Activated By Immersion, E.g., Sea Water Type Patents (Class 429/119)
  • Patent number: 11355774
    Abstract: Provided herein is a fiber having a fiber body including fiber body material with a longitudinal-axis fiber body length. A plurality of gel domains is disposed within the fiber body along at least a portion of the longitudinal-axis fiber body length. Each gel domain includes a porous host matrix material and a liquid gel component that is entrapped in the molecular structure of the host matrix material and that is disposed in interstices of the host material matrix. At least two of the gel domains within the fiber body are disposed directly adjacent to each other in direct physical contact with each other. This fiber can include polymeric fiber body material and gel domains including a porous polymer host matrix material and an ionically conducting liquid solvent that is entrapped in the molecular structure of the polymer host matrix material and disposed in interstices of the polymer host material matrix.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 21, 2019
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2022
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Jung Tae Lee, Benjamin Jean-Baptiste Grena, Tural Khudiyev, Chong Hou, Yoel Fink
  • Patent number: 11344928
    Abstract: The invention provides an object (10) that during use is at least partly submerged in water, the object (10) further comprising an anti-bio fouling system (200) comprising an UV emitting element (210), wherein the UV emitting element (210) comprises one or more light sources (220) and is configured to irradiate with UV radiation (221) during an irradiation stage one or more of (i) a part (111) of an external surface (11) of said object (10) and (ii) water adjacent to said part (111) of said external surface (11), wherein the object (10) is selected from the group consisting of a vessel (1) and an infrastructural object (15), wherein the object (10) further comprises a water switch (400), wherein the anti-bio fouling system (200) is configured to provide said UV radiation (221) to said part (111) in dependence of the water switch (400) being in physical contact with the water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 2016
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2022
    Assignee: Koninklijke Philips N.V.
    Inventors: Bart Andre Salters, Roelant Boudewijn Hietbrink
  • Patent number: 11211674
    Abstract: An electrochemical-type power supply source is provided with: an electrochemical stack generating electric power, in the presence, internally, of electrolytic fluid, provided with a number of distinct groups of galvanic cells and of a corresponding number of electrolyte inlet pipes for introducing electrolyte into respective groups of galvanic cells and with electrolyte outlet pipes for extracting electrolyte from respective groups of galvanic cells; a main tank, fluidically coupled to the electrochemical stack and containing electrolytic fluid; and a recirculation system, defining a circulation path of the electrolytic fluid between the main tank and the electrochemical stack. A valve system that can be coupled to the electrolyte inlet and/or outlet pipes and operatively controllable to modify hydraulic and electric characteristics of the circulation path, in response to a power delivery condition by the power supply source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2020
    Date of Patent: December 28, 2021
    Assignee: LEONARDO S.p.A.
    Inventors: Dino Bartoli, Yuri Gassani
  • Patent number: 11018350
    Abstract: The operation of the ionic electric power station is based on the stable corrosion of a plurality of sacrificial anodes immersed in sea water or water with common salt inside a cell, without membranes to separate the cathodic zone from the anodic zone, kinetic conditions being generated inside the cell by the circulation of water moved by a pump in a closed circuit between the cells and a reservoir.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 25, 2021
    Inventor: Alberto Andres Santana Ramirez
  • Patent number: 10763515
    Abstract: A portable water-activated power generating device, comprising a first supporting structure, a second supporting structure, a first electrode plate, a second electrode plate, a water-absorbent sheet, and a soft container. The second electrode plate has a first surface and a second surface opposite the first surface, and the water-absorbent sheet surrounds the second electrode plate and is in contact with the first surface and the second surface. The soft container is used for accommodating the second electrode plate and the water-absorbent sheet. The first electrode plate and the soft container are disposed between the first supporting structure and the second supporting structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 5, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 1, 2020
    Inventors: Kuo Ming Liaw, Sung-Nien Kao
  • Patent number: 10693149
    Abstract: A Water Activated Battery characterized by a) At least one anode selected from the group consisting of magnesium, aluminum, zinc and alloys thereof; b) A cathode comprising at least one basic copper salt comprising Cu(OH)2 combined with a copper salt CuX (with n?1 the molar ratio between the CuX and the Cu(OH)2 in the basic copper salt), such that a discharge reaction in saline versus a Mg anode could be written nMg+Cu(OH)2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2020
    Assignee: EPSILOR-ELECTRIC FUEL, LTD.
    Inventors: Jonathan Sassen, Yuli Zingerman
  • Patent number: 10665869
    Abstract: A water-activated power generating device comprising a silicon slice having a cut, a first water storage element, and a fixing ring sandwiched by the silicon slice and the first water storage element and having an inner space. The water-activated power generating device further comprises a conductive rod penetrating the silicon slice, the fixing ring, and the first water storage element. The water-activated power generating device further comprises an electrode structure having a hollow cylinder shape and an isolation film disposed adjacent to an inner surface of the electrode structure. Electrolytic powder is disposed in a space between the isolation layer and the conductive rod; and a bottom conductive plate is disposed at the bottom of the electrode structure and electrically connected to the inner surface of the electrode structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 17, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2020
    Inventors: Kuo Ming Liaw, Sung Nien Kao
  • Patent number: 10644328
    Abstract: An improved seawater electrochemical cell with a consumable anode and an oxygen reducing cathode is provided with a reduced distance between anode and cathode surfaces. The reduced distance does not impede the ingress of oxygen dissolved in water and the egress of reaction products from the cell and causes an increase in the volumetric energy and power density of such dissolved oxygen seawater cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 9, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2020
    Assignee: QYNERGY CORP.
    Inventor: David Farnham Smith
  • Patent number: 10541428
    Abstract: A water-activated power generating device, comprising a first module (100) having a first electrode plate (22) and a second electrode plate (31). The water-activated power generating device further comprises a first supporting structure (11), a second supporting structure (12) and two water storage layers (61, 62). The first electrode plate and the second electrode plate of the water-activated power generating device are fixed with a first fixing component (42), and a first insulating layer (51) is disposed between the first electrode plate and the second electrode plate. The water-activated power generating device further comprises a third electrode plate (21) and a fourth electrode plate (32), wherein the third electrode plate is fixed on the first supporting structure (11) with a second fixing component (41), and the fourth electrode plate (32) is fixed on the second supporting structure (12) with a third fixing component (43).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 2, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 21, 2020
    Inventors: Sung Nien Kao, Kuo Ming Liaw
  • Patent number: 10205175
    Abstract: A water battery includes a housing and at least one battery cell mounted in the housing, capable of operating by injecting water into the housing at the time of use. The at least one battery cell includes an anode made of a metal material with a lower ionization tendency than that of a magnesium, an anode drawer electrode electrically connected to the anode, a cathode made of a magnesium material, a cathode drawer electrode electrically connected to the cathode, a collector electrode mounted between the anode and the cathode, a sheet member with water absorptivity and water retention, closely attached to the collector electrode, and a fixing member for pressing to each other and fixing together the anode, the collector electrode, the sheet member and the cathode. The sheet member includes an electrolyte containing nitrophenol, sodium, citric acid and polyvinyl alcohol.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 12, 2019
    Assignee: Mishima Denshi Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Toshikatsu Dannoura
  • Patent number: 10115983
    Abstract: A flow battery includes a cell stack that has electrochemically active cells and manifolds that define common manifold passages in fluid communication with the electrochemically active cells. A supply/storage system is external of the cell stack and includes at least one vessel fluidly connected with respective ones of the common manifold passages. Fluid electrolytes are in the supply/storage system. At least one of the fluid electrolytes is an ionic-conductive fluid. The manifolds extend in a length direction through the cell stack. The common manifold passages include a common manifold passage P that varies in cross-section along the length direction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2018
    Assignee: UNITED TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Robert Mason Darling, Michael L. Perry, Jinlei Ding, Craig R. Walker
  • Patent number: 10008747
    Abstract: Provided is a process for producing a rope-shaped alkali metal battery, comprising: (a) providing a first electrode comprising a first conductive porous rod and a first mixture of a first electrode active material and a first electrolyte residing in the pores of the first porous rod; (b) wrapping or encasing a porous separator around the first electrode to form a separator-protected first electrode; (c) providing a second electrode comprising a second conductive porous rod and a second mixture of a second electrode active material and a second electrolyte residing in the pores of the second porous rod; (d) combining the separator-protected first electrode and second electrode to form a braid or a yarn having a twist or spiral electrode; and (e) wrapping or encasing a protective casing or sheath around the braid or yarn to form the rope battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 28, 2016
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2018
    Assignee: Nanotek Instruments, Inc.
    Inventors: Aruna Zhamu, Hui He, Baofei Pan, Yu-Sheng Su, Bor Z Jang
  • Patent number: 9979029
    Abstract: An electricity generating system includes a first electrode located at a first location in a body of salt water and a second electrode located at a second location in the body of salt water. The first and second electrodes may be of the same or different materials and are designed to present a large surface area to the body of water. A direct current flows between the two electrodes which is a function of the salinity of the water and the composition of the electrodes. The direct current is applied to the input port of a converting device which may be any suitable power inverter which can produce a output AC voltage corresponding to the direct current or a DC to DC converter to produce an output DC voltage corresponding to the direct current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 22, 2018
    Inventor: Moshe J. Yan
  • Patent number: 9666873
    Abstract: Apparatuses for generating electrical power and/or treating water desalinating salt water are described, and may include a top manifold comprising one or more inlets, a bottom manifold comprising one or more outlets, a casing connecting the top manifold and the bottom manifold to define an internal space, and at least one electrode set disposed in the internal space. The electrode set may include a silver chloride cathode in fluid communication with a first fluid container including an aqueous solution, such as diluted sodium chloride solution, and a silver anode in fluid communication with a second fluid container including another aqueous solution, e.g., a higher concentration sodium chloride solution. The electrode set also may include a membrane that allows chloride and sodium ions to pass therethrough, and a connector electrically connecting the cathode to the anode to form an electrical circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 9, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 30, 2017
    Inventor: Grant R. Page
  • Patent number: 9660286
    Abstract: An anode/cathode system is disclosed for use in a Benthic microbial fuel cell. Carbon cloth forms at least a portion of the anode and is disposed on one side of a water oxygen impermeable layer, which can be weighted around a periphery thereof to hold the anode against a water-sediment interface. Carbon cloth flaps or strands can be attached to the other side of the impermeable layer to form the cathode. The anode and cathode can be divided into sections with each section having an electrical lead coupled thereto. The system is deployed onto the seafloor with the anode side in contact with the water-sediment interface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 23, 2017
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Frank J. McNeilly
  • Patent number: 9397344
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a cable-type secondary battery, comprising: an inner electrode; a separation layer surrounding the outer surface of the inner electrode to prevent a short circuit between electrodes; and a sheet-form outer electrode spirally wound to surround the separation layer or the inner electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2016
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Hye-Ran Jung, Eun-Kyung Kim, Je-Young Kim, Hyo-Mi Kim
  • Patent number: 9359050
    Abstract: Disclosed is an underwater craft having an electrochemical battery activated by an electrolyte, including: an electrochemical cell; a tank (13) intended to contain the electrolyte; a seawater flow rate regulator (37) arranged upstream of the tank (13). The flow rate regulator includes: a fixed housing (60) including first ports (64); a slide (62) including second ports (66); the slide (62) being movable, in relation to the fixed housing (60), under the effect of the pressure of the seawater entering the regulator (37), to a balanced position in which the first and second ports (64, 66) define outlet openings (70) for seawater to flow to the tank (13), the slide (62) being movable between a maximum opening position, in which the area of the openings is at a maximum, and a maximum restriction position, in which the area of the openings (70) is at a minimum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 7, 2016
    Assignee: DCNS
    Inventor: Thomas Senez
  • Patent number: 9343773
    Abstract: Provided is a cable-type secondary battery including an inner electrode comprising at least two anodes arranged in parallel that extend longitudinally and have a horizontal cross section of a predetermined shape, an electrolyte layer serving as an ion channel surrounding the inner electrode, an outer electrode comprising a tubular cathode having a horizontal cross section of a predetermined shape and surrounding the electrolyte layer, and a protection coating surrounding the outer electrode. The cable-type secondary battery has free shape adaptation due to its linearity and flexibility. A plurality of inner electrodes within a tubular outer electrode leads to an increased contact area therebetween and consequently a high battery rate. It is easy to control the capacity balance between the inner and outer electrodes by adjusting the number of inner electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 17, 2016
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Je-Young Kim, Byung-Hun Oh, Ki-Tae Kim
  • Patent number: 9236629
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a cable-type secondary battery comprising an inner electrode comprising at least two anodes arranged in parallel, the anode extending longitudinally and having a horizontal cross section of a predetermined shape, the anode having an electrolyte layer thereon serving as an ion channel; an outer electrode comprising a cathode including a cathode active material layer surrounding the inner electrode; and a protection coating surrounding the outer electrode. The cable-type secondary battery has free shape adaptation due to its linearity and flexibility. A plurality of inner electrodes within a tubular outer electrode lead to an increased contact area therebetween and consequently a high battery rate. It is easy to control the capacity balance between the inner and outer electrodes by adjusting the number of inner electrodes. A short circuit is prevented due to the electrolyte layer formed on the inner electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 12, 2016
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Je-Young Kim, Byung-Hun Oh, Ki-Tae Kim
  • Patent number: 9219291
    Abstract: The present invention provides a cable-type secondary battery comprising an inner electrode which includes at least one first polarity electrode having a first polarity current collector with a long and thin shape, whose cross-section perpendicular to its longitudinal direction is a circular, oval or polygonal form; a first polarity electrode active material layer formed on an outer surface of the first polarity current collector; and an electrolyte layer filled to surround the first polarity electrode active material layer, and at least one wire-type second polarity electrode which wholly surrounds the inner electrode and is winding around the exterior thereof. Thus, the inventive cable-type secondary battery provided with an outer winding electrode has excellent flexibility to prevent the release of the active material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2015
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Je-Young Kim, Sang-Wook Woo, Heon-Cheol Shin, Eun-Ji Kim, Su-Jin Park, Woo-Sung Choi
  • Patent number: 9130247
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a cable-type secondary battery, comprising: an inner electrode; and a sheet-form laminate of separation layer-outer electrode, spirally wound to surround the outer surface of the inner electrode, the laminate being formed by carrying out compression for the integration of a separation layer for preventing a short circuit, and an outer electrode. According to the present disclosure, the electrodes and the separation layer are compressed and integrated to minimize ununiform spaces between the separation layer and the outer electrode and reduce the thickness of a battery to be prepared, thereby decreasing resistance and improving ionic conductivity within the battery. Also, the separation layer coming into contact with the electrodes absorbs an electrolyte solution to induce the uniform supply of the electrolyte solution into the outer electrode active material layer, thereby enhancing the stability and performances of the cable-type secondary battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Byung-Hun Oh, Hye-Ran Jung, Je-Young Kim
  • Patent number: 9099747
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an anode for a cable-type secondary battery, more specifically an anode for a cable-type secondary battery, comprising a spiral electrode consisting of at least two wire-type electrodes which are spirally twisted with each other, each of the wire-type electrodes comprising a wire-type current collector, an anode active material layer formed by coating on the outer surface of the wire-type current collector, and a polymer resin layer formed by coating on the outer surface of the anode active material layer; and a cable-type secondary battery comprising the anode. The anode for a cable-type secondary battery according to the present invention comprises a polymer resin layer formed by coating on the outer surface of an anode active material layer, thereby preventing the release of the anode active material layer from a wire-type current collector and eventually preventing the deterioration of battery performances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 24, 2014
    Date of Patent: August 4, 2015
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Byung-Hun Oh, Je-Young Kim, Sang-Wook Woo
  • Patent number: 9083060
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a cable-type secondary battery, comprising: an inner electrode; and a sheet-form laminate of separation layer-outer electrode, spirally wound to surround the outer surface of the inner electrode, the laminate being formed by carrying out compression for the integration of a separation layer for preventing a short circuit, and an outer electrode. According to the present disclosure, the electrodes and the separation layer are compressed and integrated to minimize ununiform spaces between the separation layer and the outer electrode and reduce the thickness of a battery to be prepared, thereby decreasing resistance and improving ionic conductivity within the battery. Also, the separation layer coming into contact with the electrodes absorbs an electrolyte solution to induce the uniform supply of the electrolyte solution into the outer electrode active material layer, thereby enhancing the stability and performances of the cable-type secondary battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Byung-Hun Oh, Hye-Ran Jung, Je-Young Kim
  • Patent number: 9083061
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a cable-type secondary battery, comprising: an inner electrode supporter; and a sheet-form laminate of inner electrode-separation layer-outer electrode, spirally wound on the outer surface of the inner electrode supporter, wherein the laminate of inner electrode-separation layer-outer electrode is formed by carrying out compression for the integration of an inner electrode, a separation layer for preventing a short circuit, and an outer electrode. In the cable-type secondary battery of the present disclosure, since the electrodes and the separation layer are adhered to each other and integrated, the separation layer coming into contact with the electrodes absorbs an electrolyte solution to induce the uniform supply of the electrolyte solution into the outer electrode active material layer, thereby enhancing the stability and performances of the cable-type secondary battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Byung-Hun Oh, Hye-Ran Jung, Je-Young Kim
  • Patent number: 9077048
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a cable-type secondary battery, comprising: an inner electrode supporter; and a sheet-form laminate of inner electrode-separation layer-outer electrode, spirally wound on the outer surface of the inner electrode supporter, wherein the laminate of inner electrode-separation layer-outer electrode is formed by carrying out compression for the integration of an inner electrode, a separation layer for preventing a short circuit, and an outer electrode. In the cable-type secondary battery of the present disclosure, since the electrodes and the separation layer are adhered to each other and integrated, the separation layer coming into contact with the electrodes absorbs an electrolyte solution to induce the uniform supply of the electrolyte solution into the outer electrode active material layer, thereby enhancing the stability and performances of the cable-type secondary battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2015
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Yo-Han Kwon, Byung-Hun Oh, Hye-Ran Jung, Je-Young Kim
  • Publication number: 20150140387
    Abstract: A biodegradable battery is provided. The battery includes an anode comprising a material including an inner surface and an outer surface, wherein electrochemical oxidation of the anode material results in the formation of a reaction product that is substantially non-toxic and a cathode comprising a material including an inner surface and an outer surface, the inner surface of the cathode being in direct physical contact with the inner surface of the anode, wherein electrochemical reduction of the cathode material results in the formation of a reaction product that is substantially non-toxic, and wherein the cathode material presents a larger standard reduction potential than the anode material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 23, 2015
    Publication date: May 21, 2015
    Inventors: GERALD HODGKINSON, WILLIAM O. POWERS, AHMAD ROBERT HADBA
  • Publication number: 20150118526
    Abstract: In one aspect, a water-activated, ingestible battery, comprises a cathode comprising a metal oxide with a decreased amount of toxicity, relative to an amount of toxicity of other metal oxides; an anode comprising a biocompatible, water stable compound, the anode infused with benign cations; a separator between the cathode and the anode; a cathodic lead comprising a first conducting material, the cathodic lead in contact with the cathode; an anodic lead comprising a second conducting material, the anodic lead in contact with the anode; and a cell casing comprising a water-permeable biocompatible polymer, the cathodic lead, and the anodic lead, with the cell casing enclosing the cathode, the anode, and the separator.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2013
    Publication date: April 30, 2015
    Applicant: Carnegie Mellon University
    Inventors: Christopher J. Bettinger, Jay Whitacre
  • Publication number: 20150080678
    Abstract: The system of the present invention includes a conductive element, an electronic component, and a partial power source in the form of dissimilar materials. Upon contact with a conducting fluid, a voltage potential is created and the power source is completed, which activates the system. The electronic component controls the conductance between the dissimilar materials to produce a unique current signature. The system can also measure the conditions of the environment surrounding the system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 18, 2014
    Publication date: March 19, 2015
    Inventors: Jeremy Frank, Peter Bjeletich, Hooman Hafezi, Robert Azevedo, Robert Duck, Iliya Pesic, Benedict Costello, Eric Snyder
  • Publication number: 20150004457
    Abstract: A water activated lithium battery cell having a thermal agent component for warming up cell components upon deployment. Also a water-activated battery system that is adapted to operate in and/or on the surface of a waterbody (i.e., a body of water including those which are natural or man made). In various embodiments the battery system comprises an operably breachable hermetic enclosure and at least one lithium battery cell having an open-cathode architecture, the lithium cell disposed inside the hermetic enclosure and therein maintained in an open ionic circuit condition (i.e., an inactive state) throughout battery system storage. Moreover, optionally, a thermal agent may be disposed inside the hermetic enclosure for warming up one or more battery cell components, the agent typically water activated, which is to mean that it (the thermal agent) evolves heat by reacting with water.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 27, 2014
    Publication date: January 1, 2015
    Inventors: Steven J. Visco, Lutgard C. De Jonghe, Vitaliy Nimon, Alexei Petrov, Ian Wogan, Yevgeniy S. Nimon, Bruce D. Katz
  • Patent number: 8916299
    Abstract: A self-propelled microbial fuel cell apparatus includes a microbial fuel cell with a cathode electrode and an anode electrode wherein the anode electrode is enclosed within an enclosure that has an opening in it. The microbial fuel cell is positioned within a self-propelled delivery vehicle so that the electrodes of the fuel cell are exposed to interface with a microbial environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 23, 2014
    Assignee: The United States of America, as Represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Wayne P. Liu, Adriane Q. Wotawa-Bergen, David B. Chadwick, Ken E. Richter, Yolanda M. Arias-Thode
  • Patent number: 8889281
    Abstract: An electrochemical system includes: (1) a battery including an anode and a cathode; (2) a first source of a first electrolyte having a first concentration of ions; (3) a second source of a second electrolyte having a second concentration of the ions, wherein the second concentration is greater than the first concentration; and (4) a fluid conveyance mechanism connected between the battery and each of the first source and the second source. During charging of the battery, the anode and the cathode are at least partially immersed in the first electrolyte, and, during discharging of the battery, the anode and the cathode are at least partially immersed in the second electrolyte. The fluid conveyance mechanism exchanges the first electrolyte with the second electrolyte between charging and discharging of the battery, and exchanges the second electrolyte with the first electrolyte between discharging and charging of the battery.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Fabio La Mantia, Mauro Pasta, Heather Dawn Deshazer, Yi Cui
  • Publication number: 20140335392
    Abstract: Water activated alkali metal battery cells, protected anode bi-polar electrodes and multi-cell stacks are configurable to achieve very high energy density. The cells, bi-polar electrode and multi-cell stacks include a protected anode and a cathode having a solid phase electro-active component material that is reduced during cell discharge.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 28, 2014
    Publication date: November 13, 2014
    Applicant: PolyPlus Battery Company
    Inventors: Steven J. Visco, Yevgeniy S. Nimon, Lutgard C. De Jonghe, Bruce D. Katz
  • Publication number: 20140322564
    Abstract: A battery includes: a container; an electrolyte received in the container; and first and second electrodes disposed in the electrolyte and having different electrical potentials upon exposure to the electrolyte.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 14, 2014
    Publication date: October 30, 2014
    Inventors: Yung-Han HUANG, Pei-Jung HUANG, Chien-Ho HUANG, Tsung-Tien KUO
  • Publication number: 20140315059
    Abstract: The disclosed embodiments relate to systems that produce electric energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 15, 2014
    Publication date: October 23, 2014
    Inventor: Georgios VILANAKIS
  • Publication number: 20140193688
    Abstract: Disclosed is an underwater craft having an electrochemical battery activated by an electrolyte, including: an electrochemical cell; a tank (13) intended to contain the electrolyte; a seawater flow rate regulator (37) arranged upstream of the tank (13). The flow rate regulator includes: a fixed housing (60) including first ports (64); a slide (62) including second ports (66); the slide (62) being movable, in relation to the fixed housing (60), under the effect of the pressure of the seawater entering the regulator (37), to a balanced position in which the first and second ports (64, 66) define outlet openings (70) for seawater to flow to the tank (13), the slide (62) being movable between a maximum opening position, in which the area of the openings is at a maximum, and a maximum restriction position, in which the area of the openings (70) is at a minimum.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 16, 2012
    Publication date: July 10, 2014
    Applicant: DCNS
    Inventor: Thomas Senez
  • Publication number: 20130236763
    Abstract: A seawater battery of dissolved oxygen type includes a battery frame (1), n pieces of metal anode plates (2), n pieces of inert cathode plates (3), current collectors and wires (5). The battery frame (1) is consisted of an upper base (6) and a lower base (7), wherein the upper base and the lower base are respectively consisted of an outer ring and a central fixing component. The fixing component is connected with and fixed to the outer ring by a connector, and n pieces of metal anode plates are inserted on the connector so as to construct a cylindrical or frustum-shaped structure. The inert cathode plates are inserted between the metal anode plates along radial direction of the outer ring, and are connected with and fixed to the outer ring and the fixing component of the upper base and the lower base. The metal anode plates are welded in series by wires constituting the anode of the battery and the inert cathode plates are welded in series by wires constituting the cathode of the battery.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 30, 2010
    Publication date: September 12, 2013
    Inventors: Gongquan Sun, Erdong Wang, Shaohua Yang
  • Patent number: 8338038
    Abstract: An electrochemical cell in accordance with one embodiment of the invention includes a first electrode containing a first phase intermixed with a second phase and a network of interconnected pores. The first phase contains a ceramic material and the second phase contains an electrically conductive material providing an electrically contiguous path through the first electrode. The electrochemical cell further includes a second electrode containing an alkali metal. A substantially non-porous alkali-metal-ion-selective ceramic membrane, such as a dense Nasicon, Lisicon, Li ??-alumina, or Na ??-alumina membrane, is interposed between the first and second electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2012
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc
    Inventors: W. Grover Coors, John Howard Gordon, Sophie Gisele Menzer
  • Patent number: 8323817
    Abstract: A galvanic cell is disclosed. Generally, the cell includes an alkali metal anode, which electrochemcially oxidizes to release alkali metal ions, and a cathode, which is configured to be exposed to an electrolyte solution. A water-impermeable, alkali-ion-conductive ceramic membrane separates the anode from the cathode. Moreover, an alkali-ion-permeable anode current collector is placed in electrical communication with the anode. In some cases, to keep the anode in contact with the current collector as the cell functions and as the anode is depleted, the cell includes a biasing member that urges the anode against the current collector. To produce electricity, the galvanic cell is exposed to an aqueous electrolyte solution, such as seawater, brine, saltwater, etc.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2009
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2012
    Assignee: Ceramatec, Inc.
    Inventor: John Howard Gordon
  • Patent number: 8148019
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for generating power from the voltage gradient naturally found in marine sediments. A pump flows sediment porewater to an anode, and a cathode is exposed to marine water. The arrangement can power a circuit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: The United States of America, as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Leonard M Tender
  • Patent number: 8137834
    Abstract: An electrical cell for the propulsion of a device in an aquatic medium includes a first, second and third chamber forming a housing. The first chamber has an auxiliary electrical cell and a command and control module for the electrical propulsion cell, the second chamber a main electrical cell and members for the controlled admission and regulation of water flow from the aquatic medium in order to form an activation electrolyte for the main cell, and the third chamber a module for triggering the admission by suction of water and the discharge by escape of effluents from an admission valve and an escape valve. The command and control module activates the auxiliary electrical cell to generate electrical energy temporarily and the admission by suction of water from the aquatic medium and the discharge of effluents in order to produce electrical energy from the main electrical cell during a cruise phase.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 26, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2012
    Assignee: DCN
    Inventors: Didier Vivien, Jean-Pierre Carmillet
  • Patent number: 8067110
    Abstract: A sorbent media protective device includes an enclosure having a gas inlet, gas outlet and a thin-film multilayer indicator. The thin-film multilayer indicator is proximate sorbent media that can sorb a vapor of interest flowing from the gas inlet towards the gas outlet. The indicator includes a porous detection layer whose optical thickness changes in the presence of the vapor, located between a semireflective layer and a reflective layer permeable to the vapor. With equilibration at the applied vapor concentration between at least a portion of the media and the vapor, the vapor can pass through the reflective layer into the detection layer and change the detection layer optical thickness sufficiently to cause a visibly discernible change in the indicator appearance if viewed through the semireflective layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 29, 2011
    Assignee: 3M Innovative Properties Company
    Inventors: Neal A. Rakow, James P. Mathers, Jun-Ying Zhang, Dora M. Paolucci, Richard J. Poirier, Moses M. David, John E. Trend, Michael S. Wendland
  • Publication number: 20110269007
    Abstract: Water activated alkali metal battery cells, protected anode bi-polar electrodes and multi-cell stacks are configurable to achieve very high energy density. The cells, bi-polar electrode and multi-cell stacks include a protected anode and a cathode having a solid phase electro-active component material that is reduced during cell discharge.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2010
    Publication date: November 3, 2011
    Applicant: PolyPlus Battery Company
    Inventors: Steven J. Visco, Yevgeniy S. Nimon, Lutgard C. De Jonghe, Bruce D. Katz
  • Patent number: 8012616
    Abstract: An improved benthic microbial fuel cell for generating energy at the interface of aquatic sediment and seawater includes an anode electrode embedded within the aquatic sediment, a cathode electrode positioned within the seawater and above the aquatic sediment, a rig for maintaining the relative positions of the anode and cathode electrodes, electrical leads extending from the anode and cathode electrodes to a load, wherein the anode electrode comprises a bottlebrush electrode residing within a permeable tube. The apparatus is easier to deploy than previously-described fuel cells, while being lighter, more durable, and generating greater power density. Also disclosed are methods of generating power from such an apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 6, 2011
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventor: Leonard M. Tender
  • Patent number: 7842423
    Abstract: Lithium metal anode protection, and various semi-fuel cell constructions for use in deep, high pressure seawater or air media are provided. The described lithium semi-fuel cells achieve record high energy densities, due to the high energy density of lithium anode and the use of the cathode reactant from the surrounding media, which is not part of the cell weight, and the use of ultralight and flexible packaging materials. These features make the described semi-fuel cells the ideal choice for powering underwater and air vehicles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 25, 2006
    Date of Patent: November 30, 2010
    Assignee: MaxPower, Inc.
    Inventors: Ian Kowalczyk, William Eppley, Mark Salomon, David Chua, Benjamin Meyer
  • Patent number: 7550224
    Abstract: An apparatus having a metallic manganese anode; a cathode capable of reducing at least one species found in marine water; and a rig coupled to the anode and the cathode capable of maintaining the anode below a marine sediment surface and maintaining the cathode above marine the sediment surface. A method of generating power by: positioning in marine sediment a metallic manganese anode; positioning in marine water a cathode capable of reducing at least one species found in marine water; and connecting electrical leads between the anode, the cathode, and an electrical load.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2009
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Leonard Tender, Daniel Lowy
  • Patent number: 7514173
    Abstract: A water-activated cell comprises an acidic medium including an acidic substance and having a first electrode disposed therein, a basic medium including a basic substance and having a second electrode disposed therein, which basic medium is disposed adjacent to or near the acidic medium, a first reaction substance including a first active material that causes an oxidation reaction at the first electrode, a second reaction substance including a second active material that causes a reduction reaction at the second electrode, and a water-injecting device for injecting water or an aqueous solution into an area where the acidic medium, the basic medium, the first reaction substance, and the second reaction substance exist together, so as to initiate a discharging reaction by the acidic substance, the basic substance, the first active material, and the second active material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Shinji Hasegawa, Kentarou Kishi, Kei Shimotani, Tomoko Miyahara, Takashi Morikawa, Kazunori Anazawa
  • Publication number: 20080102358
    Abstract: Lithium metal anode protection, and various semi-fuel cell constructions for use in deep, high pressure seawater or air media are provided. The described lithium semi-fuel cells achieve record high energy densities, due to the high energy density of lithium anode and the use of the cathode reactant from the surrounding media, which is not part of the cell weight, and the use of ultralight and flexible packaging materials. These features make the described semi-fuel cells the ideal choice for powering underwater and air vehicles.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 25, 2006
    Publication date: May 1, 2008
    Inventors: Ian Kowalczyk, William Eppley, Mark Salomon, David Chua, Benjamin Meyer
  • Patent number: 7205066
    Abstract: A structural element for use in aerospace applications such as a structural element suitable as an aircraft component is described. In one embodiment of the invention, the composite structure comprises: (a) at least one member having an inner surface and an outer surface; (b) a rib having a first end and a second end; (c) a rib-receiving member integral to the inner surface of the at least one member, wherein the rib-receiving member comprises a plurality of rib-receiving elements and openings therein for receiving the first end of the rib and at least one cover sheet having an opening therein for receiving the first end of the rib; and (d) at least one anchoring element interconnecting the rib-receiving elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2007
    Assignee: Rohr, Inc.
    Inventors: Basil Hammi, Claude Hubert
  • Patent number: 7195841
    Abstract: A system and a method of storage and dissolution of solid catholyte are provided. The system and the method employ a solid medium having a controlled surface from which solid catholyte particles suspended within a matrix of encapsulating species are dissolved and hydrolyzed producing hydrogen peroxide to be used in semi fuel cells of undersea vehicles. Encapsulating species are also dissolved and hydrolyzed rendering products completely usable in the semi fuel cell. Sodium peroxide is preferably used as the solid catholyte and potassium superoxide and/or sodium hydroxide are preferably used as encapsulating species.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2004
    Date of Patent: March 27, 2007
    Assignee: The United States of America represented by the Secretary of the Navy
    Inventors: Steven P. Tucker, Maria G. Medeiros, Eric G. Dow
  • Patent number: 6972119
    Abstract: A hydrogen producing apparatus comprising: a reforming section having a reforming catalyst which causes a reaction between a carbon-containing organic compound as a feedstock and water; a feedstock supply section for supplying the feedstock to the reforming section; a water supply section for supplying water to the reforming section; a heating section for heating the reforming catalyst; a shifting section having a shift catalyst which causes a shift reaction between carbon monoxide and water contained in a reformed gas supplied from the reforming section; and a purifying section having a purifying catalyst which causes oxidation or methanation of carbon monoxide contained in a gas supplied from the shifting section, wherein the shift catalyst comprises a platinum group metal and a metal oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 6, 2005
    Assignee: Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Taguchi, Takeshi Tomizawa, Kunihiro Ukai, Toshiyuki Shono, Koichiro Kitagawa, Tetsuya Ueda, Seiji Fujihara, Yutaka Yoshida