Patents Represented by Attorney Jackson E. Stanland
  • Patent number: 4631423
    Abstract: A circuit is provided for sampling and accurately reproducing unknown signals with picosecond resolution, which could be electrical, optical, x-ray, gamma ray, or particle signals. The circuit comprises a superconductive monitor gate having at least two states which are distinguishable from one another. The monitor gate could be, for example, comprised of a Josephson device or a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). Switching means, including a source of the unknown signal, are provided to switch the state of the monitor gate. This switching means includes a sampling pulse source and a bias current source which are combined with the unknown signal to change the state of the monitor gate. A noise elimination means is also provided including a lock-in amplifier, a comparator, and a feedback loop. A time averaging technique eliminates any incorrect indications resulting from noise.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 25, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 23, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Sadeg M. Faris
  • Patent number: 4623906
    Abstract: An improved glass or silicon ink jet nozzle is described having a three-layer coating that provides improved mechanical and chemical properties. The coating includes a first layer of silicon nitride, an intermediate layer graded in composition, and a top-most layer of aluminum nitride. The intermediate layer is typically a solid solution of silicon and aluminum nitrides being silicon-rich at the interface with the silicon nitride layer, and aluminum-rich at the interface with the overlying aluminum nitride layer. This three-layer coating provides the required dielectric properties, displays very low wettability, and is extremely corrosion resistant to all types of inks.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 31, 1985
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: G. V. Chandrashekhar, Merrill W. Shafer
  • Patent number: 4622262
    Abstract: Electroerosion recording materials are provided with a surface lubricant film of lubricating conductive material in a polymeric binder. The lubricating conductive agent reduces stylus scratching of the conductive layer during electroerosion printing, improves contrast, provides a beneficial coating on the writing electrode or stylus and improves the handling and writing characteristics of the recording material. The lubricating conductive agent/polymer films are especially useful where the substrate of the recording material is light transmissive and, after the electroerosion process, the resulting product is suitable for direct-negative applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 14, 1986
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Mitchell S. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4618767
    Abstract: Low-energy scanning transmission electron microscopy is achieved by using a sharply pointed electrode as a source of electrons having energies less than 10 eV and scanning the electron emitting pointed source across the surface of a self-supported thin film of material to be investigated at an essentially constant distance on the order of nanometers. The electrons transmitted through the specimen are sensed by a suitable detector and the output signal of the detector is used to control a display unit, such as a CRT display or a plotter. A scanning signal generating means simultaneously controls both the scanning of the electron emitting point source and the display unit while a separation control unit holds the distance between the point source and surface at a constant value. The electron emitting point source and associated mechanical drives as well as the specimen film and electron detector are all positioned in a vacuum chamber and isolated from vibration by a damped suspension apparatus.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1985
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: David A. Smith, Oliver C. Wells
  • Patent number: 4617579
    Abstract: Electroerosion recording materials for "direct negative" and "offset master" are provided with a surface protective coating of solid conductive lubricant dispersed in a hydrophilic, crosslinked polymeric matrix. The protective films are especially useful where direct offset masters are produced without removal of non-eroded lubricant film.The recording medium of this invention provides use as a defect-free "direct negative" and/or "direct offset master", without requiring the removal of the overlayer prior to use on the printing press. The protective coatings are applied from aqueous dispersions of polymer-particulate compositions and thus avoiding the use of organic solvents.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 5, 1984
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Krishna G. Sachdev, Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Keith S. Pennington, Mitchell S. Cohen
  • Patent number: 4613966
    Abstract: An optical floppy disk system is described in which the optical disk is enclosed in a flexible housing which is optically transparent. Both the optical disk and its protective housing can be made at very low cost from inexpensive materials. The disk is enclosed within the protective housing and the housing and disk rotate as a unit during operation. The protective housing does not adversely affect the optics of the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 1983
    Date of Patent: September 23, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas H. Di Stefano, Robert Sadofsky
  • Patent number: 4609926
    Abstract: An improved technique and apparatus for color-on-demand resistive ribbon printing is provided in which selected colored ink layers are transferred to a resistive printing ribbon from a color-bearing ribbon, prior to resistive ribbon printing. The color ribbon and the resistive printing ribbon both contain ink layers, the only difference being that the ink layer in the printing ribbon is preferrably uncolored. When the ink layers on the two ribbons are brought into contact with one another and heated, the ink layers will become tacky and will adhere to one another. The temperatures of these ink layers are then reduced and the printing ribbon and the color ribbon are separated from one another to cause the colored ink layer on the color ribbon to separate from that ribbon and adhere to the printing ribbon, thus causing a transfer of the colored ink layer to the printing ribbon. After this, the resistive printing ribbon can be used to print colors.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 1985
    Date of Patent: September 2, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ari Aviram, Derek B. Dove
  • Patent number: 4604520
    Abstract: This optical near-field scanning microscope comprises an "objective" (aperture) attached to the conventional vertical adjustment appliance and consisting of an optically transparent crystal having a metal coating with an aperture at its tip with a diameter of less than one wavelength of the light used for illuminating the object. Connected to the aperture-far end of the "objective" is a photodetector via an optical filter and an optical fiber glass cable. Scanning the object is done by appropriately moving the support along x/y-coordinates. The resolution obtainable with this microscope is about 10 times that of state-of-the-art microscopes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 20, 1983
    Date of Patent: August 5, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Wolfgang D. Pohl
  • Patent number: 4592933
    Abstract: A technique and apparatus for homogeneous chemical vapor deposition (HCVD), wherein a heated carrier gas is mixed with a source gas in a location close to a substrate on which deposition is to occur. The heated carrier gas transfers heat to the source gas in order to decompose it, producing the intermediate species necessary for deposition onto the substrate. Thus, the source gas is not subjected to heating above its pyrolysis temperature prior to being transported to the immediate vicinity of the substrate. This HCVD apparatus includes a heat source for heating the carrier gas, a tube for bringing the heated carrier gas to a location close to the substrate, and another tube for bringing the reactive source gas to the aforementioned location where it is mixed with the hot carrier gas to cause decomposition of the source gas close to the substrate. The substrate temperature is decoupled from the hot gas temperature and is significantly colder than the hot gas temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1984
    Date of Patent: June 3, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Bernard S. Meyerson, Richard M. Plecenik, Bruce A. Scott
  • Patent number: 4588947
    Abstract: A miniature, fully integrated susceptometer capable of measuring the magnetic properties of very small samples (<10 .mu.m) is described which is fabricated by thin film lithography on a single chip. The susceptometer is comprised of a dc SQUID including two series wired pick-up loops into which a sample to be measured can be placed. A field coil is provided which includes a separate single turn around each of the SQUID pick-up loops. The SQUID pick-up loops and the surrounding field coil turns are both located over a hole in a superconducting groundplane. The SQUID pick-up loops are connected by wide, low inductance transmission lines to remotely located Josephson tunnel junctions. The signal to be detected is generated locally within one of the SQUID pick-up loops to provide direct coupling of the sample to be measured to the SQUID pick-up loop. The SQUID tunnel junctions are remotely located from the pick-up loops and are located over a superconducting groundplane.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1983
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Mark B. Ketchen
  • Patent number: 4577968
    Abstract: A method and apparatus is described for making absolute and relative distance measurements optically. A grating, or gratings, is located on the object whose displacement is to be measured, or on a surface in contact with the object. Two perpendicularly polarized light beams interact with the grating to produce a phase difference therebetween. This phase difference is a measure of the displacement of the object, and can be compensated for in order to determine the exact displacement of the object. The relative displacement between two objects can be measured in a similar way, there being gratings on the two objects. One of the light beams strikes one grating while the other strikes the second grating. If there is perfect alignment between the gratings on the two objects, there will be no phase difference in the diffracted light from the gratings. If there is misalignment between the objects, a phase difference between the diffracted signals will be produced indicative of this misalignment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 24, 1985
    Date of Patent: March 25, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Gunter Makosch
  • Patent number: 4577983
    Abstract: This printing apparatus and technique incorporates a color transfer station to impart a desired color to a fusible ink layer on a ribbon. The color transfer station is located between a supply reel providing the ribbon for printing, and the location where actual printing occurs. This color transfer technique is particularly suitable for use in resistive ribbon thermal transfer printing, where economical use of the ribbon is mandatory. The structure for transferring color to the ink layer of the ribbon utilizes wicks, felt-coated rollers, nozzles, etc., to bring a selected colorant solution into contact with the ink layer of the ribbon, in accordance with the color desired for printing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 25, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ari Aviram, Derek B. Dove, Ramon Lane
  • Patent number: 4578584
    Abstract: A non-contact thermal imaging system based on infrared radiation detection is described which uses an energy source to provide a beam of energy that strikes a sample to be analyzed. The energy beam produces a thermal wave in the sample, there being infrared radiation emitted from the thermal wave. All of the infrared radiation emitted from the heated area of the sample is collected and directed to an infrared detector, to have a two-dimensional image of the sample. This is used to detect surface and sub-surface structure, defects, etc. The use of a focussed energy beam, such as a laser or electron beam, offers advantages. In this technique, all points of the sample are treated equally and the results are very easily interpreted to know the exact location and type of structure that is imaged in the heated area.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 23, 1984
    Date of Patent: March 25, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas Baumann, Frank H. Dacol, Robert L. Melcher
  • Patent number: 4570191
    Abstract: This optical sensor has cylindrical symmetry and is comprised of a semiconductor light source/light detector combination and an optical element comprising a single lens, where the sensor is particularly suitable for uses in accurate position detection in data recording systems. In a preferred embodiment, the light source is a forward-biased p-n junction, while the light detector is a reverse-biased p-n junction located below the light source and coaxial therewith. Light from the source is directed to a point on a data recording medium and the light reflected therefrom passes through the light source to the light detecting junction. The ac signal corresponding to the reflected light is an indication of the position of the recording head with respect to the data storage medium.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 1984
    Date of Patent: February 11, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Thomas H. Di Stefano, Halil B. Bakoglu
  • Patent number: 4568632
    Abstract: A method is described for photoetching polyimides efficiently, and without the need for any chemical development steps. At least 1000.ANG. of the polyimide are removed by irradiation of the polyimide with ultraviolet radiation having wavelengths less than 220 nm. To enhance the process, the power density of the radiation is greater than about 60 mJ/cm.sup.2. The presence of an atmosphere containing oxygen enhances the etch rate, although photoetching will occur in other atmospheres.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 1983
    Date of Patent: February 4, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Samuel E. Blum, Karen L. Holloway, Rangaswamy Srinivasan
  • Patent number: 4567490
    Abstract: Electroerosion recording materials are provided with a surface lubricant film of particulate lubricating nonconductive graphite fluoride and optional conductive materials in a polymeric binder. The lubricating agents reduce stylus scratching of the conductive layer during electroerosion printing, improve contrast, provide a beneficial coating on the writing electrode or stylus and improve the handling and writing characteristics of the recording material. The lubricating agents/polymer films are especially useful (1) where the substrate of the recording material is light transmissive and, after the electroerosion process, the resulting product is suitable for direct-negative applications and (2) where direct offset masters are produced by removal of noneroded lubricant film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1983
    Date of Patent: January 28, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Mitchell S. Cohen, Keith S. Pennington, Krishna G. Sachdev
  • Patent number: 4561015
    Abstract: An all-solid-state television camera is described consisting of an optical unit, an electronic unit, and a housing for them. The electronic unit is in the form of a substrate carrying a linear or two-dimensional array of a plurality of semiconductor image sensors in a matrix layout on a semiconductor wafer, which substrate comprises contact parts connected to the contact pads on the semiconductor wafer. The optical unit comprises, in the least complicated embodiment, a light funnel array placed onto the semiconductor wafer which array carries at least one lens array whose aspherical lenses serve as imaging optics and contribute via a respective associated light funnel to the exposure of the individual semiconductor image sensors with mutual light screening. A second light funnel array is provided on the object side of the lens array and has a sunshade function for the imaging optics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 17, 1983
    Date of Patent: December 24, 1985
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Hans-Erdmann Korch
  • Patent number: 4554562
    Abstract: Electroerosion recording materials of superior scratch resistance are provided without the need for a lubricant overcoat by incorporating a hard, lubricating hydrophobic polymer layer between the support and the removable, thin conductive layer to reduce plastic deformation of the support under stylus writing pressure. The intermediate polymer layer provides a highly adhering surface for the overlying aluminum film and contains graphite fluoride and/or fluorocarbon resins such as Teflon.RTM. and hard particles such as silica. The materials may be used in various printing processes including making directly readable images, direct negatives and wear resistant offset printing masters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 19, 1985
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ali Afzali-Ardakani, Mitchell S. Cohen, Keith S. Pennington, Krishna G. Sachdev
  • Patent number: 4550061
    Abstract: Improved electroerosion recording media are described in which ablatable polymers are used in the electroerosion recording medium. This medium includes at least a substrate or support layer, a base layer which protects the substrate, a thin film of conductive material on the base layer and which can be eroded, and a protective overcoat layer. Ablatable polymers are used as binders in either the base layer or the top protective layer, or both, in order to provide advantages during electroerosion. These ablatable polymers undergo thermally induced depolymerization in such a way that the result is the formation of volatile monomeric or low molecular weight species as the predominant products, with little or no adherent residue.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 1984
    Date of Patent: October 29, 1985
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Krishna G. Sachdev, Stephen A. Shear, Keith S. Pennington, Mitchell S. Cohen
  • Patent number: D286712
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 26, 1983
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1986
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventor: Ernest Wittner