Patents Examined by John H. Mack
  • Patent number: 4252628
    Abstract: A monopolar filter press electrolytic cell suitable for use in the electrolysis of an aqueous alkali metal halide brine to produce (cell liquor, halogen and hydrogen, the cell comprising a plurality of flexible anode plates and flexible cathode plates and a cation perm-selective membrane positioned between each adjacent anode plate and cathode plate, and comprising a non-conducting flexible spacing plate positioned between each anode plate and adjacent membrane and between each cathode plate and adjacent membrane, the anode plates, cathode plates and spacing plates each having openings which define four separate compartments lengthwise of the cell and which provide respectively an inlet for brine, an inlet for water or alkaline water, an outlet for brine and halogen and an outlet for cell liquor and hydrogen the spacing plates being provided with passages which connect the compartments providing an inlet for brine and an outlet for brine and halogen with the anolyte compartments and which connect the compartm
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1978
    Date of Patent: February 24, 1981
    Assignee: Imperial Chemical Industries Limited
    Inventors: Thomas W. Boulton, Brian J. Darwent
  • Patent number: 4238309
    Abstract: An apparatus for the electrochemical development of damage tracks in dielectric transparent material sheets comprises a first elongated prismatic vessel within which an axial cavity is provided extending over most of the prism length and communicating with a circular transverse cavity which extends from an opening on one face of the prism thereinto for less than one half of the prism thickness; said longitudinal and transverse cavities being so dimensioned that when enough liquid is supplied thereinto for abundantly flooding the transverse cavity with the vessel upright and the transverse cavity lowermost, the same liquid will not reach the bottom of the transverse cavity when the vessel is set horizontally with the transverse cavity opening up.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 9, 1980
    Assignee: Comitato Nazionale per l'Energia Nucleare--CNEN
    Inventors: Giorgio Zapparoli, Luigi Tommasino
  • Patent number: 4236985
    Abstract: The invention is applicable to the griding with current-conducting abrasive tools of works of current-conducting churlish materials, such as hard, magnetic and refractory alloys, and to cutter sharpening.The method according to the invention consists in applying voltage pulses to a tool and a work placed in a liquid medium with a conductance of 10.sup.-4 to 2.multidot.10.sup.-2 ohm.sup.-1 .multidot.cm.sup.-1.The process of grinding the work and electric-erosion cleaning the tool is carried out at a pulse duration of 0.5 to 10 msec, pulse repetition frequency of 10 to 500 Hz, and amplitudie of pulses ranging from a minimum of 3 V to a maximum which is below a level required for a breakdown of the liquid medium between the tool and the work.Alternatively, simultaneously with machining the work the electric-erosion truing of the tool is performed with the use of a tool truing electrode.The tool truing electrode and the work are connected to the same pole of a power source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 1, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1980
    Inventors: Eduard Y. Grodzinsky, Roalda B. Isakova, Lidia S. Zubatova, Anna T. Makonovitskaya, Aron K. Grinberg
  • Patent number: 4236977
    Abstract: A method according to the invention is based on the combination of the activation treatment of a steel object in an aqueous neutral solution with the use of auxiliary electrodes, dipped in the same activating solution, which causes the steel to be pre-plated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1980
    Assignee: Italsider, S.p.A.
    Inventors: Nazzareno Azzerri, Giovanni Milanese
  • Patent number: 4236990
    Abstract: The treater employs a pair of closely spaced, superimposed circular electrode plates, and the liquid to be treated is passed through the limited area between such plates in a pressurized sheet such that the liquid tends to clean the electrodes at the same time as it receives treatment thereby. An annular groove adjacent the discharge periphery of the lower plate has the effect of causing the discharging sheet to assume an umbrella-like configuration to promote aeration of the discharging liquid. If desired, the plates may be associated with a receptacle in such a way that the umbrella-like discharging sheet engages the walls of the receptacle at one electrical polarity while at least one of the electrode plates is of the opposite electrical polarity so as to promote effective treatment. On the other hand, if desired, the plates may be submerged within such a receptacle adjacent the sludge collecting at the bottom thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 29, 1979
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1980
    Inventor: Arthur S. King
  • Patent number: 4236989
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrolytic cell having an electrode pair of interleaved anode and cathode fingers with a synthetic separator, i.e., a permionic membrane or a microporous diaphragm, therebetween. At least one of the two electrodes of the electrode pair has a continuous electrodic surface with fluid impermeable members at opposite ends of the continuous electrodic surface and a synthetic separator sealably mounted at the fluid impermeable surfaces and extending over the face of the electrodic surface between the members of the electrode pair. The fluid impermeable members at the opposite ends of the continuous electrodic surface may either be the cell body itself or liquid impermeable elements, such as compressive masks, at opposite edges of the finger-like electrode sheets, maintaining the separator against the finger-like electrode sheet, and providing an electrolyte-tight seal therebetween.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 7, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1980
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Lois A. Dahlberg
  • Patent number: 4236994
    Abstract: A vapor deposition process which is carried out in a gaseous environment. The homogeneous nucleation of the vapor species in the gaseous environment is suppressed by heating the gaseous environment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 16, 1978
    Date of Patent: December 2, 1980
    Assignee: United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
    Inventor: Ronald A. Dugdale
  • Patent number: 4235692
    Abstract: It has been known that metals of groups IV-B, V-B, and VI-B of the periodic table, namely chromium, hafnium, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, and zirconium and alloys thereof can be electrodeposited as dense, structurally coherent plates from a solution of the refractory metal fluoride in a molten alkali-flouride mixture in which the concentration of oxygen is reduced to and maintained at the sufficiently low level. It is shown that niobium may be plated at a lower temperature and a higher rate when the oxygen concentration is reduced to lower levels than previously attainable.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 10, 1976
    Date of Patent: November 25, 1980
    Inventor: Douglas W. Townsend
  • Patent number: 4234333
    Abstract: A process for recovering metal carbide powders from cemented carbides containing a metal binder phase by anodic dissolution of the binder phase under controlled electrochemical potential and current density conditions to produce a greatly accelerated rate of dissolution of the binder phase without significant dissolution of the metal carbide grains.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1980
    Assignee: Fansteel, Inc.
    Inventors: Mohammad H. Ghandehari, Mortimer Schussler
  • Patent number: 4234395
    Abstract: A metal composite comprising a substrate having a uniformly, mildly etched surface of an aluminum alloy, e.g. an alloy, consisting of at least about 99 wt. % aluminum, and the balance comprising specified quantities of silicon, iron, copper, manganese and zinc, and a uniformly adhering, electrocathodically deposited copper foil. The resulting peel strength between the aluminum alloy surface and the copper foil, after lamination of the composite to a resinous substrate under heat and pressure is within the range of from about 6 to about 8 lbs./in. of width of copper foil. This can be reduced to a value within the range of about 0.3 to about 2 lbs./in. of width by overplating the copper foil with a layer of zinc or indium. The resinous substrate may be a glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin, such as is used in the manufacture of printed circuit boards.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 1978
    Date of Patent: November 18, 1980
    Assignee: Gould Inc.
    Inventors: Betty L. Berdan, William M. King
  • Patent number: 4233146
    Abstract: A distributor comprising two substantially parallel covering sheets separated by a plurality of inserts provides uniform fluid flow through a cell and, consequently, improved cell efficiency. Additionally, the distributor, positioned between a cell's fluid inlet port and membrane spacer, reduces membrane flexing along the line where the spacer and adjoining gasket interface, thus diminishing the incidence of early membrane failure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 9, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1980
    Assignee: Allied Chemical Corporation
    Inventors: Noel Y. Rothmayer, Preston Keusch, Dietrich E. Kattermann
  • Patent number: 4233132
    Abstract: Electrodes are immersed within oil which forms a layer over a quantity of water. When current is passed between the electrodes which are held to a predetermined gap from the interstitial surface between the oil and water, water is caused to undergo electrodecomposition. Gaseous hydrogen is then recovered in the sealed space above the oil-water layers and the oxygen is caused to react with constituents in the oil layer.Consequently, there is produced continuously a quantity of hydrogen which is separately collected and is usable in gaseous form.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1980
    Inventors: Randall Carr, L. E. Geoffroy, Rodger H. Flagg, Donald L. Carr
  • Patent number: 4233135
    Abstract: In a method of fabricating a piezoelectric thin film of zinc oxide by means of a sputtering process, zinc and alkaline earth metal are sputtered together in an oxygen atmosphere to thereby produce zinc oxide containing the alkaline earth metal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 11, 1980
    Assignee: Toko, Inc.
    Inventors: Mitsuo Sakakura, Tetsuo Takaku
  • Patent number: 4231853
    Abstract: A cathode current conducting element for use in a metal e.g. aluminum reduction cell, said element comprising a plate or tile formed of electrically conductive refractory material affixed to the carbon lining of the cell and in loosely restrained engagement therewith by means of a pin embedded in the carbon lining.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 27, 1979
    Date of Patent: November 4, 1980
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Henry W. Rahn
  • Patent number: 4230515
    Abstract: An improvement in radial flow parallel plate plasma etchers has been developed in order to improve the uniformity of etching across the entire radial plate dimension. The improvement comprises radially decreasing the spacing between the electrodes wherein the gap between the electrodes is greatest at the center and smallest at the circumference of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1980
    Assignee: Davis & Wilder, Inc.
    Inventor: John Zajac
  • Patent number: 4230553
    Abstract: Multilayer printed wiring boards are conventionally laminated using epoxy adhesives. When the boards are drilled, a residual smear often remains within the drilled holes. This smear prevents proper through plating of the holes and the layers are left without some of the intended interconnections. In the past, the residual smear was removed by wet etching. A technique is described using plasma etching with the conductive surface layers of the drilled boards as the electrodes to generate the plasma. The plasma forms directly within the holes and effectively removes the smear. A dielectric material in contact or close proximity to the perimeter of each board provides uniformity of treatment over the panels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1980
    Assignee: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated
    Inventors: Charles J. Bartlett, Ronald J. Rhodes, Ray D. Rust
  • Patent number: 4230539
    Abstract: A method for the surface treatment of anodic oxide film is disclosed which comprises the steps of electrolyzing the porous surface of anodic oxide film of aluminium or aluminium alloy in an aqueous solution of ammonium thiomolybdate, optionally immersing it in an aqueous solution of ammonium thiomolybdate or alkali metal thiomolybdate and in dilute mineral acid or organic acid alternately, and subjecting it to a heat treatment so as to impregnate the micropores of the anodic oxide film with molybdenum sulfide and to fix the molybdenum sulfide therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 9, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 28, 1980
    Assignee: Fujikura Cable Works, Ltd.
    Inventors: Kohichi Saruwatari, Kazuo Isawa, Masatsugu Maejima, Takao Suzuki
  • Patent number: 4229272
    Abstract: A chlorine generator is disclosed as including an assembly for an electrolytic cell generating the chlorine and a separate assembly for feeding the chlorine gas into a body of water. The cell assembly preferably includes two separate electrolytic solutions separated by an ion permeable membrane, such that an anode and a cathode are positioned on each side of the membrane. The gas feed assembly is in fluid communication with the cell housing by two separate conduits which accommodate the flow of gas from the cell to the feed assembly, within which the gases are accumulated and intermixed with a portion of water which has been diverted from the main body of water to flow through the feed assembly and then back to the main body of water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 21, 1980
    Inventor: Dow Yates
  • Patent number: 4227988
    Abstract: An improved potentiostat for use with electrochemical cells provides dynamic protection of both the electrochemical cell elements and the sensitive potentiostat components from any significant voltage or current overload. A comparator compares the potentiostat input voltage with the electrochemical cell reference electrode voltage. When the reference electrode voltage becomes substantially different from the potentiostat input voltage and exceeds a certain preset value, the comparator activates a control means that causes the cell current to go to zero. This system provides dynamic protection even as the input voltage varies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 1979
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1980
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Ronald K. Galwey, Kay K. Kanazawa
  • Patent number: 4227986
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for providing a surface coating of a metal or metal alloy on the wall of an elongate cavity in a workpiece by means of electrolytic plating, the workpiece being used as cathode. An electrolyte containing ions of the metal intended for the coating is brought into movement inside the cavity with the aid of a conveyor, which consists of a resilient and electrically insulating material such as a perforated, net-like or fibrous strip, and which is wound helically round the anode. The strip is fringed or slit on the edge facing towards the cavity wall to form outstanding resilient fingers which are in contact with the cavity wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 1978
    Date of Patent: October 14, 1980
    Assignee: Wave Energy Development I Vastmanland Aktiebolag
    Inventors: Kaj-Ragnar Loqvist, Leif-Ake Bennstedt