Patents Represented by Attorney Jackson E. Stanland
  • Patent number: 6392156
    Abstract: Improved conductors and superconducting magnets are described utilizing superconducting materials exhibiting critical field anisotropy. This anisotropy is one in which the ability of the superconductor to stay in a superconducting state depends on the orientation of a magnetic field applied to the superconductor with respect to the direction of current flow in the superconductor. This anisotropy is utilized in the design of conductors and magnet windings comprising the superconductive material and specifically is directed to magnet windings in which the direction of high critical current through the superconductor is parallel to the magnetic field produced by current in these windings in order to obtain high critical fields. Particularly favorable examples of a superconducting material are the so-called high Tc superconductors in which the primary supercurrent flow is confined to 2 dimensional Cu—O planes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 1995
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2002
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Arthur Davidson, Timothy Rea Dinger, William Joseph Gallagher, Thomas Kimber Worthington
  • Patent number: 5906680
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for depositing single crystal, epitaxial films of silicon on a plurality of substrates in a hot wall, isothermal deposition system is described. The deposition temperatures are less than about 800.degree. C., and the operating pressures during deposition are such that non-equilibrium growth kinetics determine the deposition of the silicon films. An isothermal bath gas of silicon is produced allowing uniform deposition of epitaxial silicon films simultaneously on multiple substrates. This is a flow system in which means are provided for establishing an ultrahigh vacuum in the range of about 10.sup.-9 Torr prior to epitaxial deposition. The epitaxial silicon layers can be doped in-situ to provide very abruptly defined regions of either n- or p-type conductivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 24, 1996
    Date of Patent: May 25, 1999
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Bernard Steele Meyerson
  • Patent number: 5863869
    Abstract: Superconducting transition metal oxide films are provided which exhibit very high onsets of superconductivity and superconductivity at temperatures in excess of 40.degree. K. These films are produced by vapor deposition processes using pure metal sources for the metals in the superconducting compositions, where the metals include multi-valent nonmagnetic transition metals, rare earth elements and/or rare earth-like elements and alkaline earth elements. The substrate is exposed to oxygen during vapor deposition, and, after formation of the film, there is at least one annealing step in an oxygen ambient and slow cooling over several hours to room temperature. The substrates chosen are not critical as long as they are not adversely reactive with the superconducting oxide film. Transition metals include Cu, Ni, Ti and V, while the rare earth-like elements include Y, Sc and La. The alkaline earth elements include Ca, Ba and Sr.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1995
    Date of Patent: January 26, 1999
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, Richard Joseph Gambino, Roger Hilson Koch, James Andrew Lacey, Robert Benjamin Laibowitz, Joseph Michael Viggiano
  • Patent number: 5607511
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for depositing single crystal, epitaxial films of silicon on a plurality of substrates in a hot wall, isothermal deposition system is described. The deposition temperatures are less than about 800.degree. C., and the operating pressures during deposition are such that non-equilibrium growth kinetics determine the deposition of the silicon films. An isothermal bath gas of silicon is produced allowing uniform deposition of epitaxial silicon films simultaneously on multiple substrates. This is a flow system in which means are provided for establishing an ultrahigh vacuum in the range of about 10.sup.-9 Torr prior to epitaxial deposition. The epitaxial silicon layers can be doped in-situ to provide very abruptly defined regions of either n- or p-type conductivity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1994
    Date of Patent: March 4, 1997
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Bernard S. Meyerson
  • Patent number: 5439876
    Abstract: A method for making layered structures of artificial high T.sub.c superconductor compounds by which on top of a seed crystal having a lattice structure matching the lattice structure of the superconductor compound to be made, oxide layers of all constituent components are epitaxially grown in a predetermined sequence so as to create a sandwich structure not found in natural crystals. The epitaxial deposition of the constituent components is performed in a reaction chamber having evaporation facilities, inlets for metal-organic gases, and inlets for background gases including oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 1993
    Date of Patent: August 8, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Volker Graf, Carl A. Mueller
  • Patent number: 5435724
    Abstract: An improved dental procedure and apparatus where ultraviolet radiation pulses are used to etch selectively both hard tissue and soft tissue in dental procedures. There exists distinct ablation thresholds for hard and soft tissue which are dependent on the material being ablated for a given wavelength of the ultraviolet radiation. Sufficient differences in ablation threshold exist for enamel, dentin, and carious material, thereby allowing dentists to perform both hard tissue and soft tissue procedures without excess damage to healthy enamel, dentin or other pulp structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 6, 1994
    Date of Patent: July 25, 1995
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Barry D. Goodman, James J. Wynne, Hershall W. Kaufman, Jason M. Jacobs
  • Patent number: 5296458
    Abstract: An epitaxial structure comprising a silicon containing substrate and a high T.sub.c copper-oxide-based superconducting layer, which may include an intermediate layer between the silicon substrate and the superconductor layer. Epitaxial deposition is accomplished by depositing a superconductor on a (001) surface of silicon in a manner in which the unit cell of the superconductor layer has two out of three of its crystallographic axes rotated 45 degrees with respect to the corresponding axes of the silicon unit cell, the remaining axis of the superconductor unit cell being normal to the Si (001) surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 4, 1992
    Date of Patent: March 22, 1994
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Franz J. Himpsel
  • Patent number: 5162298
    Abstract: High T.sub.c superconducting devices are described in which controlled grain boundaries in a layer of the superconductors forms a weak link or barrier between superconducting grains of the layer. A method is described for reproducibly fabricating these devices, including first preparing a substrate to include at least one grain boundary therein. A high T.sub.c superconductor layer is then epitaxially deposited on the substrate in order to produce a corresponding grain boundary in the superconducting layer. This superconducting layer is then patterned to leave at least two regions on either side of the grain boundary, the two regions functioning as contact areas for a barrier device including the grain boundary as a current flow barrier. Electrical contacts can be made to the superconducting regions so that bias currents can be produced across the grain boundary which acts as a tunnel barrier or weak link connection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 1988
    Date of Patent: November 10, 1992
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Praveen Chaudhari, Cheng-Chung J. Chi, Duane B. Dimos, Jochen D. Mannhart, Chang C. Tsuei
  • Patent number: 5151383
    Abstract: A method is described for fabricating electroluminescent devices exhibiting visible electroluminescence at room temperature, where the devices include at least one doped layer of amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H layer is deposited on a substrate by homogeneous chemical vapor deposition (H-CVD) in which the substrate is held at a temperature lower than about 200.degree. C. and the a-Si:H layer is doped in-situ during deposition, the amount of hydrogen incorporated in the deposited layer being 12-50 atomic percent. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer is between 1.6 and 2.6 eV, and in preferrable embodiments is between 2.0 and 2.6 eV. The conductivity of the a-Si:H layer is chosen in accordance with device requirements, and can be 10.sup.16 -10.sup.19 carriers/cm.sup.2. The bandgap of the a-Si:H layer depends at least in part on the temperature of the substrate on which the layer is deposited, and can be "tuned" by changing the substrate temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1989
    Date of Patent: September 29, 1992
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Bernard S. Meyerson, Bruce A. Scott, Donald J. Wolford, Jr.
  • Patent number: 5026682
    Abstract: A superconducting device operable at temperatures in excess of 30.degree. K. and a method for making the device are described. A representative device is an essentially coplanar SQUID device formed in a single layer of high T.sub.c superconducting material, the SQUID device being operable at temperatures in excess of 60.degree. K. High energy beams, for example ion beams, are used to convert selected portions of the high T.sub.c superconductor to nonsuperconductor properties so that the material now has both superconductive regions and nonsuperconductive regions. In this manner a superconducting loop having superconducting weak links can be formed to comprise the SQUID device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1987
    Date of Patent: June 25, 1991
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Gregory J. Clark, Richard J. Gambino, Roger H. Koch, Robert B. Laibowitz, Allan D. Marwick, Corwin P. Umbach
  • Patent number: 4997809
    Abstract: A method for producing a patterned layer of high T.sub.c oxide superconductor is provided in which patterning is accomplished prior to the attainment of a superconducting state in the layer. A solution containing precursor components of the desired oxide superconductor is sprayed onto a substrate and dried to provide a layer thereon. This layer is then irradiated in selected areas to convert the irradiated layers to an intermediate oxide state, the nonirradiated areas being unchanged. The nonirradiated areas are then dissolved away, leaving a pattern of oxide material. This oxide material is then converted to a high T.sub.c superconducting state, as by annealing in an oxygen atmosphere. This provides the patterned layer of high T.sub.c oxide superconductor. An example of a such a superconductor is a mixed copper oxide, such as Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 18, 1987
    Date of Patent: March 5, 1991
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Arunava Gupta
  • Patent number: 4994154
    Abstract: The invention comprises a two step method for the repair of "opens" in an electronic circuit wherein initially the open is contacted with a plating solution and a high frequency current is passed through the ends of the open in the circuit with the plating solution enabling the current to complete the path. Metal growth commences between the ends of the open to form a near open. Then the repair is completed by contacting the site with a high speed plating solution and applying a low frequency current.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 1990
    Date of Patent: February 19, 1991
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Chengjun J. Chen, Robert J. von Gutfeld
  • Patent number: 4962306
    Abstract: An electron microscope which includes a detector which is located in the magnetic field used to focus the primary electron beam onto the sample. The focusing magnetic field is used to energy-filter and/or energy analyze the scattered electrons without the need for additional equipment, such as a retarding-field energy filter. The magnetic field of the condenser-objective lens (or of any other type of magnetic lens) of the microscope provides the filtering and/or analyzing action, and the detector can be located so as to collect only low-loss electrons.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 4, 1989
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1990
    Assignee: Intenational Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Rodney T. Hodgson, Francoise K. LeGoues, Oliver C. Wells
  • Patent number: 4962086
    Abstract: High T.sub.c oxide superconductive films can be formed on gallate layers, where the gallate layers include a rare earth element or a rare earth-like element. Combinations of rare earth elements and rare earth-like elements can also be utilized. The superconductive films can be epitaxially deposited on these gallate layers to form single crystals or, in the minimum, highly oriented superconductive layers. Any high T.sub.c superconductive oxide material can be utilized, but the best lattice matches are to superconductive materials including copper oxides. Examples include Y-Ba-Cu-O systems, Bi-based systems and Tl-based systems.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 8, 1988
    Date of Patent: October 9, 1990
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: William J. Gallagher, Edward A. Giess, Aranava Gupta, Robert B. Laibowitz, Eugene J. O'Sullivan, Robert L. Sandstrom
  • Patent number: 4948623
    Abstract: Improved processes are described for the deposition of Cu and group IB metals such as Ag and Au. These processes include thermal CVD, photothermal depositions and photochemical deposition. The gaseous precursor which leads to successful deposition of high quality films at low temperatures includes a cyclopentadienyl ring, a two electron donor ligand, and the group IB metal in a +1 oxidation state. In addition, derivatives of the cyclopentadienyl ring can be used where the substituents on the ring include those selected from alkyl groups, halide groups, and psuedohalide groups. In addition, the two electron donor ligand can be selected from the group consisting of trivalent phosphines, amines and arsines. A representative precursor for the deposition of Cu is triethylphosphine cyclopentadienyl copper (I).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 1989
    Date of Patent: August 14, 1990
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: David B. Beach, Joseph M. Jasinski
  • Patent number: 4886681
    Abstract: A technique is described for improving metal-organic substrate adhesion and for reducing stress between the metal film and the substrate. Low energy reactive ions, electrons, or photons are incident upon the substrate to alter the surface chemistry of the substrate to a depth of from about 10 angstroms to a few hundred angstroms. The energy of the incident reactive ions and electrons is about 50-2000 eV, while the energy of the incident photons is about 0.2-500 eV. Irradiation of the substrate can occur prior to or during metal deposition. For simultaneous metal deposition/particle irradiation, the arrival rates of the metal atoms and the substrate treatment particles are within a few order of magnitude of one another. Room temperatures or elevated temperatures are suitable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 6, 1988
    Date of Patent: December 12, 1989
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Joachim G. Clabes, Peter O. Hahn, Paul S. Ho, Haralambos Lefakis, Gary W. Rubloff
  • Patent number: 4845684
    Abstract: An acoustic contact sensor for handwritten computer input is disclosed herein. The contact sensor comprises ultrasonic sending transducer means, receiving transducer means and circuit means for providing a logic signal to a computer when contact is made. The sending and receiver transducer means can either individually be coupled to a pen stylus or writing and/or display surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 1986
    Date of Patent: July 4, 1989
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Richard L. Garwin, James L. Levine, Michael A. Schappert
  • Patent number: 4831421
    Abstract: A switch is provided that introduces quasiparticles at an asymmetric location into a reduced cross-sectional area microbridge link that is part of an output path. The quasiparticles nucleate a small region of normal resistivity and the normal region propagates to produce normal resistivity in the entire reduced cross-sectional area microbridge link. The asymmetry of the location provides input-output isolation. The high critical current, high resistivity material for the reduced cross-section member provides high current and voltage gain and the small size provides high speed. In one structure, an input film conductor is asymmetrically, centrally positioned in an insulator stack and a microbridge like is positioned on a beveled side of the stack with the input conductor in tunneling relationship with part of the narrow portion of the microbridge link. Decoupling between input and output sufficient to permit one switch to drive several others is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 1988
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: William J. Gallagher, Stanley I. Raider
  • Patent number: 4830909
    Abstract: Electroerosion recording materials of superior scratch resistance are provided by incorporating a hard, crosslinked polymer film or layer between the support and the removable, thin conductive layer to reduce plastic deformation of the support under stylus writing pressure. The intermediate polymer layer may be unfilled or filled with solid particles, such as silica particles. The materials may be used in various printing processes including making directly readable images, direct negatives, and offset masters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 18, 1987
    Date of Patent: May 16, 1989
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Mitchell S. Cohen, Krishna G. Sachdev, John C. S. Shen, Keith S. Pennington
  • Patent number: 4806755
    Abstract: The micromechanical sensor head is designed to measure forces down to 10.sup.-13 N. It comprises a common base from which a cantilever beam and a beam member extend in parallel. The cantilever beam carries a sharply pointed tip of a hard material, dielectric or not, for interaction with the surface of a sample to be investigated. Bulges forming a tunneling junction protrude from facing surfaces of said beams, the gap between said bulges being adjustable by means of electrostatic forces generated by a potential (V.sub.d) applied to a pair of electrodes respectively coated onto parallel surface of said beams. The sensor head consists of one single piece of semiconductor material, such as silicon or gallium arsenide (or any other compounds thereof) which is fabricated to the dimensions required for the application by means of conventional semiconductor chip manufacturing techniques.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 1, 1987
    Date of Patent: February 21, 1989
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Urs T. Duerig, James K. Gimewski, Johann Greschner, Wolfgang D. Pohl, Olaf Wolter