Abstract: An improved selective absorber on a glass substrate having high solar absorption and low infrared emission. The Selective Absorber on a glass substrate includes an electrically conducting layer of silver metal having a thickness on the order of 0.1 microns, and an absorbing layer of either black nickel or, alternatively, a layer of oxidized iron over a layer of nickel or bright nickel. The method of this invention defines the process of producing the Selective Absorber on a glass substrate by thoroughly cleaning the glass, chemically depositing a thin layer of silver metal over the clean glass surface, then electroplating an absorbing layer over the silver layer. The absorbing layer may be electroplated black nickel or, alternatively, an electroplated layer of nickel or bright nickel, such as cobalt-nickel, and an electroplated cover layer of iron. The glass substate and composite layers are heat treated to thermally cured to improve its optical and properties.
Abstract: There is disclosed an apparatus for the electric spark deposition of metals. The apparatus comprises a logic block, the input of which is connected to the output of a following system, a motor for horizontal motion in the x-direction and a motor for horizontal motion in the y-direction, such motors being connected by their inputs to a command unit and by their outputs to the movable table of the deposition apparatus; the motor for horizontal motion in the x-direction, the motor for horizontal motion in the y-direction and the motor for vertical motion are connected, respectively, to one of the outputs of the logic block.
November 28, 1978
Date of Patent:
October 7, 1980
BRV "Electronna Obrabotka na Materialite"
Bogomil T. Antonov, Stoyan Y. Panayotov, Ognyan V. Lyutakov
Abstract: The known method of removing heavy metal and cyanide ions from plating waste solutions wherein the solution is passed through flow-through, high surface area electrodes to precipitate heavy metal ions and to oxidize cyanide is improved through the use of a novel stationary bed dual electrode capable of reducing heavy metal and cyanide ion concentration. The process promotes economical electrolytic purification because it can be accomplished at relatively high current efficiencies. The metals removed from the solutions are recovered in a concentrated form suitable for purification.
Abstract: A method of plating aluminum parts is disclosed, which provides improved adhesion of the plated system with decreased restraints on transfer time between steps. The aluminum part must contain 1-8% alloyed zinc and be cleaned to be free of grease and organic contaminants, such as by the use of alkaline and etching cleaners. The part is then cathodically cleaned employing sulfuric acid, to be free of any oxide film. While in the latter condition, cyanide and borate salts are cathodically deposited (Ph 7.5-10.5) permitting increased transfer time, up to 1 hour, before metal plating. The salt coated part is immersed in an electrolytic cell to displace the salt coating with a bronze strike containing 58-88% tin. Finally a lustrous decorative coating system is plated thereover.
Abstract: A support frame for electrolyte chambers in electrochemical cells with supported electrodes, having parallel wires extending in the direction of flow of the electrolytic liquid and arranged preferably between two thin screens, wherein the flow canals for the electrolytic liquid are substantially free of constrictions in the direction of flow.
Abstract: The present invention is concerned with a new metallic modified material of intermetallic compound, which has the same chemical composition as an intermetallic compound semi-conductor with a zincblende-type or wurtzite-type crystalline structure and further has a rocksalt-type crystalline structure and which is stable at room temperature under atmospheric pressure to a high pressure.
Abstract: The corrosion resistance of an anodically oxidized surface film on aluminum articles is improved by sealing micropores and the like in such surface film with an aqueous sealing solution or dispersion containing siliceous material, such as silicic acid or a silicate, therein and thereafter overcoating the so-sealed surface with a select coating composition. The aqueous sealing solution is brought into contact with the aluminum article, such as by dipping the article into the solution and drying the so-coated article. Optionally, an electrical voltage may be applied through the sealing liquid and through the aluminum article during the sealing process. Further, in certain embodiments an electrical voltage may be applied through the sealing liquid before the liquid contacts the aluminum article. If desired, the surface of the aluminum article may be colored prior to sealing.
Abstract: The electric current leaving an electrolytic aluminum reduction cell leaves the long sides of the cell via cathode bars connected to at least four asymmetrical busbars which lead to the anode beam of the next cell. These busbars which lead the current off in opposite directions are arranged on both sides of the cell at various distances, whereby however, the distances of two diametrically positioned busbars from the central axis of the cell are equal.
Abstract: A reinforced polypropylene tank for containing caustic fluids and acid baths used in the electroplating process and having a positive ventilation hood for protecting workers from harmful fumes, vapors, and acid splash and nearby hardware from corrosion is disclosed. An optional hot water heater configuration is also disclosed for heating fluid in the tank and reducing the danger of fire.
Abstract: In the method aspect of the invention, a tablet compressing tool having a concavity at its working end, is placed in a vertically aligned position with the concavity downward, contacted by an electrolyte at only the working tip thereof, and agitated by a circular movement in a horizontal plane while being subjected to a suitable DC current potential. The electrolyte may be conventional.One effective apparatus for practicing the above method comprises a suitable electrolyte containing tank having cathode means, such as a trough or channel-shaped electroconductive mesh, extending therethrough, and tool clamping means on the upper side of said tank arranged for holding a plurality of said tools aligned in a vertical position and extending into electrolyte within said tank. Said tool clamping means is mounted for circular movement in a horizontal plane and arranged with means including prime mover means for effecting such movement.
Abstract: An oxygen gas-bearing, flow-through electrode has in associated, cooperative combination: (i) a porous, fluid-pervious and permeable, catalyst-bearing body section adapted to be operated in the fluid-flooded condition; coupled with (ii) means for intimately mixing and delivering to said body section in pore-flooding supply quantities an interblended gas-entrained fluid mixture in effectively reactive relative proportions of desired liquid electrolyte and oxygen-bearing gas. The electrode can be used in any electrolytic cell which is adapted, by inclusion of appropriate components and constituent materials therein, to either generate electricity by chemical action when operated in the galvanic mode or, alternatively when operated in the electrolysis mode, to make recoverable product from the ionically decomposed constituents of the dissolved molecules in the electrolyte.
Abstract: An improved aluminum reduction cell which includes an insulated container for the molten electrolyte, a cover over the open mouth of the container, and a heat exchanger positioned above the molten bath, within the container and below the cover for recovering heat from the molten bath and further including, in one embodiment, means for converting the recovered heat into electricity which can be recycled back to the reduction cell. By heavily insulating the reduction cell against heat loss and by appropriately controlling the amount of heat which is recovered the cell can be operated over a wide range of electrical power inputs.
Abstract: A holder and method for controlling and uniformly maintaining the temperature of work pieces when the work pieces are acted upon by a plasma in a plasma reactor apparatus. Support means which hold the work pieces so as to expose them to the reactive plasma also position metallic plate members which are capable of being heated to an elevated temperature by the plasma when in electrical contact with an electrode of the plasma reactor apparatus. The metallic plate members are all electrically shorted together, but are insulated from the support means. A temperature sensitive switch connects the metallic plate members to an electrode of the plasma apparatus. Work pieces to be acted upon by the plasma are placed in proximity to the metal plate members. In the presence of a plasma and when shorted to the apparatus electrode, the metallic plate members are rapidly heated and heat is conducted to the work pieces to heat them uniformly.
Abstract: In a preferred embodiment, the etch rate of a silicon-containing surface subjected to a RF discharge plasma containing reactive etching species is selectively affected by electrically insulating the surface from the plasma-generating RF power source and by applying to the surface a predetermined time-constant electrical potential. The applied potential apparently interacts with the plasma constituents in the immediate vicinity of the surface to alter the concentration of reactive species and thereby change the rate of attack of the plasma upon the surface. The applied potential, depending upon its polarity and strength, is useful to selectively increase or decrease the etch rate of the desired surface exposed to a predetermined plasma without significantly interfering with the overall RF plasma discharge.
Abstract: A thin film strain gage is deposited on a flexure beam under controlled deposition conditions such that the dielectric parts thereof are normally in a compressive state. During use, when the strain gage is flexed in a manner tending to place parts thereof in tension, the dielectric parts are instead maintained either in compression, which is their more resistant state against mechanical fracture, or only in slight tension. Specifically, the dielectric films are deposited by sputtering with the substrate negatively biased, with the deposition rate and substrate temperature maintained at predetermined levels for enhancing compressive deposition.
Abstract: Electrode and specifically a transparent electrode for an electrolytic cell and specifically an electrolytic display cell constituted by a transparent conducting layer having a configuration suitable for display purposes and deposited on an electrically insulating transparent support. The transparent conducting layer is coated with a thin transparent conducting film made from a material different from that of the conducting layer, so that under the operating conditions of the cell it is possible to limit the overvoltage on the electrode to such a value that there can be no secondary reactions liable to bring about a transformation of the materials forming said layer and said film. The layer is made from tin-doped indium oxide and the film from tin oxide doped with antimony or cadmium.
Abstract: A device for replacing pouring tubes at the outlet of a pour vessel for molten metal in which interconnected frames supporting the pouring tubes in a free swiveling manner are guided according to a linear path along the vessel outlet by suitable guiding means, whereby the pouring tube nearing the outlet is brought in close contact with an outlet plate by suitable steering and pushing means.
Abstract: Feed cathode for an electrolytic cell with a feed conduit suited to pass a metal compound therethrough from a source to an electrolyte in the cell. The feed cathode includes a member surrounding and substantially entirely enclosing at least an outlet of the conduit. The member is at least partially formed of an electrically conductive foraminous body suited to pass the electrolyte and ions of a multivalent metal compound therethrough. Preferably, the foraminous body has an electrical coefficient of greater than zero to about 1 and a flow coefficient of from about 0.1 to about 300.
Abstract: In a magnetron sputter gun for sputtering cathode material at subatmospheric pressure from a target onto a workpiece, the sputter cathode target comprises a pair of rings disposed in the inner magnetic gap between a pair of axially spaced annular pole pieces of a magnetic circuit. The pair of cathode target rings include a main target ring, which is to receive a preponderance of the cathode erosion, and an auxiliary ring disposed within a counter bore at the inner lip of one of the pole pieces. The main and auxiliary target rings are disposed relative to the counter bored pole piece so as to shape the magnetic field in the region of the sputter target rings such that a nearly constant sputtering rate is attained from the target with constant applied anode to cathode potential and constant current during the time to produce erosion of a preponderance of the volume of the main target ring, whereby a controlled sputtering rate is obtained concurrently with a relatively high utilization of target material.
Abstract: The covering sytem for a conventional fused salt electrolytic cell for the reduction of aluminum oxide to metallic aluminum comprises individual lids (4) butting onto each other at the sides and inclined downwards from the anode beam (1) to the edges (5) of the long sides of the reduction pot. The lids (4) are provided with a support (6) which rests on a rail (13) when the anode beam is in the raised position. As the anode beam (1) is lowered, the lids (4) slide over the long edges (5) of the pot, until they are supported by the stops (7) mounted on the lower third part of the lid (4). On lowering the beam (1) further, the supports (6) slide on the anode beam (1). The anode rods (2) are enclosed at the sides by the lids (4).