as such also form part of the invention.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 13, 2009
    Publication date: April 14, 2011
    Inventors: Denis Fichou, Stéphane Berny, Ludovic Tortech
  • Publication number: 20110056564
    Abstract: A nanoparticle composition is disclosed comprising a copper indium gallium selenide, a copper indium sulfide, or a combination thereof. Also disclosed is a layer comprising the nanoparticle composition. A photovoltaic device comprising the nanoparticle composition and/or the absorbing layer is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for producing the nanoparticle compositions, absorbing layers, and photovoltaic devices described herein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2009
    Publication date: March 10, 2011
    Inventors: Brian A. Korgel, Matthew G. Panthani, Brian W. Goodfellow, Vahid A. Akhavan, Bonil Koo
  • Publication number: 20110059231
    Abstract: Methods and devices for high-throughput printing of a precursor material for forming a film of a group IB-IIIA-chalcogenide compound are disclosed. In one embodiment, the method comprises forming a precursor layer on a substrate, the precursor is subsequently processed in a VIA environment.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 11, 2010
    Publication date: March 10, 2011
    Inventors: Brent Bollman, Craig Leidholm
  • Patent number: 7867551
    Abstract: A method of forming a doped Group IBIIIAVIA absorber layer for solar cells by reacting a partially reacted precursor layer with a dopant structure. The precursor layer including Group IB, Group IIIA and Group VIA materials such as Cu, Ga, In and Se are deposited on a base and partially reacted. After the dopant structure is formed on the partially reacted precursor layer, the dopant structure and partially reacted precursor layer is fully reacted. The dopant structure includes a dopant material such as Na.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 21, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2011
    Assignee: SoloPower, Inc.
    Inventor: Bulent M. Basol
  • Patent number: 7847187
    Abstract: The invention relates to a photovoltaic cell comprising a photovoltaically active semiconductor material, wherein the photovoltaically active semiconductor material is a p- or n-doped semiconductor material comprising a binary compound of the formula (I) or a ternary compound of the formula (II): ZnTe??(I) Zn1-xMnxTe??(II) where x is from 0.01 to 0.99, and a particular proportion of tellurium ions in the photovoltaically active semiconductor material has been replaced by halogen ions and nitrogen ions and the halogen ions are selected from the group consisting of fluoride, chloride and bromide and mixtures thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 7, 2010
    Assignee: BASF Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Hans-Josef Sterzel
  • Patent number: 7838063
    Abstract: Provided is a process for preparing an absorption layer of a solar cell composed of a 1B-3A-Se compound, comprising applying a metal selenide nanoparticle as a precursor material to a base material and subjecting the applied nanoparticle to thermal processing, whereby the crystal size of the 1B-3A-Se compound can be increased as compared to a conventional method using a metal in the form of an oxide as a precursor material, consequently resulting in an enhanced efficiency of the solar cell, and the manufacturing process can be simplified with omission of hydrogen reduction and selenidation processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2010
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventor: Seokhyun Yoon
  • Patent number: 7673382
    Abstract: A method of forming an external electrode of an electronic component involving: a paste preparation step, a removal step, an element preparation step, a contact step, and a formation step. A jig with a groove into which an element forming the electronic component can be inserted is prepared. A conductive paste is filled in the groove, and then removed, so as to leave the conductive paste along a first wall surface of the groove and remove the rest. Then, element immediately above the groove is located, and inserted into the groove and moved toward the first wall surface. Finally, the element is moved along the first wall surface and toward the aperture in a state in which the ridgeline of the element is kept in contact with the first wall surface, and moved away from the first wall surface so as to separate the ridgeline from the first wall surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 2006
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2010
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Ko Onodera, Satoshi Kurimoto, Yoji Tozawa, Shirou Ootsuki
  • Patent number: 7674713
    Abstract: A process for coating a substrate at atmospheric pressure comprises the steps of vaporizing a controlled mass of semiconductor material at substantially atmospheric pressure within a heated inert gas stream, to create a fluid mixture having a temperature above the condensation temperature of the semiconductor material, directing the fluid mixture at substantially atmospheric pressure onto the substrate having a temperature below the condensation temperature of the semiconductor material, and depositing a layer of the semiconductor material onto a surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2010
    Assignee: Calyxo GmbH
    Inventors: Norman W. Johnston, Kenneth R. Kormanyos, Nicholas A. Reiter
  • Publication number: 20100000589
    Abstract: A solar PV module comprises an array of serially interconnected spaced PV solar cells on a common substrate, each cell comprising a 1st electrode on said substrate, an active PV film on the 1st electrode, a 2nd electrode, at least one of said electrodes being light transmitting and wherein the 2nd electrode of the nth solar cell of the array is connected to the 1st electrode of the succeeding, (n+1)th cell of the array via a portion of PV film which has a substantially higher conductivity than the remainder of the PV film. The novel structure of the present invention is achieved by substantially increasing the conductivity of a continuous light absorbing PV film in the area of desired electrical contact by doping the film in the desired areas.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 3, 2008
    Publication date: January 7, 2010
    Inventor: Zoltan Joseph Kiss
  • Patent number: 7635647
    Abstract: A process for coating a substrate at atmospheric pressure comprises the steps of vaporizing a controlled mass of semiconductor material at substantially atmospheric pressure within a heated inert gas stream, to create a fluid mixture having a temperature above the condensation temperature of the semiconductor material, directing the fluid mixture at substantially atmospheric pressure onto the substrate having a temperature below the condensation temperature of the semiconductor material, and depositing a layer of the semiconductor material onto a surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2009
    Assignee: Calyxo GmbH
    Inventor: Norman W. Johnston
  • Patent number: 7604843
    Abstract: A compound film may be formed by formulating a mixture of elemental nanoparticles composed of the Ib, the IIIa, and, optionally, the VIa group of elements having a controlled overall composition. The nanoparticle mixture is combined with a suspension of nanoglobules of gallium to form a dispersion. The dispersion may be deposited onto a substrate to form a layer on the substrate. The layer may then be reacted in a suitable atmosphere to form the compound film. The compound film may be used as a light-absorbing layer in a photovoltaic device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 20, 2009
    Assignee: Nanosolar, Inc.
    Inventors: Matthew R. Robinson, Martin R. Roscheisen