Metal Or Alloy Containing Patents (Class 429/485)
  • Patent number: 10903507
    Abstract: The invention relates to a method for producing a flow plate (10, 28) for a fuel cell (12), comprising a plurality of gas guide webs (14) and at least one electrically conductive and porous layer unit (16) arranged on the gas guide webs (14). It is proposed that a geometry and/or a structure of the layer unit (16) is produced during a material application onto the gas guide webs (14).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 2, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2021
    Assignee: Robert Bosch GmbH
    Inventors: Harald Bauer, Helerson Kemmer, Herbert Gruhn, Juergen Hackenberg
  • Patent number: 10047949
    Abstract: Humidity control method and apparatus are disclosed. The humidity control apparatus may include a water holding tank for holding water therein, a nozzle positioned adjacent to the water holding tank for escape of the water therethrough, a first electrode connected to the nozzle, and a second electrode positioned opposite to the first electrode. The humidity control apparatus may include a first electrical power control unit for applying a voltage to the first electrode and the second electrode, and a first insulator formed on the second electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2015
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2018
    Assignee: ELECTRONICS AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS RESEARCH INSTITUTE
    Inventor: Han Young Yu
  • Patent number: 10050283
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process for preparing nanoparticles of a catalyst for cathodic reduction and which is tolerant to methanol, these nanoparticles comprising a metallic center and a submonolayer of a chalcogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: August 14, 2018
    Assignees: CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE (C.N.R.S), UNIVERSITE DE POITIERS
    Inventors: Nicolas Alonso-Vante, Jiwei Ma, Aldo Gago
  • Patent number: 9190670
    Abstract: The invention provides catalysts that are not corroded in acidic electrolytes or at high potential and have excellent durability and high oxygen reducing ability. The catalyst includes a metal element M, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen, wherein the catalyst shows peaks at 1340 cm?1 to 1365 cm?1 and at 1580 cm?1 to 1610 cm?1 as analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and the metal element M is one selected from titanium, iron, niobium, zirconium and tantalum. The catalysts of the invention are stable and are not corroded in acidic electrolytes or at high potential, have high oxygen reducing ability and are inexpensive compared to platinum. Fuel cells having the catalysts are therefore relatively inexpensive and have high performance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2015
    Assignee: SHOWA DENKO K.K.
    Inventors: Yasuaki Wakizaka, Takuya Imai, Toshikazu Shishikura, Ryuji Monden, Kenichiro Ota
  • Publication number: 20150140469
    Abstract: The present invention provides a fuel electrode including a substrate and a nanoporous metallic catalyst layer, characterized in that the metallic catalyst layer includes open interconnected 3D nanopores, and the pore and the pore connections have a size suitable for allowing hydrocarbons having alcohol groups to pass through the interconnected pores so that they react in contact with the surface of the catalyst by confined molecular dynamics. Further, the present invention provides a compartmentless fuel cell electrode pair including the fuel electrode of the present invention; and a polymer membrane-coated oxygen electrode into which a catalyst layer is introduced onto the substrate and which blocks the hydrocarbons having alcohol groups as a fuel molecule and allows the diffusion of oxygen molecules.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 16, 2015
    Publication date: May 21, 2015
    Inventors: Taek Dong Chung, Ji Hyung Han
  • Patent number: 9029043
    Abstract: A composite including a metal having oxygen-reducing activity, nitrogen and carbon, the composite comprising polyhedral particles, an electrode catalyst including the composite, a method of preparing the composite, and a fuel cell using the composite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2015
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kang-hee Lee, Chan-ho Pak, Kyo-sung Park, Seon-ah Jin, Kyung-jung Kwon, Dae-Jong Yoo
  • Patent number: 9023751
    Abstract: This invention is intended to improve the coverage of a platinum or platinum alloy surface with gold when producing a catalyst comprising carrier particles that support gold-modified platinum or platinum alloys. The invention provides a method for producing a catalyst comprising carrier particles that support gold-modified platinum or platinum alloys comprising a step of gold reduction comprising adding carrier particles that support platinum or platinum alloys, a reducing agent, and a gold precursor to a liquid medium and mixing the same, wherein the reducing agent is added to adjust the ORP value (i.e., an oxidation-reduction potential with reference to the silver-silver chloride electrode) of the liquid medium to ?630 to +230 mV upon completion of addition.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2010
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2015
    Assignee: Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventor: Nobuaki Mizutani
  • Patent number: 9005835
    Abstract: This disclosure related to polymer electrolyte member fuel cells and components thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc.
    Inventors: Scott C. Blanchet, Amedeo Conti, James C. Cross, III
  • Publication number: 20150099212
    Abstract: A solid oxide fuel cell comprising an electrolyte, an anode and a cathode. In this fuel cell at least one electrode has been modified with a promoter using gas phase infiltration.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 2, 2014
    Publication date: April 9, 2015
    Applicant: PHILLIPS 66 COMPANY
    Inventors: David M. Bierschenk, Ying Liu, Mingfei Liu, Ting He
  • Publication number: 20150072266
    Abstract: The invention relates to methods and apparatus for forming fluid distribution channels in fuel cell electrode plates, and to plates produced by such methods. Exemplary embodiments disclosed include a method of forming fluid distribution channels in a fuel cell electrode plate (100), the method comprising traversing the plate between opposing surfaces of a roller (801) and a planar die (802) while applying pressure across the thickness of the plate to thereby form a series of channels across a surface of the plate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Publication date: March 12, 2015
    Inventor: Peter David Hood
  • Patent number: 8956781
    Abstract: A fuel cell includes an anode, a cathode and a solid electrolyte layer. The cathode has a main phase and a sub phase. The main phase is composed of a perovskite type oxide including cobalt. The sub phase is composed of tricobalt tetroxide. The solid electrolyte layer is disposed between the anode and the cathode. An area occupancy of the sub phase in a sectional surface of the cathode is equal to or less than 9.8%.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Makoto Ohmori, Ayano Kobayashi
  • Patent number: 8945791
    Abstract: In a fuel cell including an electrolyte layer allowing an anion component to migrate, and a fuel-side electrode and an oxygen-side electrode arranged to face each other while sandwiching the electrolyte layer, the oxygen-side electrode contains a first catalyst containing a first transition metal and polypyrrole, and a second catalyst containing a second transition metal and a porphyrin ring-containing compound so that the mixing ratio of the first catalyst relative to 100 parts by mass of the total amount of the first catalyst and the second catalyst is more than 10 parts by mass, and below 90 parts by mass.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: February 3, 2015
    Assignees: Daihatsu Motor Co. Ltd., STC UNM
    Inventors: Koichiro Asazawa, Koji Yamada, Hirohisa Tanaka, Kazuya Yamamoto, Tim Olson, Svitlana Pylypenko, Plamen Atanassov
  • Patent number: 8921007
    Abstract: A bonding layer, disposed between an interconnect layer and an electrode layer of a solid oxide fuel cell article, may be formed from a yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) powder having a monomodal particle size distribution (PSD) with a d50 that is greater than about 1 ?m and a d90 that is greater than about 2 ?m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 30, 2014
    Assignee: Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc.
    Inventors: Guangyong Lin, Yeshwanth Narendar, John D. Pietras, Qiang Zhao, Robert J. Sliwoski, Caroline Levy, Samuel S. Marlin, Aravind Mohanram
  • Patent number: 8889315
    Abstract: The present invention provides a catalyst which is not corroded in an acidic electrolyte or at a high potential, is excellent in durability and has high oxygen reduction ability. The catalyst of the present invention is characterized by including a niobium oxycarbonitride. The catalyst of the invention is also characterized by including a niobium oxycarbonitride represented by the composition formula NbCxNyOz, wherein x, y and z represent a ratio of the numbers of atoms and are numbers satisfying the conditions of 0.01?x?2, 0.01?y?2, 0.01?z?3 and x+y+z?5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 18, 2014
    Assignee: Showa Denko K.K.
    Inventors: Ryuji Monden, Hiroshi Konuma, Toshikazu Shishikura, Tadatoshi Kurozumi
  • Patent number: 8841043
    Abstract: Provided is an interconnector material which is chemically stable in both oxidation atmospheres and reduction atmospheres, has a high electron conductivity (electric conductivity), a low ionic conductivity, does not contain Cr, and enables a reduction in sintering temperature. The interconnector material is arranged between a plurality of cells each composed of an anode layer, a solid electrolyte layer, and a cathode layer stacked sequentially, and electrically connects the plurality of cells to each other in series in a solid electrolyte fuel cell. The interconnector is formed of a ceramic composition represented by the composition formula La(Fe1-xAlx)O3 in which 0<x<0.5.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 13, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 23, 2014
    Assignee: Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazuhide Takata, Michiaki Iha
  • Publication number: 20140272666
    Abstract: In some examples, solid oxide fuel cell system comprising a solid oxide fuel cell including an anode, an anode conductor layer, a cathode, a cathode conductor layer, and electrolyte, wherein the anode and the anode conductor layer each comprise nickel; and a sacrificial nickel source separate from that of the anode and anode conductor layer, wherein the sacrificial nickel source is configured to reduce the loss or migration of the nickel of the anode and/or the anode current collector in the fuel cell during operation
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: LG Fuel Cell Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard W. Goettler, Liang Xue
  • Patent number: 8835074
    Abstract: A fuel cell includes a cell having a solid oxide electrolyte between electrodes. The cell has a first coefficient of thermal expansion. A metallic support is in electrical connection with one of the electrodes. The metallic support includes a metal substrate and a compliant porous nickel layer that is bonded to the metal substrate between the cell and the metal substrate. The metal substrate has a second coefficient of thermal expansion that nominally matches the first coefficient of thermal expansion of the cell. The metal substrate has a first stiffness and the compliant porous nickel layer has a second stiffness that is less than the first stiffness such that the compliant porous nickel layer can thermally expand and contract with the metal substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Ballard Power Systems Inc.
    Inventors: Justin R. Hawkes, Sergei F. Burlatsky, Sunil G. Warrier, Shubhro Ghosh, Jean Colpin
  • Patent number: 8835060
    Abstract: Silicon-oxygen batteries comprising a silicon anode as chemical fuel, an air-cathode for dissociating oxygen, and an electrolyte, and applications using the same are provided. The silicon-batteries may utilize air for generating oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 11, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignees: Technion Research & Development Foundation Limited, The Penn State Research Foundation
    Inventors: Yair Ein-Eli, Digby Donald MacDonald
  • Patent number: 8835077
    Abstract: The electrode material contains a complex oxide and at least one of ZrO2 and a compound comprising ZrO2. The complex oxide has a perovskite structure represented by a general formula ABO3. ZrO2 is contained in an amount of 0.3×10?2 wt % to 1 wt % relative to the entire electrode material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 19, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Ayano Kobayashi, Shinji Fujisaki, Makoto Ohmori
  • Patent number: 8835344
    Abstract: The present invention provides a fuel cell electrode, which has increased physical and chemical durability, and a method for manufacturing a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) using the same. According to the present invention, the fuel cell electrode is manufactured by controlling the amount of platinum supported on a first carbon support used in an anode to be smaller than that used in a cathode to increase the mechanical strength of a catalyst layer and maintain the thickness of the catalyst layer after prolonged operation and by adding carbon nanofibers containing a radical scavenger to a catalyst slurry to decrease deterioration of chemical durability.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Assignee: Hyundai Motor Company
    Inventor: Jae Seung Lee
  • Patent number: 8828613
    Abstract: Fuel-cell assemblies containing a membrane electrode assembly, methods for preparing the membrane electrode assembly, and methods for functionalizing catalytic surfaces of catalyst particles in the membrane electrode assembly of the fuel cell assembly have been described. The fuel-cell assemblies and their membrane electrode assemblies contain cathode catalyst materials having catalytic surfaces that are functionalized with cyano groups to improve catalyst activity. The cathode catalyst materials may include a catalytic metal such as platinum or a platinum alloy. The cyano groups may be derived from a cyanide source that is electro-oxidized onto the catalytic surfaces. Nonlimiting examples of cyanide sources include amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and serine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: September 9, 2014
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Jingxin Zhang, Rohit Makharia, Jeanette E. Owejan
  • Publication number: 20140242493
    Abstract: A direct carbon fuel cell DCFC system (5), the system comprising an electrochemical cell, the electrochemical cell (10) comprising a cathode (30), a solid state first electrolyte (25) and an anode (20), wherein, the system further comprises an anode chamber containing a second electrolyte (125) and a fuel (120). The system, when using molten carbonate as second electrolyte, is preferably purged with CO2 via purge gas inlet (60).
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 25, 2012
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Applicant: University Court of the University of St. Andrews
    Inventors: John Thomas Sirr Irvine, Gael Corre, Cairong Jiang
  • Publication number: 20140234751
    Abstract: There are provided a solid oxide fuel cell capable of firmly sealing an anode while simultaneously securing rigidity of an anode support structure, and a manufacturing method thereof. The solid oxide fuel cell includes an electrolyte layer, a cathode provided on one surface of the electrolyte layer, an anode provided on the other surface of the electrolyte layer, and at least one reinforcing member disposed within the anode to reinforce rigidity thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 10, 2013
    Publication date: August 21, 2014
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRO-MECHANICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Jong Ho CHUNG, Sung Han KIM, Jong Sik YOON, Bon Seok KOO
  • Patent number: 8790841
    Abstract: A metal alloy catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells is disclosed. The catalyst contains the metals Pd, M1 and M2. M1 and M2 are different metals selected from Co, Fe, Au, Cr and W, excluding the combination PdCoAu.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2014
    Assignee: Ilika Technologies Ltd.
    Inventors: Karen Marie Brace, Brian Elliot Hayden, Christopher Edward Lee, Thierry Le Gall
  • Patent number: 8785342
    Abstract: The present invention provides a catalyst carrier having excellent durability and capable of attaining high catalytic ability without increasing the specific surface area thereof, and a catalyst obtainable by using the catalyst carrier. The catalyst carrier of the present invention comprises a metal oxycarbonitride, preferably the metal contained in the metal oxycarbonitride comprises at least one selected from the group consisting of niobium, tin, indium, platinum, tantalum, zirconium, copper, iron, tungsten, chromium, molybdenum, hafnium, titanium, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, cerium, mercury, plutonium, gold, silver, iridium, palladium, yttrium, ruthenium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium, lutetium, and nickel. Moreover, the catalyst of the present invention comprises the catalyst carrier and a catalyst metal supported on the catalyst carrier.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Showa Denko K.K.
    Inventors: Ryuji Monden, Tadatoshi Kurozumi, Toshikazu Shishikura
  • Patent number: 8758951
    Abstract: A continuous coal electrolytic cell for the production of pure hydrogen without the need of separated purification units Electrodes comprising electrocatalysts comprising noble metals electrodeposited on carbon substrates are also provided. Also provided are methods of using the electrocatalysts provided herein for the electrolysis of coal in acidic medium, as well as electrolytic cells for the production of hydrogen from coal slurries in acidic media employing the electrodes described herein. Further provided are catalytic additives for the electro-oxidation of coal. Additionally provided is an electrochemical treatment process where iron-contaminated effluents are purified in the presence of coal slurries using the developed catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 24, 2014
    Assignee: Ohio University
    Inventor: Gerardine Botte
  • Patent number: 8748334
    Abstract: This invention provides a process for producing an electrode catalyst for a fuel cell, comprising a first support step of producing metallic fine particles having an average particle diameter of 0.1 to 1.5 nm provided at regulated particle intervals on an electroconductive carbon carrier, and a second support step of growing a metal identical to or dissimilar to the metal using the metallic fine particles as a nucleus. In the first support step, the metallic fine particles are supported by an immersion method. The above constitution can provide an electrode catalyst for a fuel cell, which has a high level of percentage support, has a high level of dispersibility, and has improved methanol oxidation activity per weight of the catalyst. Further, when treatment in an atmosphere containing hydrogen is carried out at a low temperature below 100° C., the methanol oxidation activity per active surface area can be improved without lowering the active area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Shigeru Konishi
  • Patent number: 8735013
    Abstract: The present invention provides methods for fabricating a fuel cell membrane structure that can dramatically reduce fuel crossover, thereby improving fuel cell efficiency and power output. Preferred composite membrane structures include an inorganic layer situated between the anode layer and the proton-exchange membrane. The inorganic layer can conduct protons in unhydrated form, rather than as hydronium ions, which reduces fuel crossover. Some methods of this invention include certain coating steps to effectively deposit an inorganic layer on an organic proton-exchange membrane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 24, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2014
    Assignee: HRL Laboratories, LLC
    Inventors: Ping Liu, Jocelyn Hicks-Garner, Chaoyin Zhou, Adam F. Gross, John J. Vajo
  • Patent number: 8685594
    Abstract: A cathode catalyst for a fuel cell includes a carrier, and an active material including M selected from the group consisting of Ru, Pt, Rh, and combinations thereof, and Ch selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and combinations thereof, with the proviso that the active material is not RuSe when the carrier is C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2006
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2014
    Assignee: Samsung SDI Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Alexey AlexandrovichSerov, Chan Kwak, Myoung-Ki Min, Si-Hyun Lee
  • Patent number: 8669020
    Abstract: A membrane electrode assembly including an anode that incorporates a porous support and a hydrogen permeable metal thin film disposed on the porous support; a cathode; and a proton conductive solid oxide electrolyte membrane disposed between the anode and the cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 11, 2014
    Assignees: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Snu R&DB Foundation
    Inventors: Pil-won Heo, Yoon-ho Lee, Sang-kyun Kang, Jin-su Ha, Suk-won Cha
  • Patent number: 8652704
    Abstract: The direct alcohol fuel cell of the present invention is a direct alcohol fuel cell comprising an anode 20 having an anode catalyst layer 2, a cathode 30 having a cathode catalyst layer 3, and a solid polymer electrolyte membrane 1 arranged between the anode 20 and cathode 30, the direct alcohol fuel cell generating electricity by supplying the anode 20 with alcohol and water; wherein the cathode catalyst layer 3 contains a metal complex and/or a metal complex fired product formed by firing the metal complex as a catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 18, 2014
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Atsushi Sano, Satoshi Maruyama
  • Patent number: 8617770
    Abstract: One embodiment of the invention includes a method including providing a cathode catalyst ink comprising a first catalyst, an oxygen evolution reaction catalyst, and a solvent; and depositing the cathode catalyst ink on one of a polymer electrolyte membrane, a gas diffusion medium layer, or a decal backing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Susan G. Yan, Hubert A. Gasteiger, Paul Taichiang Yu, Wenbin Gu, Jingxin Zhang
  • Patent number: 8603697
    Abstract: There is provided a dendritic catalyst layer for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell including: a solid polymer electrolyte membrane; electrodes; and catalyst layers each provided between the solid polymer electrolyte membrane and the respective electrode, the catalyst layer for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell includes a catalyst with a dendritic structure. The catalyst with a dendritic structure is formed through vacuum evaporation such as reactive sputtering, reactive electron beam evaporation, or ion plating. The catalyst layer for a solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell can improve catalytic activity, catalyst utilization, and substance transport performance in the catalyst layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2013
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Kazuya Miyazaki, Kazuhiro Yamada, Yoshinobu Okumura
  • Publication number: 20130302715
    Abstract: A catalyst carrier production process includes a step (a) of mixing a transition metal compound (1), a nitrogen-containing organic compound (2), and a solvent to provide a catalyst carrier precursor solution; a step (b) of removing the solvent from the catalyst carrier precursor solution; and a step (c) of thermally treating a solid residue obtained in the step (b) at a temperature of 500 to 1100° C. to provide a catalyst carrier; wherein the transition metal compound (1) is partly or wholly a compound including a transition metal element (M1) selected from the group 4 and 5 elements of the periodic table as a transition metal element; and at least one of the transition metal compound (1) and the nitrogen-containing organic compound (2) includes an oxygen atom.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 19, 2013
    Publication date: November 14, 2013
    Inventors: Masaki HORIKITA, Kunchan LEE, Ryuji MONDEN, Chunfu YU, Yasuaki WAKIZAKA, Takashi SATO, Yoshinori ABE
  • Publication number: 20130280636
    Abstract: Disclosed are an electrode for a fuel cell, a method of preparing the fuel cell electrode, a membrane-electrode assembly including the fuel cell electrode, and a fuel cell system including the fuel cell electrode. The electrode includes an electrode substrate having a conductive substrate and a layer-by-layer assembled multi-layer disposed on a side of the conductive substrate and a bilayer including a polymer electrolyte or a conductive nanoparticle, and a catalyst layer disposed on the electrode substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 3, 2012
    Publication date: October 24, 2013
    Applicant: SAMSUNG SDI CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Jun-Young KIM, Myoung-Ki MIN, Kah-Young SONG, Hee-Tak KIM
  • Publication number: 20130273456
    Abstract: Disclosed are a solid oxide fuel cell, a method of fabricating the same, and a tape casting apparatus for fabricating an anode. The solid oxide fuel cell includes an electrolyte film sheet, a cathode, and an anode, and the anode includes a catalyst active layer sheet for inducing a reforming reaction of the supplied fuel. The catalyst active layer sheet is formed by a tape casting method using a plurality of pieces of slurry having different catalyst contents, and the catalyst content within the catalyst active layer sheet is gradually changed in a flow direction of the fuel. In the solid oxide fuel cell, a temperature deviation of a unit cell is minimized by uniformly reforming the fuel in the flow direction of the fuel, thereby improving mechanical and chemical durability.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 28, 2011
    Publication date: October 17, 2013
    Applicant: POSCO
    Inventors: Hongyoul Bae, Jung Hoon Song, Jin Soo Ahn, Young Min Park
  • Publication number: 20130260267
    Abstract: Fuel-cell assemblies containing a membrane electrode assembly, methods for preparing the membrane electrode assembly, and methods for functionalizing catalytic surfaces of catalyst particles in the membrane electrode assembly of the fuel cell assembly have been described. The fuel-cell assemblies and their membrane electrode assemblies contain cathode catalyst materials having catalytic surfaces that are functionalized with cyano groups to improve catalyst activity. The cathode catalyst materials may include a catalytic metal such as platinum or a platinum alloy. The cyano groups may be derived from a cyanide source that is electro-oxidized onto the catalytic surfaces. Nonlimiting examples of cyanide sources include amino acids such as glycine, alanine, and serine.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 13, 2013
    Publication date: October 3, 2013
    Applicant: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Jingxin Zhang, Rohit Makharia, Jeanette E. Owejan
  • Patent number: 8546042
    Abstract: In a membrane electrode assembly of the present invention, at least one of a catalyst layer of an oxygen electrode and a catalyst layer of a fuel electrode includes a supported catalyst supporting a metal catalyst containing a platinum group element, a proton conductive polymer electrolyte, and at least one selected from (a) a complex-forming agent having a ligand that forms coordinate bonds with ions of the platinum group element and forms a complex, the ligand containing oxygen as a coordinating atom, (b) a complex of the platinum group element, a ligand of the complex containing oxygen as a coordinating atom, and (c) carbon that has a BET specific surface area of 100 m2/g or greater, satisfies at least one of (i) an R value of Raman spectrum of 0.5 or less and (ii) a lattice spacing d002 between (002) planes of 0.35 nm or less, and does not support the metal catalyst.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Hitachi Maxell, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kohei Ugawa, Hiroshi Kashino, Norihisa Yoshimoto, Shoji Saibara
  • Patent number: 8524415
    Abstract: A high surface area support material is formed of an intimate mixture of carbon clusters and titanium oxide clusters. A catalytic metal, such as platinum, is deposited on the support particles and the catalyzed material used as an electrocatalyst in an electrochemical cell such as a PEM fuel cell. The composite material is prepared by thermal decomposition and oxidation of an intimate mixture of a precursor carbon polymer, a titanium alkoxide and a surfactant that serves as a molecular template for the mixed precursors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 4, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 3, 2013
    Assignee: GM Global Technology Operations LLC
    Inventors: Mei Cai, Suresh K. Donthu, Martin S. Ruthkosky, Ion C. Halalay
  • Patent number: 8518598
    Abstract: The plant (10) includes a molten metal anode (44) passing through a fuel cell (12) anode inlet (46) having a first interrupted flow generator (104), then into an anode flow field (42) of the fuel cell (12), and leaving the anode flow field (42) through an anode outlet (48) having a second interrupted flow generator (113). The molten anode (44) then flows into a reduction reactor (50) where the oxidized anode (44) is reduced by a reducing fuel (61). The molten anode (44) is then cycled back into the first interrupted flow generator (104) and anode flow field (42). Interrupting flow of the molten anode (44) prevents electrical continuity between the anode inlet (46) and the anode outlet (48) through the molten anode (44) within the anode flow field (42). This facilitates stacking the planar fuel cells in series within a fuel cell stack to build voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: August 27, 2013
    Assignee: UTC Power Corporation
    Inventor: Jean Yamanis
  • Publication number: 20130216923
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electro-catalyst M?aIrbMc, wherein M? is selected from the group consisting of Pt, Ta and Ru, and wherein the molar ratio a:b is within the range of 85:15 to 50:50 and the molar ratio a:c is within the range of 50:50 to 95:5, both calculated as pure metal and wherein M is selected from metals from Groups 3-15 of the Periodic System of Elements. The present invention further relates to an electrode comprising a support and the electro-catalyst. The present invention further relates to the use of the electro-catalyst and/or the electrode in electrochemical processes which comprise an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), an oxygen evolution reaction (OER), a hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), a hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR), a carbon monoxide oxidation reaction (COR) or a methanol oxidation reaction (MOR).
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 23, 2011
    Publication date: August 22, 2013
    Inventors: Seyed Schwan Hosseiny, Machiel Saakes, Matthias Wessling
  • Patent number: 8501367
    Abstract: Silver-copper-zinc compositions are employed as catalysts, e.g., for fuel cell and/or electrolyzer applications. These compositions have been experimentally tested in solid oxide fuel cell and proton exchange membrane fuel cell configurations. Such catalysts can be effective for both the anode and cathode half-reactions. A preferred composition range is AgxCuyZnz, where 0?x?0.1, 0.2?y?0.5, and 0.5?z?0.8.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 2010
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2013
    Assignee: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Timothy P. Holme, Friedrich B. Prinz
  • Publication number: 20130189603
    Abstract: [Problem] To provide a fuel cell having excellent power generation performance, which includes a compound containing at least hydrogen and nitrogen as fuel and uses an anion exchange membrane as an electrolyte layer. [Solution] In a fuel cell 1 including an electrolyte layer 4 formed from an anion exchange membrane, a fuel side electrode 2 and an oxygen side electrode 3, both electrodes being disposed to face each other with the electrolyte layer 4 interposed therebetween, the fuel side electrode 2 contains lanthanum and nickel as a metal catalyst such that the content proportion of lanthanum is 10 to 30% relative to the total mole of the lanthanum and nickel. Further, a compound containing at least hydrogen and nitrogen, such as hydrazine, is used as fuel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 9, 2011
    Publication date: July 25, 2013
    Inventors: Tomokazu Sakamoto, Koichiro Asazawa, Koji Yamada, Hirohisa Tanaka
  • Patent number: 8486328
    Abstract: Powders of respective metal elements (Mn,Co) constituting a transition metal oxide (MnCo2O4) having a spinel type crystal structure are used as a starting material. A paste containing the mixture of the powders is interposed between an air electrode and an interconnector, and with this state, a sintering is performed, whereby a bonding agent according to the present invention can be obtained. This bonding agent has a “co-continuous structure”. In the “co-continuous structure”, a thickness of an arm portion that links many base portions to one another is 0.3 to 2.5 ?m. The bonding agent includes a spherical particle in which plural crystal faces are exposed to the surface, the particle having a side with a length of 1 ?m or more, among the plural sides constituting the outline of the crystal face. The diameter of the particle is 5 to 80 ?m.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: July 16, 2013
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Makoto Ohmori, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Takashi Ryu
  • Patent number: 8475968
    Abstract: A fueled cell system comprising: an anode compartment comprising a compound having the formula R1R2N—NR3R4, a salt, a hydrate or a solvate thereof, as fuel, and a catalyst layer which comprises copper or a copper alloy; a cathode compartment comprising an oxidant; and a separator interposed between said cathode and said anode compartments, wherein each of R1-R4 is independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, heteroalicyclic, alkoxy, carboxy, ketone, amide, hydrazide and amine, provided that at least one of R1-R4 is hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignee: Ramot at Tel-Aviv University Ltd.
    Inventors: Fernando Patolsky, Boris Filanovsky, Eran Granot
  • Patent number: 8475969
    Abstract: High power density generators are formed with a flexible multi-layered structure. The structure includes a fuel layer with a separate fuel cell stack adjacent to each side of the fuel layer. The structure can be flexible and formed into a variety of shapes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 2, 2013
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventor: Steven J. Eickhoff
  • Patent number: 8470495
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrode catalyst comprising: (a) a support; (b) metal catalyst particles supported on the support and formed of a catalytically active metal or metal-containing alloy; and (c) an anti-coarsening compound, which is dispersed in at least one region selected from the group consisting of interstitial spaces among the catalyst particles and contact sites between the support and the catalyst particles, and has a coarsening temperature higher than that of the catalyst. A method for preparing the electrode catalyst is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2006
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: LG Chem, Ltd.
    Inventors: Byungwoo Park, Chunjoong Kim, Myunggoo Kang, Jin Nam Park, Hyuk Kim, Min Suk Kim
  • Patent number: 8459467
    Abstract: A solid oxide fuel cell includes an anode layer, an electrolyte layer over a surface of the anode layer, and a cathode layer over a surface of the electrolyte layer. The cathode layer includes a cathode bulk layer, a porous cathode functional layer at an electrolyte, an intermediate cathode layer partitioning the cathode bulk layer and the porous cathode functional layer, the porous intermediate cathode layer having a porosity greater than that of the cathode bulk layer. The solid oxide fuel cells can be combined to form subassemblies that are bonded together to form solid oxide fuel cell assemblies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2013
    Assignee: Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher J. Reilly, Guangyong Lin, Yeshwanth Narendar
  • Patent number: 8455153
    Abstract: An anode component of a solid oxide fuel cell is formed by combining a relatively coarse yttria-stabilized-zirconium (YSZ) powder, that is substantially composed of elongated particles, with a relatively fine NiO/YSZ or NiO powder of reduced particle size, whereby, upon sintering the combined powders, the coarse YSZ powder forms a microstructural cage of open porosity wherein the fine powder is distributed through the open porosity of the cage. A method of forming a cathode component includes combining a coarse YSZ powder, that is substantially composed of elongated particles, with a fine lanthanum strontium manganite powder of reduced particle size, whereby, upon sintering the combined powders, the coarse YSZ powder forms a microstructural cage of open porosity, wherein the fine powder is distributed through the open porosity of the cage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 17, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2013
    Assignee: Saint-Gobain Ceramics & Plastics, Inc.
    Inventor: F. Michael Mahoney
  • Patent number: 8450026
    Abstract: A membrane electrode assembly for a solid electrolyte fuel cell comprises: an electrode having a layer of nano-structured material on one of its faces, an electrocatalyst deposited on the nano-structured material and an electrolyte deposited on the electrocatalyst/nano-structured material. The nano-structured material can comprise carbon, silicon, graphite, boron, titanium and be in the form of multi-walled nano-tubes (MWNTs), single-walled nano-tubes (SWNTs), nano-fibers, nano-rods or a combination thereof. The nano-structured material can be grown or deposited on one face of an electrode of the cell or on a substrate such as a flexible sheet material of carbon fibers using chemical vapor deposition. The electrocatalyst and electrolyte can be incorporated in the nano structured material using physical vapor deposition (PVD), ion beam sputtering or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2013
    Assignee: Intematix Corporation
    Inventors: Mina Farag, Chris Bajorek