Foreign Substance Patents (Class 600/314)
  • Patent number: 9980676
    Abstract: A biosensor includes a PPG circuit that emits light directed at skin tissue at a plurality of wavelengths. A first and second spectral response of light reflected from the tissue is obtained around a first wavelength and a second wavelength. Using absorption coefficients for substances at the plurality of wavelengths, concentration levels of a plurality of substances may then be determined from the spectral responses. The biosensor may thus be used to determine concentrations of a plurality of substances in arterial blood flow using the spectral response.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2018
    Assignee: Sanmina Corporation
    Inventor: Robert Steven Newberry
  • Publication number: 20150148626
    Abstract: In-vivo methods and kits for detecting presence of a combination of biomarkers indicating colorectal cancer are described. One of the methods includes inserting into a patient a combination of binding agents comprising one binding agent having high affinity to CEACAM5 and at least one binding agent having high affinity to at least one of two biomarkers selected from Olfactomedin 4- (OLFM4) and S100P. The method further includes inserting into the patient an in-vivo sensing device, detecting an optical change using the in-vivo sensing device, which occurs when at least one of the combination of binding agents binds to at least one of the corresponding combination of biomarkers, and determining, based on the optical change, presence of colorectal cancer in the patient.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 23, 2013
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Inventors: Osnat Sella-Tavor, Elisha Rabinovitz
  • Patent number: 8983570
    Abstract: The invention relates to methods for the diagnosis, amelioration, and treatment of back pain, particularly lumbar back pain, in particular, back pain caused by muscular abnormalities, vertebral body osteoporosis, and disc degeneration. Patients with back pain are categorized into specific subsets that are deemed to have potential to respond to therapy. In particular, the invention includes a therapy involving stimulation of neovascularization so as to increase perfusion of various spine compartments.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Cardiovascular Biotherapeutics, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas J. Stegmann, Kenneth A. Thomas, John W. Jacobs, Tugan Muftuler, Shadfar Bahri, Hon Yu, Vance Gardner
  • Publication number: 20140316225
    Abstract: A system and method for detecting vascular contamination by surgical anesthetic using non-invasive IR spectrophotometry. One embodiment is a method for operating an instrument such as an enhanced pulse oximeter to monitor a patient receiving local anesthetic marked with dye that absorbs infrared light. Light is applied to and detected from tissue of the patient. A signal representative of the detected light is processed to derive patient oxygenation information. The detected light is also processed to derive information representative of the presence of the dye-marked anesthetic. The oxygenation information and the information representative of the presence of anesthetic are displayed. The oxygenation monitoring and display and the anesthetic monitoring and display can occur separately or concurrently. Fluorescing dyes and fluorescence detection approaches are used for anesthetic detection in some embodiments.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 22, 2012
    Publication date: October 23, 2014
    Applicant: MAYO FOUNDATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH
    Inventors: Steven R. Clendenen, Clifton R. Haider, Barry K. Gilbert, Oliver William Spees
  • Publication number: 20140307258
    Abstract: Ethanol is non-invasively tested using temperature-modulated spectroscopy (TMS). The TMS approach uses the active control of temperature to vary the spectral response of the IR-LED output, effectively sliding a spectral pulse across the ethanol sample, revealing the peaks and valleys of ethanol's spectral response.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 11, 2011
    Publication date: October 16, 2014
    Applicant: Methode Electronics, Inc.
    Inventors: Shane Kirkbride, Terrance E. Boult
  • Publication number: 20140303462
    Abstract: A device for applying a sensor to a measurement site on a patient's skin has a wall arrangement defining an applicator volume above the patient's skin The wall arrangement has a patient's side and a sensor side. At least one gas-permeable membrane separates the applicator volume into a first volume directed to the measuring site at the patient's side of the wall arrangement and a second volume separated from the patient's skin and directed to the sensor side of the wall arrangement.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 25, 2012
    Publication date: October 9, 2014
    Inventors: Christoph Ellenberger-Girard, Dominik Rudmann, Peter Matthias Schumacher
  • Publication number: 20140171762
    Abstract: A monitoring device includes a band capable of encircling a portion of the body of a subject, and an optical emitter and detector attached to the band. The band includes comprises light transmissive material in optical communication with the optical emitter and optical detector and is configured to deliver light from the optical emitter to one or more locations of the body of the subject and to collect light from one or more locations of the body of the subject and deliver the collected light to the optical detector. The monitoring device may include a signal processor configured to receive and process signals produced by the optical detector, a transmitter configured to transmit signals processed by the signal processor to a remote device, and/or an optical filter.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 19, 2014
    Publication date: June 19, 2014
    Applicant: Valencell, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven Francis LeBoeuf, Jesse Berkley Tucker, Michael Edward Aumer
  • Publication number: 20140163329
    Abstract: Methods and systems for determining a physiological parameter of a subject through interrogation of an eye of the subject with an optical signal are described. Interrogation is performed unobtrusively. The system includes a gaze attractor for attracting the gaze of the subject to cause an eye of the subject to move into alignment with regard to an interrogation signal source and/or response signal sensor to facilitate detection of a signal from the eye of the subject.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 11, 2012
    Publication date: June 12, 2014
    Applicant: Elwha LLC
    Inventors: Allen L. Brown, JR., Douglas C. Burger, Eric Horvitz, Roderick A. Hyde, Edward K.Y. Jung, Eric C. Leuthardt, Jordin T. Kare, Chris Demetrios Karkanias, John L. Manferdelli, Craig J. Mundie, Nathan P. Myhrvold, Barney Pell, Clarence T. Tegreene, Willard H. Wattenburg, Charles Whitmer, Lowell L. Wood, JR., Richard N. Zare
  • Publication number: 20140132957
    Abstract: Methods, apparatus and/or systems are disclosed for collecting and processing of spectral data from an object to enable the determination of the presence and/or amount of a target analyte present in the object is disclosed. The object may be a portion of a person's body such as the forearm, palms, fingers, or eye. The target analyte may be ethanol. The method/apparatus/system for performing such spectral data collection may include one or more broadband emitters such as thermal emitters (aka “black-body” or “gray-body” emitters), incandescent sources, light emitting diodes, and the like.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 11, 2011
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Applicant: Methode Electronics, Inc.
    Inventor: Robert Messerschmidt
  • Publication number: 20140058224
    Abstract: A method for measuring and quantifying biological compounds is described. A first side of a sample is illuminated with a light source. Light transmitted from a second side of the sample is detected. The second side of the sample is opposite the first side of the sample. A result is obtained based on the detected light.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 21, 2012
    Publication date: February 27, 2014
    Applicant: Opticks, Inc.
    Inventors: Werner Gellermann, Mohsen Sharifzadeh
  • Patent number: 8625087
    Abstract: Disclosed herein is a packing container including: a packing container body including a leading-out section which contains an optical probe having a first end section for incoming of a laser beam and a second end section for outgoing of the incoming laser beam, which leads out the first end section of the optical probe thus contained to the exterior and which is sealed, and a window section by which the laser beam going out from the second end section of the contained optical probe is led out to the exterior; and a light-transmitting member which closes the window section and permits the laser beam to pass therethrough.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 7, 2014
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventor: Yoshiro Takiguchi
  • Publication number: 20130317328
    Abstract: Methods and apparatuses for the determination of an attribute of the tissue of an individual use non-invasive Raman spectroscopy. For example, the alcohol concentration in the blood or tissue of an individual can be determined. A portion of the tissue is illuminated with light, which propagates into the tissue where it is Raman scattered. The Raman scattered light is detected and can be combined with a model relating Raman spectra to alcohol concentration to determine the alcohol concentration in the blood or tissue. Correction techniques can reduce determination errors due to detection of light other than that from Raman scattering from the alcohol in the tissue. Other biologic information can be used with the Raman spectral properties to aid in the determination of alcohol concentration, for example age, height, weight, medical history and his/her family, ethnicity, skin melanin content, or a combination thereof.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 17, 2013
    Publication date: November 28, 2013
    Inventors: Trent D. Ridder, Rob Johnson, Russell Abbink, John D. Maynard
  • Publication number: 20130197326
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are compositions comprising an oblong optode sensing agent. The oblong optode sensing agent comprises a core and a semipermeable membrane, wherein the core comprises one or more sensors configured to bind to an analyte. In addition, methods of making and detecting the oblong optode sensing agents are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 10, 2012
    Publication date: August 1, 2013
    Applicant: NORTHEASTERN UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: John Matthew DUBACH, Heather A. CLARK, Karen K. GLEASON, Gozde OZAYDIN-INCE
  • Publication number: 20130172697
    Abstract: [Object] To provide a calculation apparatus and a calculation method capable of calculating pharmaceutical concentration in a tissue in real time. [Solving Means] A photodynamic therapy apparatus as a calculation apparatus is an apparatus for irradiating a tissue having absorbed photo-sensitive pharmaceutical, the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical absorbing an excitation light and emitting fluorescence, with the excitation light emitted from a tip portion of a laser catheter, including a connector, a light source, and a light detection unit. The laser catheter is capable of being attached/detached to/from the connector. The light source outputs the excitation light to the laser catheter via the connector. The light detection unit detects intensity of the fluorescence, the fluorescence being entered from the laser catheter via the connector, to calculate concentration of the photo-sensitive pharmaceutical in a tissue, the tip portion of the laser catheter contacting the tissue.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 7, 2011
    Publication date: July 4, 2013
    Applicants: KEIO UNIVERSITY, SONY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Koshi Tamamura, Shiho Hakomori, Takashi Yamaguchi, Tsunenori Arai, Arisa Ito
  • Publication number: 20130144137
    Abstract: A system and method are presented for use in monitoring one or more conditions of a subject's body. The system includes a control unit which includes an input port for receiving image data, a memory utility, and a processor utility. The image data is indicative of data measured by a pixel detector array and is in the form of a sequence of speckle patterns generated by a portion of the subject's body in response to illumination thereof by coherent light according to a certain sampling time pattern. The memory utility stores one or more predetermined models, the model comprising data indicative of a relation between one or more measurable parameters and one or more conditions of the subject's body. The processor utility is configured and operable for processing the image data to determine one or more corresponding body conditions; and generating output data indicative of the corresponding body conditions.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 1, 2012
    Publication date: June 6, 2013
    Applicants: Universitat de Valencia, Bar Ilan University
    Inventors: Zeev ZALEVSKY, Javier GARCIA, Vicente MICO, Michael BELKIN, Yevgeny BIEDERMAN, Israel MARGALIT, Revital BARELLY
  • Publication number: 20130109934
    Abstract: Devices, systems, and methods are described herein for controlling or modulating the levels of one or more target components in the blood and/or lymph of a vertebrate subject. Devices and systems are provided that include a body defining at least one lumen configured for fluid flow; at least one controllable flow barrier to fluid flow into the at least one lumen; at least one first reservoir disposed within the body and configured to include one or more bifunctional tags, wherein the one or more bifunctional tags are configured to selectively bind to one or more target components in one or more of blood fluid or lymph fluid of a vertebrate subject; at least one treatment region disposed within the at least one lumen; and at least one second reservoir disposed in the at least one treatment region and configured to include one or more reactive components, wherein the one or more reactive components are configured to sequester the one or more bifunctional tags when bound to the one or more target components.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 22, 2012
    Publication date: May 2, 2013
    Applicant: Searete LLC
    Inventor: Searete LLC
  • Publication number: 20130102861
    Abstract: According to an embodiment of the present application, there is provided a medical apparatus, including: a light source unit configured to be capable of emitting light including at least natural emission light, the light being guided into an optical probe; a first detecting unit configured to detect an intensity of light exiting from the light source unit; and a calculation unit configured to calculate to approximate to a non-linear function based on an intensity of light detected by the first detecting unit for calibration of the optical probe.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 16, 2012
    Publication date: April 25, 2013
    Applicant: SONY CORPORATION
    Inventor: Sony Corporation
  • Publication number: 20130006068
    Abstract: A self-contained drug screening apparatus, comprising a breath inlet component for receiving an exhaled air flow of a person, the exhaled air flow including saliva, and a sensor for sensing a presence of a drug in the saliva, and identification module for detecting an identifying characteristic of the person.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 29, 2012
    Publication date: January 3, 2013
    Inventors: Gil Gemer, John C. Hulteen, Cristina U. Thomas, Raj Rajagopal
  • Publication number: 20120330116
    Abstract: A system, method and apparatus are disclosed for using a transcutaneous detection system to measure the quantity of a circulating organ activity detection analyte in the blood, and thereby assay the activity of an organ. A preferred organ for assay is the human liver and a preferred indicator is indocyanine green (ICG) dye The procedure is under the control of a monitor/controller having a visual display and capable of providing cues to the operator. A sensor array apparatus for use in conjunction with the system monitor/controller is configured for increased sensitivity of assaying organ function.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 29, 2012
    Publication date: December 27, 2012
    Applicant: CARDIOX CORPORATION
    Inventors: Philip E. Eggers, Eric A. Eggers, Andrew R. Eggers, Mark A. Mayerchak
  • Publication number: 20120283529
    Abstract: A method for detecting an analyte in a bodily fluid includes placing the detector in contact with at least one metabolite resulting from the metabolism or degradation of the analyte. The contact between the detector and the metabolite produces an optically detectable signal. The detection method includes the detection of the metabolite only in gas form, said metabolite in gas form coming from the evaporation of at least a part of said metabolite. The detection is also carried out without contact between the bodily fluid and the detector. A dressing for implementing the detection method is also described.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 29, 2010
    Publication date: November 8, 2012
    Applicant: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENERGIES ALTERNATIVES
    Inventors: Gilles Marchand, Pierre Marcoux
  • Patent number: 8280471
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods and devices for continuous in vivo monitoring of a potential bacterial infection site. Disclosed devices may be utilized to alert patients and/or health care providers to the presence of pathogenic bacteria at an early stage of a hospital acquired infection, thereby providing for earlier intervention. Disclosed methods utilize optical fibers to deliver an excitation signal to an area in which pathogenic bacteria may exist. In the presence of the excitation signal, bacterial pathogens may autofluoresce with a unique spectral signature. Upon generation of a fluorescent emission, an optically detectable emission signal may be transmitted to a detection/analysis device. Analysis of the characteristics of the emission signal produced in response to the excitation signal may be used to determine the presence or concentration of pathogens at the site of inquiry, following which real time information may be transmitted to medical personnel via a wireless transmission system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Assignee: Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.
    Inventors: Mike Rainone, Erica M. Phillips, Richard Hantke, Shawn R. Feaster, Daniel Baird, Thomas Edward Plowman, Talbot Presley
  • Publication number: 20120197096
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for noninvasive determination of analyte properties of human tissue by quantitative infrared spectroscopy to clinically relevant levels of precision and accuracy. The system includes subsystems optimized to contend with the complexities of the tissue spectrum, high signal-to-noise ratio and photometric accuracy requirements, tissue sampling errors, calibration maintenance problems, and calibration transfer problems. The subsystems can include an illumination/modulation subsystem, a tissue sampling subsystem, a data acquisition subsystem, a computing subsystem, and a calibration subsystem. The invention can provide analyte property determination and identity determination or verification from the same spectroscopic information, making unauthorized use or misleading results less likely than in systems that use separate analyte and identity determinations. The invention can be used to control and monitor individuals accessing controlled environments.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 12, 2012
    Publication date: August 2, 2012
    Inventors: Trent Ridder, Ben Ver Steeg, Oscar Lazaro
  • Publication number: 20120143024
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are methods and devices for detection of bacterial HAI. Disclosed methods may be utilized for continuous in vivo monitoring of a potential bacterial infection site and may be utilized to alert patients and/or health care providers to the presence of pathogenic bacteria at an early stage of infection. Disclosed methods include utilization of recombinant bacteriophage to deliver to pathogenic bacteria a translatable genetic sequence encoding an optically detectable marker or an enzyme capable of producing an optically detectable marker. Upon detection of the optical signal produced by the marker, medical personnel may be alerted to the presence of pathogenic bacteria at the site of inquiry. Any bacterial causative agent of HAI may be detected according to disclosed methods.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 13, 2007
    Publication date: June 7, 2012
    Applicant: Kimberly-Clark Worldwide, Inc.
    Inventors: Erica M. Phillips, Richard Hantke, Daniel Baird, Mike Rainone, Thomas Edward Plowman, Talbot Presley
  • Publication number: 20090156914
    Abstract: A sensor is provided that is appropriate for transcutaneous detection of tissue or blood constituents. A sensor for tissue constituent detection may include a gas collection chamber with a conduit to a sensing component and a conduit from the sensing component to the chamber. A sensor as provided may also include a barrier layer to prevent water from infiltrating the sensor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 20, 2009
    Publication date: June 18, 2009
    Applicant: Nellcor Puritan Bennett LLC
    Inventors: Michael P. O'Neil, David B. Swedlow
  • Patent number: 7209780
    Abstract: A system for the determination of quantifies relating to the circulatory system of a patient including a device for the non-invasive measurement of the qualitative variation over time of the local concentration of an indicator injected into the blood circulation system at a first position, the measurement taking place at a second position of the blood circulation system. An evaluating unit is provided, in which there is implemented an evaluating algorithm which transforms the qualitative variation into a quantitative variation over time of the local concentration of the indicator injected into the blood circulation system. For the purposes of the transformation, the condition is fulfilled that the cardiac output COdye calculable from the quantitative variation over time of the local concentration in accordance with a predetermined relationship is equal to an input value of the cardiac output COe, which has been determined by thermodilution measurement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2007
    Assignee: Fulsion Medical Systems AG
    Inventors: Ulrich J. Pfeiffer, Thorsten Burger
  • Patent number: 7027134
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method and apparatus for the detection of an infectious disease or disorder in a fluid, such as a mammalian blood sample, the detection of a specific protein in a urine sample, or the detection of a particle in a plasma. The identification of the particles of interest is enable by taking a transmission spectrum of a test sample in at least a portion of the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared portion of the spectrum and comparing the spectrum with a standard sample spectrum. From the comparison it is then determined whether the fluid from the test sample contains an particle of interest, and an identity of the particle of interest is determined. Spectroscopic and multiwavelength turbidimetry techniques provide a rapid, inexpensive, and convenient means for diagnosis. The comparison and determination steps may be performed visually or by spectral deconvolution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 3, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 11, 2006
    Assignee: University of South Florida
    Inventors: Luis H. Garcia-Rubio, Catalina E. Alupoaei, Willard Harris, Alfredo Peguero, Edward P. Cutolo, German Felix Leparc
  • Patent number: 6957094
    Abstract: This invention is a scheme for monitoring a solute in a biological system comprising the steps of delivering light into a biological system (12) containing a solute, the light having a wavelength selected to be in a range wherein the solute is substantially non-absorbing; detecting at least first and second portions of the delivered light, the first portion having traveled through the biological system along one or more paths characterized by a first average path length, and the second portion having traveled through the biological system along one or more paths characterized by a second average path length that is greater than the first average path length; and comparing the first and second portions of the delivered light to monitor concentration of the solute in the biological system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 18, 2005
    Assignee: Non-Invasive Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Britton Chance, Hanli Liu
  • Patent number: 6788394
    Abstract: An infectious disease or disorder in a fluid, such as a mammalian blood sample, is detected by taking a transmission spectrum of a test sample in at least a portion of the ultraviolet visible near-infrared and comparing the spectrum with a standard sample spectrum. From the comparison it is then determined whether the fluid from the test sample contains an infectious disease or disorder, and an identity of the infectious disease or disorder is determined. Spectroscopic and multiwavelength turbidimetry techniques provide a rapid, inexpensive, and convenient means for diagnosis. The comparison and determination steps may be performed visually or by spectral deconvolution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 28, 2003
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2004
    Assignee: University of South Florida
    Inventors: Luis Humberto Garcia-Rubio, Yvette D. Mattley, German Leparc, Manuel Bayona, Andres Cardenas
  • Publication number: 20040127776
    Abstract: This invention relates to diagnostic and monitoring devices. According to the invention, spectrophotometric devices preferably include a needle assembly having a hollow needle body with radiation ports. Preferably, disposed in the body are fiber optic bundles for carrying electromagnetic radiation, such as visible, infrared light, and/or ultraviolet light to a sample and for transmitting backscattered radiation to a light detector or sensor. The needle configuration preferably allows for insertion subcutaneously into muscle tissue and/or into other organs. It permits evaluation of difficult to access areas and facilitates securing the device in place. Barbs may be provided on the needle to anchor the device in place.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 17, 2003
    Publication date: July 1, 2004
    Inventors: Steven C. Walker, John M. Shepherd, Leopoldo C. Cancio
  • Publication number: 20020099279
    Abstract: A safety housing, into which an infrared laser light source is integrated together with the CCD camera, forms a compact unit for the determination of tissue perfusion. Rays from the infrared laser light source radiate the area of operation and indocyanin green, previously injected intravenously into the patient, is excited to fluorescence by the radiation, which is detected by the CCD camera.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 27, 2001
    Publication date: July 25, 2002
    Inventors: Ulrich J. Pfeiffer, Andreas Becker, Norbert Eder, Thorsten Burger, Christian Tons
  • Patent number: 6339714
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for measuring indicator concentration time curves optically from a living organism using a single wavelength, by comparing the optical density before and after injection of the indicator and by selectively utilizing the values of the concentration of blood hemoglobin, blood oxygen saturation, or the mean optical pathlength in the computation. Whereby, physiological parameters such as cardiac output, blood flow and blood volume can be calculated by analyzing the indicator concentration time curves.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2002
    Inventor: Bo Chen
  • Patent number: 6159445
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the use of particulate materials as contrast agents in vivo light imaging.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1997
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2000
    Assignee: Nycomed Imaging AS
    Inventors: Jo Klaveness, Bjorn Fuglass, P.ang.al Rongved, Edvin Johannesen, Paul Mark Henrichs, Wolfgang Hans Heinrich, Edward Richard Bacon, John Luke Toner, Gregory Lynn McIntire, Vinay C. Desai
  • Patent number: 6081734
    Abstract: A control system for monitoring the regular intake of a medicament by a patient. The system comprises system components mutually tuned to each other and comprising a medicine dosage form (1) for the medication and a detection apparatus (2) for non-invasive detection, within the body of the patient, of a detection substance contained in the medicine dosage form (3). The detection apparatus (2) is adapted for reagent-free direct measurement of a physically measurable parameter correlated with the presence of the detection substance in the body of the patient.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 27, 2000
    Assignee: Roche Diagnostics GmbH
    Inventor: Hans-Georg Batz
  • Patent number: 5803908
    Abstract: A system for determining the hematocrit transcutaneously and noninvasively. Disclosed are a finger clip assembly and an earlobe clip assembly, each including at least a pair of emitters and a photodiode in appropriate alignment to enable operation in either a transmissive mode or a reflectance mode. At least two, and preferably three, predetermined wavelengths of light are passed onto or through body tissues such as the finger, earlobe, or scalp, etc. and the extinction of each wavelength is detected. Mathematical manipulation of the detected values compensates for the effects of body tissue and fluid and determines the hematocrit value. If a fourth wavelength of light is used which is extinguished substantially differently by oxyhemoglobin and reduced hemoglobin and which is not substantially extinguished by plasma, then the blood oxygen saturation value, independent of hematocrit, may be determined.It is also disclosed how to detect and analyze multiple wavelengths using a logarithmic DC analysis technique.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: September 8, 1998
    Assignee: In-Line Diagnostics Corporation
    Inventors: Robert R. Steuer, David H. Harris