Patents Examined by John H. Mack
  • Patent number: 4203821
    Abstract: Electrochemical, especially organo-electrochemical, reactions are carried out with improved current efficiency in a continuous-flow cell with the use of bipolar electrodes placed in a frame of non-conducting material, especially a polyolefin. Preferably, the electrically active part of the electrodes consists of glass-like carbon the cathode face of which is coated with a material reducing the hydrogen overvoltage, for example titanium carbide or tungsten carbide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 20, 1980
    Assignee: Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Jurgen Cramer, Werner Lindner
  • Patent number: 4202869
    Abstract: Flue gas having a content of sulfur dioxide is passed upwardly through a scrubbing tower against a descending flow of recycled aqueous sodium aluminate-sodium hydroxide liquor. The sulfur dioxide in the gas is converted to sodium and aluminum sulfates and sulfites and the liquor removes any fly ash present in the gas. Underflow is continuously discharged from the tower and is sent to an evaporator for removal of excess water. Make-up solutions of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfate and aluminum sulfate are added, as necessary. Carbonaceous reducing agent is added to the discharge from the evaporator. The mixture is continuously fed into a reducing furnace where the sulfates and sulfites are reduced to sulfides. The product of the furnace (molten sodium and aluminum sulfides) is charged into a continuous hydrolyzer. Hydrogen sulfide is evolved and collected, and, if desired, its sulfur content is converted to elementary sulfur. The underflow from the hydrolyzer is filtered.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1980
    Inventor: David Lurie
  • Patent number: 4202739
    Abstract: Deburring, polishing, surface forming and the like are carried out by electrochemical machining with conformable electrode means including an electrically conducting and an insulating web. The surface of the work to be processed is covered by a deformable electrically insulating web or cloth which is perforated and conforms with the work. The web is covered by a deformable perforated electrically conducting screen electrode which also conforms with, and is insulated from, the work by the insulating web. An electrolyte is conducted through the electrode and insulating web and along the work through a perforated elastic member which engages the electrode under pressure pressing the electrode and web against the work. High current under low voltage is conducted betwen the electrode and work through the insulator, removing material from the work.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 25, 1977
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the United Stated Department of Energy
    Inventors: Tibor Csakvary, Robert E. Fromson
  • Patent number: 4202753
    Abstract: The present invention provides a highly efficient reduction cell hood which utilizes an improved shield installation which is easily movable by hand thereby allowing for fewer shields which results in a corresponding decrease in the number of joints which must be sealed. The reduction cell hood of the present invention is constructed of a material which is capable of withstanding the operating temperatures of the electrolyte process without warping, buckling or other damage thereto.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1980
    Assignee: Swiss Aluminium Ltd.
    Inventors: Donald R. Bradford, James E. White
  • Patent number: 4202752
    Abstract: A fluid bed electrolysis cell and system are provided for efficiently extracting electroplatable metal ions from an electrolyte, the cell employed having preferably a plurality of anodes and cathodes concentrically disposed relative to each other, each of the anodes being partitioned from each of the cathodes by a porous diaphragm such as to define a plurality of anode chambers and cathode chambers. Each of the cathode chambers are adapted to support a fluidizable cathode bed of electrically conductive particulate material, e.g., powdered nickel, copper, and the like.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 1979
    Date of Patent: May 13, 1980
    Assignee: Amax Inc.
    Inventors: William G. Sherwood, Donald R. Hodges, Cvetko Nikolic
  • Patent number: 4201649
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for making low resistance thin indium oxide films by first depositing a thin primer layer of indium oxide at low temperature before heating to deposit the bulk of the conductive layer of indium oxide by cathode sputtering.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 29, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: F. Howard Gillery
  • Patent number: 4201651
    Abstract: Prior art electrolysis cells used for producing chlorine for sanitizing and sterilization purposes deteriorate due to accumulation of scale on the electrodes thereof. This problem is solved by an improved cell comprising an outer electrode having an in-facing surface which falls generally on a first cylindrical surface and an inner generally coaxial electrode having an out-facing surface which falls generally on a second cylindrical surface, the second cylindrical surface falling inward radially of the first cylindrical surface, the outer and inner electrodes being longitudinally coextensive for at least a substantial portion thereof. The inner and outer electrodes are rotated relative to one another. An abrading structure is mounted to one of the electrodes with an abrasive portion thereof in abrasive contact with the other of the electrodes. The abrading structure is electrically insulated from at least one of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 15, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Inventor: Constantinos D. Themy
  • Patent number: 4201653
    Abstract: A cell for electrowinning metal from a sulfate electrolyte includes insoluble anodes and cathodes, each anode being housed in an anolyte compartment defined by a flaccid sheath of porous membrane and means within each sheath for separating the sheath from the surfaces of the anode contained therein.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: Inco Limited
    Inventors: Charles E. O'Neill, Victor A. Ettel, Alfredo Villazor, Peter G. Garritsen
  • Patent number: 4201645
    Abstract: A closed-loop sputtering system for the deposition of thin films which includes a control means to maintain and control the voltage of the target electrode by control of the flow of gas to the plasma without measurement of the pressure of the system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: Robert J. Ferran
    Inventor: Richard P. Riegert
  • Patent number: 4201654
    Abstract: An anode assisted sputter etch and deposition apparatus having an electron source, a first anode adjacent the electron source and a second anode adjacent a negatively charged article to be sputter etched or sputter target in an ionizable gas atmosphere. Upon production of the electrons from said electron source a plasma is formed between the electron source, the first anode and the second anode, the plasma adjacent the second anode being capable of desorbing gases and other absorbed vapors from the surface of the article or target while positive ions from the plasma bombard the article or target with sufficient energy to eject material from the surface thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of the Air Force
    Inventor: B. Wayne Castleman
  • Patent number: 4201622
    Abstract: Microstructural evaluation tests performed on Cu-doped, Ti-doped and Cu/Ti doped p-type silicon single crystal wafers, before and after the solar cell fabrication, and evaluation of both dark forward and reverse I-V characteristic records for the solar cells produced from the corresponding silicon wafers, show that Cu mitigates the unfavorable effects of Ti, and thus provides for higher conversion efficiency, thereby providing an economical way to reduce the deleterious effects of titanium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 1979
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Inventors: Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, with respect to an invention of Frosch, Amal M. Salama
  • Patent number: 4201652
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrolytic cell having an electrode assembly with a base plate, fingered electrodes electrically connected to, spaced from, and extending outwardly from the base plate, and defining valleys between adjacent electrodes. The electrodes have a synthetic separator on their surface. The electrode assembly also has a back screen at the bases of the electrodes which is spaced from and parallel to the base plate. The electrolytic cell is characterized by providing compressive means between each pair of electrodes. The compressive means bear upon the electrode unit and upon the laps of the synthetic separators on adjacent electrodes to form electrolyte-tight seals between the separators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 22, 1978
    Date of Patent: May 6, 1980
    Assignee: PPG Industries, Inc.
    Inventor: Dallas D. Dupre, III
  • Patent number: 4200513
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for reducing magnetic disturbances in a series of very high intensity electrolysis cells. The device is characterized by the supply of an anode bus bar both through its two ends and through at least one central riser supplied from upstream cathode outputs and by a branch on the downstream cathode output rods of the preceding cell. Application is to the production of aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in molten cryolite.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 27, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 29, 1980
    Assignee: Aluminum Pechiney
    Inventors: Paul Morel, Jean-Pierre Dugois
  • Patent number: 4198282
    Abstract: A replaceable cathode unit, suitable as a module for the building up of stable, non-deformable cathode systems in electrolyzers for the production of magnesium by melted salt electrolysis, is the form of a straight, longitudinal main cathode with active cathode side surfaces and two shorter transverse cathodes arranged approximately at right angles in relation to the main cathode. One transverse cathode is at the front end of the main cathode, and the other transverse cathode is at the back end of the main cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 15, 1980
    Assignee: Norsk Hydro A.S
    Inventors: Knut A. Andreassen, Henry K. Johnsen, Peder R. Solheim, Sigbjorn Kleveland
  • Patent number: 4197178
    Abstract: An improved bipolar separator for electrochemical cells comprising a molded aggregate of an electrically conductive powdered material and a powdered thermosetting resin in a weight ratio of 1:1 to 9:1 and having a resistivity coefficient, in the direction perpendicular to the major surfaces of the separator, of less than 0.3.OMEGA. cm and having the entire surface exposed to the anolyte, except the area of electrical contact with the anode, coated with a layer of a chemically resistant and electrically non-conductive thermosetting resin and electrochemical cells containing the said bipolar separator and method of producing the said bipolar separator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 8, 1980
    Assignee: Oronzio deNora Impianti Elettrochimici S.p.A.
    Inventors: Alberto Pellegri, Placido M. Spaziante
  • Patent number: 4197181
    Abstract: Disclosed is an easily assembled and disassembled stationary particulate bed dual electrode for recovering metal values from electrolytic solutions. The electrode comprises two assemblies adapted for mating with one another. Each assembly has a perforated flow distributing plate and a basket-like compartment for holding carbonaceous, conductive particles onto which the metal values deposit. This compartment is quickly and easily disassembled for removal of the metal-clad particulate bed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 1979
    Date of Patent: April 8, 1980
    Assignee: Kennecott Copper Corporation
    Inventors: Charles Portal, Glenn M. Cook
  • Patent number: 4197169
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a method of minimizing shunt currents in electrochemical devices which have a plurality of cells connected, at least in part, in series and which have an electrolyte which is a common electrolyte to at least two of the cells and which includes shared electrolyte, whereby an electrical electrolytic conductive bypass path is created around such cells and through said shared electrolyte, resulting in undesirable shunt currents. The method involves applying a protective current through at least a portion of said conductive bypass path through said shared electrolyte in a direction which is the same as the shunt current through said shared electrolyte and of a magnitude which effectively at least reduces said shunt currents. Thus, a single protective current is applied in series with at least a portion of the conductive bypass path such that shunt currents are minimized, and preferably are totally eliminated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 8, 1980
    Assignee: Exxon Research & Engineering Co.
    Inventors: Markus Zahn, Patrick G. Grimes, Richard J. Bellows
  • Patent number: 4195366
    Abstract: A novel, polycrystalline whitlockite ceramic in either pore-free or porous form, processes for the preparation thereof and methods of using the same as biological implant materials are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 23, 1977
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1980
    Assignee: Sterling Drug Inc.
    Inventors: Michael Jarcho, Ronald L. Salsbury
  • Patent number: 4196068
    Abstract: Apparatus for producing chlorine gas comprising a plurality of separately housed electrolytic cells containing bimetallic electrodes electrically connected in series. Each electrolytic cell is divided into an anode and a cathode compartment separated by an ion permeable membrane which is impermeable to gases and water. Each cell housing contains passageways for simultaneously delivering a pure alkali metal chloride brine solution to the anode compartments and transporting chlorine gas produced at the anode and spent brine solution from the anode compartments. Passageways are also provided in each cell housing for delivering deionized water to the cathode compartments and conveying hydrogen gas produced at the cathode and an alkali metal hydroxide solution from the cathode chamber. Approporiate piping is provided for delivering brine solution and deionized water to the cell housing and conveying chlorine gas and spent brine and hydrogen gas and an alkali metal hydroxide solution from the cell housing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 1978
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1980
    Inventor: Frank J. Scoville
  • Patent number: 4196071
    Abstract: A perforated support for helping prevent damage to a non-adherent membrane in a chlorine gas-producing cell configuration having downwardly open, gas-trapping pockets adjacent such a membrane in the upper end of a chlorine-producing anolyte chamber. The cathode chamber can be at a greater pressure than the anode chamber to force the diaphragm against the support.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1979
    Date of Patent: April 1, 1980
    Assignee: Olin Corporation
    Inventors: Judson A. Wood, Steven J. Specht