Additives for gas phase oxidative desulfurization catalysts
A composition useful in oxidative desulfurization of gaseous hydrocarbons is described. It comprises a CuZnAl—O mixed oxide, and an H form of a zeolite. The mixed oxide can contain one or more metal oxide promoters. The H form of the zeolite can be desilicated, and can also contain one or more transition metals.
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The invention relates to catalytic compositions useful in the oxidative desulfurization of gaseous, sulfur containing hydrocarbons. More particularly, it relates to catalysts referred to as “CuZnAl” catalysts hereafter, combined with H-forms of zeolites, to form the catalytic compositions.BACKGROUND AND PRIOR ART
Oxidative desulfurization of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuels is a well developed field. See, e.g., pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 14/987,141, filed Jan. 4, 2016, as well as published U.S. Patent Applications 2013/0028822 and 2013/0026072, all of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety. These materials disclose, inter alia, catalytic compositions which contain 10-50 wt % copper oxide, 5—less than 20 wt % of zinc oxide, and 20-70 wt % aluminum oxide, with X-ray amorphous phases (described infra), having formula CuxZn1-x Al2O4, where X ranges from 0 to 1, and which also contain crystalline ZnO and CuO. These catalysts may be “doped” with one or more promoters, preferably a Group VIB metal oxide such as an oxide of Mo, W, Si, B or P. The promoter may be present in an amount up to 20 wt % of the composition.
These catalytic compositions as well as the compositions of the invention are effective catalysts for selectively oxidizing the organic sulfur compounds in gaseous hydrocarbons preferably at temperatures above 300° C.
Research in the field has shown, however, that catalytic oxidative desulfurization does not perform at a satisfactory level, when prior art catalysts are used by themselves. Hence there is interest in combining catalysts with additives to make them more effective at oxidative desulfurization. One approach is to use zeolites in combination with catalysts. In this respect see, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,673,557; 6,579,347; 4,405,443; and 7,749,376, U.S. Patent Publications 2010/0037774 and 2007/0131589, and PCT/NL93/00282, all of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety.
None of these references, however, disclose H-forms of zeolites in combination with catalysts of the type described supra. Such forms of zeolites are disclosed, e.g., by U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,875,290; 3,948,760; and 4,346,067, all of which are incorporated by reference.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The invention relates to a catalytic composition comprising an oxidative desulfurization catalyst combined with an H-form zeolite as additive. Exemplary, but not limitative, of such H-form zeolites are HZSM-5, HY, HX, H-mordenite, H-β, and other zeolite topologies such as MFI, FAU, BEA, MOR, FER in their H-forms, as well as their desilicated forms. The zeolite portion of the catalytic composition is optionally substituted with one or more transition metals. Also, a feature of the invention are processes for manufacturing these catalysts, as well as their use in oxidatively desulfurizing gaseous, sulfur containing hydrocarbons.
The detailed description of preferred embodiments which follows elaborates upon various embodiments of the invention.
CuZnAl oxide compositions were synthesized by the precipitation method described, e.g., in Published U.S. Patent Application 2013/0026072, incorporated by reference in its entirety.
In brief, Cu(NO3)2, (0.2 moles), Zn(NO3)2 (0.07 moles), and Al(NO3)3 (0.235 moles), were dissolved in 500 ml of distilled water, to form what shall be referred to as “solution A” hereafter. The pH of the solution was 2.3.
Similarly, 19.08 g of Na2CO3, (0.18 moles), and 48 g of NaOH (1.2 moles), were dissolved in 600 ml of distilled water, to produce “solution B,” which had a pH of 13.
Solution A was heated to 65° C. and solution B was added to solution A, at a rate of about 5 ml/minute, with constant agitation, until all of solution B was added. The resulting mixture had a pH of 11.0. A precipitate resulted which was aged, for 6 hours, at 65° C., pH 11. The solution was cooled to room temperature and filtered with a Buchner funnel. Precipitate was repeatedly washed with distilled water. Analysis showed that nearly all of the Cu, Zn, and Al precipitated out of the solution (99%) until PH neutral.
The precipitate was then dried at room temperature, for 12 hours, at 110° C., calcined at 500° C. for 4 hours, and ground to a fine powder.Example 2
The composition prepared in Example 1 was then treated to incorporate molybdenum oxide (MoO3), therein, via the well known incipient wetness method. To elaborate, the dried CuZnAl composition prepared in Example 1 was placed into an impregnating drum, and an impregnating solution containing (NH4)6Mo7O24 (0.22 mol/L) and H3BO3 (0.5 mol/L) was fed into the drum during its rotation. The volume of the solution was calculated from the water capacity of CuZnAl composition, and increased by 10%. The impregnated sample was left in the rotating drum for 20-30 minutes more to distribute the moisture throughout the sample evenly.
The sample was then dried at 110° C. for 12 hours and further calcined at 500° C. for 4 hours.
The dried material was dark brown in color. The calcined product contained 34-37 W % of elemental Cu, 14-14.8 W % of elemental Zn, 12-13.5 W % of elemental Al, 3-8 W % of elemental Mo, 0.4-1.5 W % of elemental % B, and 0.08-0.14 W % of elemental Na. (In all of the examples which follow, weight percent is given in terms of the pure element, rather than the oxide). The atomic ratio of the components Cu:Zn:Al was (2.5-3):1:(2.5-3). The modified catalyst had a specific surface area of 35-70 m2/g, a pore volume of 0.15-0.35 cm3/g and prevailing pore diameter equal to 10-20 nm.
The sample contained traces of highly dispersed CuO, ZnO, and MoO3 with an X-ray amorphous oxide phase. “X-ray amorphous oxide phase” as used herein means that, when observed via high resolution transmission electron microscopy (“HRTEM”), crystalline particles ranging from 2-10 nm, and usually 2-5 nm, were observed. Lattice parameters (7.896 Å) were very close to those of spinels, hence the chemical composition, deduced from EDX data, is Cu0.3Zn0.7Al2O4.
The properties of CuZnAl compositions modified by oxides of molybdenum and boron are given in Table 1. Catalytic compositions can be granulated by any known method. They can also be subjected to extrusion or tabletting by, e.g., pressing.
This example describes the preparation of a zeolite additive.
A commercial batch of ZSM-5 zeolite in H form with a silicate module (Si/Al atomic ratio) equal to 30 was used as a zeolite additive to the catalyst compositions described in the prior examples. The properties of the zeolite are given in Table 2, together with properties of other representative zeolites. “La” and “Y” refer to transition metals Lanthanum and Yttrium, while “DeSi” means the zeolite is in desilicated form. The silicate module can be varied in the range 15-90 W %. All of these compositions are described infra.
The CuZnAl composition of example 2 and the ZSM-5 of Example 3 were weighed and mixed at a weight proportion 85% to 15%. The mixture was thoroughly ground for 10 minutes, pressed and fractionized, without thermal treatment.
Major physicochemical properties of the obtained material are given in Table 3, together with the physicochemical properties of other compositions described herein.
This example describes preparation of a CuZnAl composition modified by MoO3, B, and a zeolite additive containing La: 0.5B-10MoO3/Cu—Zn—Al2O3+15% La/H-ZSM-5
The composition was prepared in the same manner as the composition of Example 4 with the only difference being that the composition of the zeolite additive, i.e., it was a zeolite with ZSM-5 structure, modified by lanthanum (La/H-ZSM-5). La and Y can be introduced in ZSM-5 by known routes other than those used herein, such as via ion-exchange mode using an aqueous solution of La and Y salts. La and Y content can vary within the range 0.1 to 5 W %.
For the synthesis of this zeolite additive, an H-ZSM-5 sample in H form with a silicate module equal to 30 as described supra was subjected to incipient wetness impregnation with an aqueous solution of lanthanum nitrate La(NO3)3. The volume of the solution taken for the impregnation was calculated from water capacity of the zeolite powder (VH2O=0.6 ml/g) increased by 10%. The concentration of La(NO3)3 in the solution was 0.65 mol/L.
The sample was then dried for 4 hours at 110° C. and calcined for 4 h at 500° C.
The content of lanthanum in La/H-ZSM-5 was 4.75 wt. %. Some of its properties are presented in Table 2, supra.
The composition and some properties of CuZnAl catalyst modified by Mo, B and La/H ZSM-5 are given in Table 3, supra.Example 6
This example describes a preparation of a CuZnAl composition modified by MoO3, B and zeolite additive containing Y: 0.5B-10MoO3/Cu—Zn—Al2O3+15Y % La/H-ZSM-5. La and Y can be introduced in ZSM-5 by routes other than those used herein, such as ion-exchange using an aqueous solution of an La or Y salt. La and Y content can vary within 0.1 to 5 W %.
The preparation method used followed example 4, supra, but used a zeolite with ZSM-5 structure, modified by yttrium (Y/H-ZSM-5).
For the synthesis of Y/H-ZSM-5, a ZSM-5 sample in H form with a silicate module equal to 30 as described supra was subjected to incipient wetness impregnation by an aqueous solution of yttrium nitrate Y(NO3)3. The volume of the solution taken for the impregnation was calculated from the water capacity of the zeolite powder (VH2O=0.6 ml/g) increased by 10%. The concentration of Y(NO3)3 in the solution was 1 mol/L.
The sample was then dried for 4 hours at 110° C. and calcined for 4 h at 500° C.
The content of yttrium in Y/H-ZSM-5 was 4.75 wt. %. Its main properties are presented in Table 2, supra.
The composition and main properties of CuZnAl catalyst modified by Mo, B and Y/H ZSM-5 are given in Table 3, supra.Example 7
Preparation of CuZnAl composition modified by MoO3, B and desilicized ZSM-5 structure (H-DeSi-ZSM-5)-0.5B-10MoO2/Cu—Zn—Al2O3+15% H-DeSi-ZSM-5 is described.
Again, preparation followed example 4, but used a desilicized ZSM-5 structure (H-DeSi-ZSM-5).
For the synthesis of H-DeSi-ZSM-5 a commercially available H-ZSM-5 sample in H form with a silicate module equal to 30 was placed into a reactor with a water jacket and subjected to desilicization in 0.2M NaOH solution at 80° C. for 2 h. The ratio of the mass of zeolite (g) to the volume of the solution (ml) was equal to 30. Then the sample was filtered, and washed with a 5 fold volume of water.
After washing, sodium cations were removed from the sample by an ion-exchange procedure with 0.5M NH4NO3 at 60° C. for 1 hour. The ratio of the mass of desilicated zeolite (g) to the volume of the solution (ml) was equal to 30. Then the sample was filtered and washed by water to attain neutral pH of the washing water.
The obtained material was dried at 110° C. for 4 h and calcined at 500° C. for 4 h.
Main properties of H-DeSi-ZSM-5 are presented in Table 2, supra.
The composition and main properties of CuZnAl catalyst modified by Mo, B and H-DeSi-ZSM-5 are given in Table 3, supra.Example 8
The preparation of a CuZnAl composition modified by MoO3, B and desilicized Na—Y structure (Na-DeSi-Y).-0.5B-10MoO3/Cu—Zn—Al2O3+15% is described herein.
Again, Example 4 was followed using a desilicized zeolite with H—Y structure.
The conditions of the preparation of the desilicized zeolite with H—Y structure were similar to those for the preparation of the desilicized zeolite with HZSM-5 structure. After treatment with NaOH, the sample was designated as Na-DeSi-Y and it was not further subjected to ion-exchange. Properties of the desilicated zeolite additive, Na-DeSi-Y and CuZnAl catalyst modified by additions of Mo, B and Na-DeSi-Y are given in Table 2 and 3, supra.Example 9
This example describes preparation of a CuZnAl composition modified by MoO3, B and desilicized zeolite with H—Y structure (H-DeSi-Y).-0.5B-10MoO2/Cu—Zn—Al2O3+15%
Again, Example 4 was followed using a desilicized zeolite with H—Y structure. The base zeolite is commercially available.
The conditions of the preparation of the desilicized zeolite with H—Y structure were similar to those for the preparation of the desilicized zeolite with HZSM-5 structure. After treatment with NaOH, the sample was subjected to ion-exchange with a solution of ammonium nitrate. The product was designated as H-DeSi-Y.
Properties of the desilicated zeolite additive H-DeSi-Y and CuZnAl catalyst modified by additions of Mo, B and H-DeSi-Y are given in Table 2 and 3, supra.Example 10
Catalytic compositions prepared in accordance with the invention were tested to determine their ability to oxidatively desulphurize hydrocarbons. In this example, DBT was dissolved in toluene, to produce a test mixture containing 1% sulphur. Catalytic compositions as described supra, viz:
- 0.5B+10 Mo/CuZnAl
- ZSM-5/0.5B+10 Mo/CuZnAl
- La-ZSM-5/0.5B+10 Mo/CuZnAl
- Y-ZSM-5/0.5B+10 Mo/CuZnAl
- DeSi-ZSM-/0.5B+10 Mo/CuZnAl
- NaDeSi-Y/0.5B+10 Mo/CuZnAl
- HDeSi-Y/0.5B+10 Mo/CuZnAl
In the tests, the test mixture described herein was combined with each of the catalytic compositions listed, and heated. The conversion of sulfur to SO2, and the percentage of sulfur removal were measured, and are depicted in
Review of these figures show that maximum catalytic activity was significantly higher when the zeolites were used, than not.Example 11
The catalytic compositions described supra were then tested for their ability to catalyze the oxidative desulfurization of residual fuel oil. The properties of the test material (residual fuel oil) were:
The conditions used for the test are presented in Table 4 which is set forth infra. Note the increase in desulfurization using the compositions of the invention, as compared to the prior art (56.6 versus 37.1).
Similar experiments were carried out on a blend of diesel and residual fuel. Relevant properties are:
Table 5, which follows, shows the conditions, and the results of the work. Note the increase in desulfurization from 57.4 to 71.1.
The catalytic composition Y-zeolite/0.5B-10 MoO3CuZn was tested for its ability to remove sulfur from diesel fuel. The test was carried out at 400° C., GHSV=7860 h−1, WHSV h−1. Sulfur content was 0.97 wt %.
The foregoing disclosure sets forth features of the invention, which include a catalytic composition and its use. The catalytic composition comprises a CuZnAl—O mixed oxide, where the weight percentages of the oxides are:
- 10-50 CuO
- 5→20 ZnO
- 20-70 Al2O3
These mixed oxides also contain a highly dispersed spinel oxide phase, where this phase has formula
with x ranging from 0 to 1, preferably 0.1 to 0.6 and most preferably from 0.2 to 0.5. Optionally, the mixed oxide can contain at least one oxide promoter, such as one or more oxides of Mo, W, Si, B, or P.
The composition also includes at least one zeolite in H form, such as HZSM-5, HY, HX, H-mordenite, H-β, MF1, FAU, BEA, MOR, or FER. These H forms can be desilicated, and/or contain one or more transition metals, such as La or Y.
The mixed oxide component may be in granular form, and the composition as a whole may be formed, using known methods, into a cylinder, a sphere, a trilobe, a quatrolobe, or any form desired. When in granular form, the mixed oxide granules have a diameter of from 1 mm to 4 mm. The mixed oxide also preferably has a surface area of from 10 m2/g to 100 m2/g, preferably from 50 m2/g to 100 m2/g and/or a total pore volume of from about 0:1 cm3/g to about 0.5 cm3/g.
Referring again to the mixed oxide composition, a preferred weight distribution is:
- 20-45 wt %/CuO
- 10→20 ZnO
- 20-70 Al2O3
and even more preferably:
- 30-45 CuO
- 12→20 ZnO
- 20-40 Al2O3
The H-form zeolite can comprise from about 5 to about 50 wt % of the composition, and a silicate module of from 2 to 90.
The composition can be used to oxidatively desulfurize a gaseous hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture, such as fuel oil, crude oil, diesel fuel, etc., by contacting a gaseous hydrocarbon which contains sulfur to said composition, at a temperature of, e.g., from 200° C. to 500° C., preferably from 240° C. to 440° C. Other operating parameters, such as feed, O2/S ratio, GHSV, WHSV and so forth, are parameters that are set by the individual artisan.
Other features of the invention will be clear to the skilled artisan and need not be reiterated here.
The terms and expression which have been employed are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expression of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, it being recognized that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention.
1. A method for oxidatively reducing sulfur content in a gaseous hydrocarbon feedstock comprising: contacting said gaseous hydrocarbon feedstock with a mixed oxide catalytic composition prepared by precipitation method, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition contains (i) copper oxide in an amount ranging from 10 weight percent (wt %) to 50 wt %, (ii) zinc oxide in an amount ranging from 5 wt % to less than 20 wt %, (iii) aluminum oxide in an amount ranging from 20 wt % to 70 wt %, and (iv) a boron oxide promoter, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition (a) has a spinel oxide phase with formula CuxZn1-xAl2O4 wherein x ranges from O to 1, (b) contains dispersed ZnO and CuO, and adding at least one zeolite in H form selected from the group consisting of: HZSM-5, HY, HX, H-mordenite, MFI, FAU, BEA, MOR, and FER to said mixed oxide catalytic composition, said zeolite in H form containing at least one transition metal additive, wherein oxidative reduction of sulfur is carried out at a temperature of from 240° C. to 440° C., to oxidatively desulfurize said gaseous hydrocarbon feedstock.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition is in granular form.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition is formed as a cylinder, a sphere, a trilobe, or a quatrolobe.
4. The method of claim 2, wherein granules of said mixed oxide catalytic composition has a diameter of from 1 mm to 4 mm.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition has a surface area of from 10 m2/g to 100 m2/g.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition has a surface area of from 50 m2/g to 100 m2/g.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the total pore volume of said mixed oxide catalytic composition is from about 0.1 cm3/g to about 0.5 cm3/g.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition comprises from 20 wt % to 45 wt % CuO, from 10 wt % to less than 20 wt % ZnO, and from 20 wt % to 70 wt % of Al2O3.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition comprises from 30 wt % to 45 wt % CuO, from 12 wt % to less than 20 wt % ZnO, and from 20 wt % to 40 wt % Al2O3.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein X is from 0.1 to 0.6.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein X is from 0.2 to 0.5.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition further comprises an oxide promoter which is an oxide of Mo, W, Si, or P.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one zeolite in H-form is desilicated.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein said transition metal additive is La or Y.
15. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one zeolite in H-form comprises from about 5 to about 50 percent by weight of said mixed oxide catalytic composition.
16. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one zeolite in H-form has a silicate module (silicon to aluminum atomic ratio) of from 2 to 90.
17. The method of claim 1, wherein said at least one zeolite in H-form has an amorphous or crystalline structure.
18. The method of claim 1, wherein said mixed oxide catalytic composition further comprises a Mo oxide.
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Filed: Jul 26, 2016
Date of Patent: Aug 20, 2019
Patent Publication Number: 20180029023
Assignees: SAUDI ARABIAN OIL COMPANY (Dhahran), BORESKOV INSTITUTE OF CATALYSIS (Novosibirsk)
Inventors: Omer Refa Koseoglu (Dhahran), Yaming Jin (Dhahran), Zinfer Ismagilov (Novosibirsk), Svetlana Yashnik (Novosibirsk), Mikhail Kerzhentsev (Novosibirsk), Valentin Parmon (Novosibirsk)
Primary Examiner: Douglas B Call
Application Number: 15/219,749
International Classification: B01J 29/40 (20060101); B01J 23/80 (20060101); B01J 23/28 (20060101); C10G 29/16 (20060101); B01J 35/02 (20060101); B01J 35/08 (20060101); B01J 35/10 (20060101); C07C 7/148 (20060101); B01J 23/00 (20060101); B01J 35/00 (20060101); B01J 23/72 (20060101); B01J 29/16 (20060101); B01J 29/26 (20060101); B01J 29/46 (20060101); C10G 27/00 (20060101); B01J 37/03 (20060101); B01J 37/04 (20060101); B01J 23/06 (20060101); B01D 53/86 (20060101);