Patents Examined by John H. Mack
  • Patent number: 4217194
    Abstract: A probe having a measuring device for polarographic, potentiometric, ther and like measurements has a high-resistance transducer which is provided with leads. A body of insulating material is arranged about the transducer and a metal-containing body is arranged about the insulating material. The metal-containing body includes a metal layer which is essentially free of pores and essentially impervious to the diffusion of liquid therethrough and which thus seals the insulating material against contamination by foreign matter. A metal layer which is essentially free of pores and essentially impervious to the diffusion of liquid therethrough may be formed by sputtering the metal onto a substrate using a high-frequency field at an output of 10 to 40 watts per square centimeter of target surface, the sputtering operation being carried out for a period of 5 to 10 minutes in an Ar atmosphere having a pressure of 8 .times.10.sup.-4 torr.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 1976
    Date of Patent: August 12, 1980
    Assignee: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
    Inventors: Dietrich W. Lubbers, Horst Baumgartl, Yukio Saito
  • Patent number: 4214964
    Abstract: An electrolytic process and an electrolytic cell for recovering metal values from low grade concentrates. The said concentrate is introduced into the cell containing an aqueous electrolyte so that it is retained in proximity to an anode or anodes and kept out of contact from the or each cathode. The cell is energized so that electrolysis takes place and acid is released at the anode(s) which dissolves the metal values which form cations which migrate to and are discharged at the cathode(s). The impurities in the concentrate form fine particles which are separated from the concentrate by screening, e.g. by means of a grid or grids separating the anodes from the cathodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 12, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1980
    Inventor: John F. Cannell
  • Patent number: 4214970
    Abstract: Novel electrodes for oxygen ionization half-cell electrode reactions comprising an electrically conductive porous base having over at least a portion thereof a coating containing an electrocatalyst comprising (1) at least one metal selected from the group consisting of silver and a platinum group metal and (2) a hydrated oxide of at least one metal selected from the group consisting of manganese and nickel, electrochemical cells containing the said electrode at which oxygen is ionized and to novel electrolytic processes with such an electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1980
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Technologies, S.A.
    Inventors: Placido M. Spaziante, Antonio Nidola
  • Patent number: 4214966
    Abstract: A method has been devised for metallizing a desired area on a substrate during the manufacture of semiconductor devices. This process includes the steps of depositing a material such as a polymer resist on the substrate to delineate the area to be metallized. Then a suitable metal is deposited onto the coated substrate leaving a metallic film on both the exposed area of the substrate and on the delineating material. This metallic film is then substantially removed only from the delineating material by a technique which includes ion milling at an acute angle to the plane of the substrate. Conventional techniques are then employed to remove the delineating material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 20, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1980
    Assignee: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Incorporated
    Inventor: Gerard E. Mahoney
  • Patent number: 4214969
    Abstract: A bipolar current collector-separator for electrochemical cells consists of a molded aggregate of electro-conductive graphite and a thermoplastic fluoropolymer combined in a weight ratio of 2.5:1 to 16:1. The bulk resistivity of such a molded bipolar current collector-separator is less than 4.times.10.sup.-3 ohm inches (.OMEGA. in.). It has excellent corrosion resistance to a variety of feedstocks such as brine, aqueous HCl, etc. and to various electrolysis products such as caustic, chlorine, hydrogen, etc. In one alternative form the anodic side of a current collector-separator for a water electrolyzer is covered by a thin layer of a passivated metallic foil thus protecting the graphite current collector against attack by oxygen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 2, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1980
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventor: Richard J. Lawrance
  • Patent number: 4214961
    Abstract: The present invention relates to the continuous electrochemical treatment of a metal web and more particularly the continuous electrochemical graining and anodizing of aluminum metal webs for litho sheet and capacitor foil applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 29, 1980
    Assignee: Swiss Aluminium Ltd.
    Inventor: William H. Anthony
  • Patent number: 4213840
    Abstract: A method of fabricating gate electrodes on microwave field effect transistors is described. A first layer of photo-resist is deposited and photolithographically defined on top of a semiconductor material with openings in the photoresist, corresponding to the gate electrode. In one embodiment, when drain and source electrodes have been previously formed, additional openings in the first layer of photoresist are defined that approximately overlay the drain and source electrodes. A metal layer is then deposited on top of this structure. A second layer of photoresist is then deposited and photolithographically defined on top of the first metal layer, with larger openings which overlay the openings in the first layer of photoresist. The thickness of the gate electrode, and in one embodiment, the sections overlaying the drain and source electrodes, is then increased by plating gold into the openings in the second layer of photoresist.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 13, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1980
    Assignee: Avantek, Inc.
    Inventors: Masahiro Omori, James N. Wholey, J. Ross Anderson
  • Patent number: 4213835
    Abstract: A method of etching a recrystallized aluminum foil which utilizes potentiostatic etching to roughen the foil to obtain a particularly high roughening factor. The etching preferably occurs in two stages in which the etching current density of the first stage is above the current density which creates an undesired pitting of the aluminum and a second stage which utilizes an etching current density which is below the density which creates pitting of the aluminum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1980
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventor: Horst Fickelscher
  • Patent number: 4213842
    Abstract: A capping board made of plastic material reinforced with fiberglass, for supporting the ends of a plurality of electrodes immersed in an electrolytic cell such as the cells used for the electrolytic refining of copper. This capping board is made of a plastic resin selected from the group consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene and acid resistant polyesters, vinylesters, epoxy and phenolic resins, and contains from 10 to 20% by weight of fiberglass, from 2 to 10% by weight of silica, from 2 to 10% by weight of mica and from 2 to 10% by weight of feldspar. Preferably, at least one wooden core is embedded in the capping board in order to reduce the quantity of resin required and the fabrication cost. Such capping boards made of reinforced plastic material allow for substantial increase in the productivity of electrolytic metal refining plants, in particular because they are resistant to corrosion and do not need to be frequently replaced.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 22, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1980
    Inventor: Jean L. Dufresne
  • Patent number: 4213844
    Abstract: An ion plating apparatus having a plurality of vapor sources for supplying the vapors of evaporating materials, the particles of the vapors being ionized and accelerated by an electric field to impinge on the surface of a substrate so as to form a film of the evaporating materials thereon is disclosed. An ionization chamber common to a plurality of the vapor sources, the ionization chamber being composed of parallel filaments for emitting electrons is also disclosed. Grid-shaped electron-accelerating electrodes are provided between the filaments so that the vapors of the evaporating materials pass between them, and the electron-accelerating electrodes kept at a positive potential with respect to the filaments thereby to ionize the vapors of the evaporating materials.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1980
    Assignee: Futaba Denshi Kogyo K.K.
    Inventors: Kiyoshi Morimoto, Hiroshi Watanabe, Toshinori Takagi
  • Patent number: 4213834
    Abstract: The electrochemical working method according to the invention comprises the use of two electrodes whereof one oscillates with respect to the other. Voltage pulses are applied to the electrodes in synchronization with the oscillation and are continued to be applied thereto when the electrodes are found at a minimum distance from one the other. As the electrodes are brought apart, cavitation is produced in the interelectrode gap, which phenomenon is accompanied by a change in the relative resistance of the gap. A cavitation transducer is used to measure a parameter which unambiguously determines the cavitation intensity corresponding to a preset minimum gap. In order to control the electrochemical treatment process, a comparator produces a signal equal to the difference between a signal corresponding to the actual relative value of the parameter function and formed by a computing unit, and a signal corresponding to a predetermined value of the parameter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 22, 1980
    Inventors: Andrei P. Semashko, Nasikh Z. Gimaev, Ivan V. Maximov, Sergei V. Bezrukov, Vladimir B. Rabinovich
  • Patent number: 4212722
    Abstract: A process and an apparatus for electrowinning metal from metal bearing solutions is disclosed. A support solution containing a predetermined metal concentration is continuously recirculated through a cell having a porous grid supporting a bed of particulate conducting particles at a sufficiently high flow rate so as to fluidize and expand the bed by 5 to 25%. A gas is continuously fed through the bed of conducting particles so as to strongly agitate the particles at low bed expansion to maintain good mixing and uniform fluidization of the bed of particles. The cell includes an electrode arrangement suspended from the top of the cell and immersed into the bed of fluidized conducting particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 14, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1980
    Assignee: Noranda Mines Limited
    Inventors: Michael M. Avedesian, Anthony P. Holko
  • Patent number: 4212721
    Abstract: Equipment for controlling, monitoring, determining the most effective operating conditions and operating, and for displaying data in, alkali metal chloride electrolysis plants which are operated by the amalgam process, wherein the equipment has, for each electrolytic cell or for each group of electrolytic cells, a data collecting and processing device for controlling, monitoring and determining the most effective operating conditions the electrolytic cell or group, and all the data collecting and processing devices are connected to a central data collecting and processing device for central operation and for displaying data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1980
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Dieter Bergner, Erhard Heubach, Winfried Hofmann, Ortwin Kuster, Lothar Pelz
  • Patent number: 4212723
    Abstract: A counterflow extraction column for the liquid-liquid extraction of two phases during simultaneous electrolysis, includes an elongated, upright column tube containing a cathode and an anode. Within the tube, a common chamber defines cathodic zones and anodic zones and is void of separating members between the zones. The common chamber constitutes the anode chamber and the cathode chamber of the column.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1980
    Assignee: Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH
    Inventors: Helmut Schmieder, Hubert Goldacker, Ernst Warnecke, Manfred Kluth, Reinhard Schlenker
  • Patent number: 4212907
    Abstract: This invention is a method for etching a molybdenum or molybdenum-rich alloy surface to promote the formation of an adherent bond with a subsequently deposited metallic plating. In a typical application, the method is used as a pre-treatment for surfaces to be electrolessly plated with nickel. The pre-treatment comprises exposing the crystal boundaries of the surface by (a) anodizing the surface in acidic solution to form a continuous film of gray molybdenum oxide thereon and (b) removing the film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 22, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 15, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy
    Inventor: Ralph R. Wright
  • Patent number: 4212082
    Abstract: An improved target for storage of electric charge, in an electron beam addressable memory, utilizes an anodic oxide grown upon a semiconductor layer, forming part of a semiconductor diode structure. The anodic oxide is overlayed with a planar film of conductive material and the target structure is scanned with an electron beam for writing of electric charge storage therein and reading of the electron charge patterns therefrom over relatively greater numbers of erase/write operations relative to a target having a thermally-grown oxide layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 1978
    Date of Patent: July 8, 1980
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: William D. Barber, George E. Possin
  • Patent number: 4211629
    Abstract: An improved anode and base assembly for diaphragm type electrolytic cells is disclosed. In the present embodiment, downwardly facing annular portions at the base of the anode risers of dimensionally stable anodes of the type well-known in the art are welded from below directly to a metal cell base cover which seals the electrolyte contained within the cell from the cell base which is generally of copper or aluminum, thereby eliminating corrosion problems associated with leaks in the rubber gaskets or blankets formally used between the anode risers and the cell base.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 12, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 8, 1980
    Assignee: Diamond Shamrock Corporation
    Inventors: Hugh L. McCutchen, James W. Bess, Sr.
  • Patent number: 4210516
    Abstract: Electrode elements are provided for monopolar electrolysis cells useful in chlor-alkali electrolysis and having two vertical, planar, opposed electrode surfaces, said surfaces being substantially parallel and spaced apart from one another and being electrically fastened to an electrode frame, said electrode element being characterized in that at least one electrode rod is connected in electrically conductive fashion to the side portion of said electrode frame, extending through the space between said opposed electrode surfaces substantially parallel to said electrode surfaces, the diameter of said rod being smaller than the distance between said opposed electrode surfaces, said electrode rod being provided with conductive members distributed over the length thereof and connected in electrically conductive fashion to both the electrode surfaces and the electrode rod.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1980
    Assignee: Hooker Chemicals & Plastics Corp.
    Inventors: Luciano Mose, Helmut Schurig, Bernd Strasser
  • Patent number: 4210511
    Abstract: Electrolysis apparatus and electrode structure comprising a solid polymer electrolyte membrane, a porous cathode plate, and a porous anode plate which is electrochemically compatible with the cathode, so that the anode plate and cathode plate are substantially immune from galvanic corrosion. The solid polymer electrolyte membrane is disposed between the anode plate and cathode plate, and means are provided for holding the anode and cathode plates in firm contact with the opposite sides, respectively, of the membrane. In an embodiment employing a plurality of sets of electrode structures means are provided for securing the anode plate, solid polymer electrolyte membranes, and cathode plate of each electrode structure in side-by-side relationship and to secure the respective electrode structures in spaced series arrangement, with a spacer plate positioned between the individual sets of spaced electrode structures. A series of grooves is provided between the anode plate and the plate in contact therewith.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1980
    Assignee: Billings Energy Corporation
    Inventors: Barrie C. Campbell, Harold M. Simons
  • Patent number: 4210512
    Abstract: A unique, current conducting, separator element with controlled anolyte flow distribution is incorporated in an electrolysis cell having anode and cathode electrodes bonded to an ion transporting membrane. The current conducting-fluid distributing separator has a plurality of parallel conductive ribs which contact the anode electrode and also define a plurality of fluid distribution channels through which an anolyte such as water, is brought to the electrode and through which gaseous electrolysis products and the spent anolyte are removed from the anolyte chamber. A pressure dropping flow restrictor is provided in the channel inlets to prevent gases generated at the anode from flowing backward and blocking the anolyte distribution inlet manifold. The pressure dropping element can take the form of a restrictor to reduce the dimension of the channel. Alternatively the separator is molded so that the inlets of the channels have a reduced cross section.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 1979
    Date of Patent: July 1, 1980
    Assignee: General Electric Company
    Inventors: Richard J. Lawrance, John H. Russell