HARD FINISH MACHINE FOR HARD FINISHING OF A WORKPIECE

- KAPP GMBH

The invention relates to a hard finish machine (1) for hard finishing of a workpiece (2), comprising at least two different hard finish tools (3, 4) which are arranged on a tool spindle (5), wherein the tool spindle (5) is arranged movable in the direction (Y) of its axis (6) on a tool carrier (7), wherein the tool carrier (7) is translational movable relatively to a machine bed (8) and wherein the hard finish machine furthermore comprises cooling lubricant supplying means (9) for the supply of cooling lubricant to the machining region between the workpiece (2) and the hard finish tool (2, 3). To work in all possible tool and method combinations with optimized cooling lubricant supply conditions the invention proposes that the cooling lubricant supplying means (9) comprise at least one nozzle element (10), wherein the nozzle element (10) comprises at least two nozzle chambers (11, 12) each having a stream exit opening (13, 14), wherein the at least two stream exit openings (13, 14) are arranged at the same working position in the direction (Y) of the axis (6) of the tool spindle (5) and wherein the nozzle element (10) is movable in a plane (E) which is perpendicular to the axis (6) of the tool spindle (5).

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Description

The invention relates to a hard finish machine for hard finishing of a workpiece, comprising at least two different hard finish tools which are arranged on a tool spindle, wherein the tool spindle is arranged movable in the direction of its axis on a tool carrier, wherein the tool carrier is translational movable relatively to a machine bed and wherein the hard finish machine furthermore comprises cooling lubricant supplying means for the supply of cooling lubricant to the machining region between the workpiece and the hard finish tool.

Such hard finish machines which are well known in the state of the art are employed e.g. in the production of gears as gear grinding machines. Often, a division of the stock is provided which has to be ground so that the gear is firstly rough machined and subsequently finish machined. For rough machining a grinding worm can be used, wherein the continuous generation grinding method is employed; the finish machining can take place with a profile grinding wheel using the profile grinding method.

In order to carry out the grinding process properly and to prevent especially thermal overload of the tooth flank a reliable supply of the contact area between the grinding tool and the workpiece must be ensured which takes place by the arrangement of cooling lubricant supply means.

For the two mentioned methods significant different demands with respect to the cooling lubricant supply exist in terms of a secure prevention of thermal damages of the workpiece:

When using the continuous generative grinding method usually cutting speeds, i.e. circumferential velocities of the grinding worm, of ca. 60 m/s and higher are used due to the connection between the cutting speed and the machining time. For a secure prevention of thermal damages of the workpiece peripheral zone a difference between the circumferential velocity of the grinding worm and the exit velocity of the stream of cooling lubricant being as small as possible is aimed for, i.e. a relatively high exit velocity of the cooling lubricant from the cooling lubricant nozzle is required. This high velocity is created by a small cross sectional area of the nozzle and a high supply pressure. Under such circumstances a relatively low volume flow rate is given which, however, has no negative influence to the grinding process or to the reached workpiece quality.

In contrast, when using the profile grinding method usually low cutting speeds between 25 and 35 m/s are employed. This method demands a secure coverage of the whole grinding wheel profile by the stream of cooling lubricant. Thereof the demand results for a relatively large cross sectional area of the nozzle depending on the respective profile width and height, wherein a stream of cooling lubricant having a low exit velocity and a low pressure results, but having a relatively high volume flow rate.

Beside the mentioned specific application of the hard finishing method of gears other general cases are possible in which several tools are employed one after the other with significant different demands to the cooling lubricant supply.

According to a usual manufacturing method in the case of several tools those tools are arranged flushing on a mandrel which is clamped between a spindle motor and a counter bearing. The whole unit consisting of spindle motor, counter bearing, mandrel and tools is arranged on a slide (tool carrier) movable in axial direction of the tools (mostly nominated as the “Y” axis) by which the tools can be brought into the axial position relatively to the workpiece which is necessary for the machining.

The worm-shaped tools which are used for the generative grinding process are usually significantly wider than the pure contact width which results from the contact between the tool and the workpiece. This is done for the purpose to use different shifting methods to grind the gears in a specific way: Firstly, the discontinuous shifting in the direction of the axis of the tool (Y axis) is employed between rough machining and finish machining and between the machining of single workpieces respectively to bring new fresh regions of the grinding worm into contact. With the continuous shifting in the direction of the axis of the tool (Y axis) during the grinding process of a workpiece (also designates as diagonal grinding) a specific influence of the tooth flank topology and/or surface structure can take place.

The cooling lubricant nozzles which are used here can be designed as fixed elements, i.e. they are optimized for a specific changeless workpiece diameter which is especially recommended for non-dressable CBN grinding tools which does not change their diameter. In the case of tools with changeable diameter, i.e. namely for dressable tools, the cooling lubricant nozzle can be installed in such a way that it is arranged movable in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle, so that the cooling lubricant nozzle can be tracked correspondingly when the diameter of the tool decreases. This adjustment of the nozzle position to the actual tool diameter can take place by a rotatory or translational movement.

In the pre-known applications the workpiece is either machined only with a single tool (e.g. with a dressable grinding worm; the rough machining and the finish machining take place with different width regions of the same tool) or two tools of the same type and the same size are used (e.g. non-dressable profile grinding with CBN rough machining and finish machining wheels). In those cases the use of a single nozzle is possible without problems—with optimized properties for the used tool and method respectively.

Usually, a combination of several tools and machining methods of different kind respectively is used for the machining of several gears of the same workpiece in one clamping (e.g. gear box shafts) or for the machining of a gear with different methods for the rough machining and for the finish machining (e.g. rough machining by dressable generative grinding, finish machining by non-dressable profile grinding—as explained above).

In those cases the following variants of cooling lubricant supply are known:

It is known to use the same nozzle (with or without the above mentioned tracking in the case of changes of the diameter) for the different tools. Here it is the drawback that the conditions of the cooling lubricant supply cannot be optimized for each used tool. Therefore the machining with at least one of the used tools is possible only with reduced feed rate, so that longer machining times and thus a loss of efficiency result.

Furthermore, it is known that several nozzles are arranged on the slide of the Y axis which travel with the slide, wherein the nozzles do not change their position relatively to the respective tool. In this case the following drawbacks exist: To be able to use the above mentioned shifting process in the case of the generative grinding method with a worm-shaped tool the nozzle which travels with the slide of the Y axis must be as wide as the whole tool, i.e. thus significantly wider than it would be necessary due to the effective contact width between the tool and the workpiece. Given a constant exit height of the nozzle opening the cross sectional area of the nozzle increases when the nozzle becomes wider which is in conflict with the conditions which are ideal for the generative grinding. Also in this case the machining can take place only with a reduced feeding rate due to the non-optimal conditions of the cooling lubricant supply and thus the machining times are longer and the efficiency is reduced.

Thus, it is an object of the invention to further develop a hard finish machine of the kind mentioned above with respect to the cooling lubricant supply means so that the above mentioned drawbacks are avoided and that the use of all possible combinations of tools and methods can take place under optimized cooling lubricant supply conditions. It should become possible to adjust the respective conditions for the supply of cooling lubricant which have been found optimal for each type of tool and for each machining method. Furthermore, an automated adjusting of the conditions for the supply of cooling lubricant for a used tool and a used machining method respectively should become possible within a machining cycle without intervention by an operator, i.e. managed by the machine control.

The solution of this object by the invention is characterized in that the cooling lubricant supplying means comprise at least one nozzle element, wherein the nozzle element comprises at least two nozzle chambers each having a stream exit opening, wherein the at least two stream exit openings are arranged at the same working position in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle and wherein the nozzle element is movable in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle.

The nozzle element can have at least two separate nozzle bodies each having a nozzle chamber, wherein the stream exit openings are arranged at the outlet end of the nozzle bodies.

Alternatively, the nozzle element can also have only a single nozzle body with the at least two nozzle chambers, wherein the stream exit openings are arranged at the outlet end of the nozzle body.

The form of the stream exit openings is preferably different. Preferably, the stream exit openings have a rectangular shape. The differences in the form relate then preferably to the width and the height of the stream exit openings.

All stream exit openings arc preferably arranged symmetrically to a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle.

The nozzle element can be arranged pivotable around an axis which is parallel to the axis of the tool spindle for the purpose of positioning or of tracking the diameter.

Alternatively, the nozzle element can be arranged translational movable in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle for the mentioned purpose. The nozzle element is here preferably arranged movable on a linear guide.

The nozzle element can be designed for charging each of the nozzle chambers individually controlled with cooling lubricant. Alternatively, it is also possible that at least two nozzle chambers of the nozzle element are designed for the simultaneous charging with cooling lubricant.

The nozzle element can be arranged stationary in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle at or on the tool carrier. It can also be arranged movable on a linear guide in this direction relatively to the tool carrier. Furthermore, it is possible that the nozzle element is arranged stationary in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle at or on the machine bed. Finally, it is possible that the nozzle element is arranged movable on a linear guide in the mentioned direction relatively to the machine bed.

According to a preferred embodiment of the invention the hard finish tools are gear machining tools, especially a grinding wheel or a grinding worm.

Thus, it is proposed the combination of several—especially of two—nozzles at one working position of the tool spindle which are equipped with actuation means for maintaining and adjusting respectively of the optimal position. The nozzles thus have a possibility for displacement in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle.

Beneficially, the above mentioned object is solved completely with the proposed solution. Accordingly, it becomes possible that also in the case of the use of very different hard finish tools, especially of grinding tools, the cooling lubricant supply conditions are optimized. The adjustment of the cooling lubricant supply means is possible in an easy manner automated by means of the machine control unit.

Consequently, solutions are proposed for the cooling lubricant supply for machining methods in which several tools are used one after the other in the same position relatively to the workpiece to be machined and wherein the requirements for the cooling lubricant supply (especially in terms of the exit cross sectional area, the exit speed, the volume flow rate and the pressure) differ significantly depending on the used tools and machining methods.

In the drawing embodiments of the invention are shown.

FIG. 1 shows in a perspective view a hard finish machine being designed as gear grinding machine, which has a grinding wheel and a grinding worm as grinding tools which are supplied with cooling lubricant by cooling lubricant supply means,

FIG. 2 shows a first embodiment of the cooling lubricant supply means seen in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle (Y axis) equipped with translational displacement means for a nozzle element,

FIG. 3 shows a second embodiment of the cooling lubricant supply means seen in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle (Y axis) equipped with rotatory displacement means for a nozzle element and

FIG. 4 shows the section A-A according to FIG. 3.

In FIG. 1 a hard finish machine 1 being a gear grinding machine is depicted which has a machine bed (machine base frame) 8. Inter alia, a tool carrier (slide) 7 is arranged linear movable on the same which bears a tool spindle 5. On the tool spindle 5 at least two hard finish tools 3, 4 are arranged, namely a profile grinding wheel 3 and a grinding worm 4 being depicted only schematically, wherein the tool spindle 5 can be designed as a one-part spindle or can consist of two or more separate spindles which can also be driven separately. The workpiece 2 which is to be machined with the tools 3, 4 is clamped on a workpiece spindle 20; presently, the workpiece axis is oriented vertically.

The tool spindle 5 has an axis 6. The tool spindle 5 can be moved in the direction of this axis on the tool carrier 7 in the marked direction Y to bring the tools 3, 4 selectively into engagement with the workpiece 2. Insofar, the gear grinding machine corresponds to the pre-known designs. The further necessary machine axes which are of course necessary for the machining are not further discussed as they are not relevant for the invention.

Relevant are now the cooling lubricant supply means 9 which serve for supplying cooling lubricant to the contact area between tool 3, 4 and workpiece 2.

According to the invention the cooling lubricant supply means 9 comprise a nozzle element 10 as can be seen in FIG. 2 in a first embodiment. The nozzle element 10 has two nozzle chambers 11 and 12 each having, a stream exit opening 13 and 14 respectively. Thereby, the nozzle element 10 is formed presently by two nozzle bodies 15 and 16 which are fixed at a slide 21.

Hereby, it is important that the nozzle element 10 is movably arranged in a plane E (see FIG. 4) which is perpendicular to the axis 6 of the tool spindle 5. Hereby it is reached that the respective stream exit openings 14, 15 for the cooling lubricant can be optimal adjusted for the concrete tool application and can be tracked when the diameter of the tool is changing due to dressing. Accordingly, the slide 21 can be moved on a linear guide 19 in a translational displacement direction V to move the nozzle bodies to the contact area between tool and workpiece which nozzle bodies are optimal designed and are suitable for the concrete application, namely according to the actual diameter of the grinding tool.

The two stream exit openings 13 and 14 are designed differently. They have a rectangular shape in each case, wherein the height and width of the exit openings arc optimal adapted to the concrete tool application (see the below-mentioned remarks in connection with FIG. 4, which are also applicable here). So, it is possible to position and to activate the optimal suitable nozzle body 15 and 16 respectively depending on the employed tool.

The nozzle chambers 11, 12 can selectively be charged with cooling lubricant what is arranged by the machine control unit.

The relatively thin but relatively wide stream exit opening 13 is optimal for the lubrication of the grinding worm 4 during generative grinding. However, the relatively thick but less wide stream exit opening 14 is suitable for the lubrication of the grinding wheel 3 during profile grinding.

In FIG. 3 and FIG. 4 an alternative solution is shown by which it is possible in the same manner to optimal supply the contact area between tool and workpiece with cooling lubricant. The nozzle body 17 of the cooling lubricant supplying means 9 are here designed as a one-piece element in which two nozzle chambers 11 and 12 are formed for the flow of cooling lubricant. Thereby, the nozzle body 17 is arranged pivotable around an axis 18 which is parallel to the Y axis. The pivoting direction is nominated with S. Thereby, also here the nozzle exit can be tracked in an optimal manner which is necessary due to a change of the diameter of the grinding tool due to dressing.

As can be seen in the section A-A according to FIG. 4 the two nozzle chambers 11 and 12 and their ends, i.e. the stream exit openings 13 and 14, are designed rectangular. However, the width B13 of the stream exit opening 13 and B14 of the stream exit opening 14 as well as the heights H13 of the stream exit opening 13 and H14 of the stream exit opening 14 are different.

Accordingly, during the outlet of cooling lubricant via the nozzle chamber 11 a wide but relatively thin stream is obtained which is optimal for lubricating of the grinding worm 4 during generative grinding.

Contrary to this, the cooling lubricant flows with a relatively thick stream during the outlet from the nozzle chamber 12 which stream however is significantly smaller and is optimal for lubricating of the grinding wheel 3 during profile grinding.

If applicable, a further movement for the displacement of the nozzle element can be superposed to the displacement movement V and the pivoting movement S respectively to not only adjust the tools in an optimal way due to changes in the diameter but also to bring the respective optimal stream exit opening for the concerned grinding tool 3, 4 in the working position.

As far as above an (absolute) stationary arrangement of the nozzle at or on the machine bed is mentioned the following should be noted: On the actual machine bed mostly a machine stand is (movably) arranged, wherein in turn a swivelling part is arranged (movably) on the machine stand. Then, e.g. a slide is arranged movably on a linear guide (for the Y axis) on the swivelling part.

The stationary arrangement of the nozzle at or on the machine bed has to he understood in that way that the nozzle is not moved during the intended use during the grinding process. Thus, this is also the case by definition if the nozzle—as it may be mostly the case—is fixed on the swivelling part and thus not directly fixed, but indirectly fixed via the swivelling part and the machine stand with the machine bed so that however the nozzle is arranged stationary relatively to the bed during the intended use (although it can be moved (adjusted) by the swivelling part and the machine stand relatively to the actual machine bed).

LIST OF REFERENCE NUMERALS

  • 1 Hard Finish Machine
  • 2 Workpiece
  • 3 Hard Finish Tool (grinding wheel)
  • 4 Hard Finish Tool (grinding worm)
  • 5 Tool Spindle
  • 6 Axis
  • 7 Tool Carrier
  • 8 Machine Bed (machine base frame)
  • 9 Cooling Lubricant Supplying Means
  • 10 Nozzle Element
  • 11 Nozzle Chamber
  • 12 Nozzle Chamber
  • 13 Stream Exit Opening
  • 14 Stream Exit Opening
  • 15 Nozzle Body
  • 16 Nozzle Body
  • 17 Nozzle Body
  • 18 Axis
  • 19 Linear Guide
  • 20 Workpicce Spindle
  • 21 Slide
  • Y Direction of the Axis of the Tool Spindle
  • E Plane
  • B13 Width
  • B14 Width
  • H13 Height
  • H14 Height
  • V Direction of Displacement
  • S Direction of Rotation

Claims

1. A hard finish machine for hard finishing of a workpiece, comprising at least two different hard finish tools which are arranged on a tool spindle, wherein the tool spindle is arranged movable in a direction of an axis on a tool carrier, wherein the tool carrier is translational movable relatively to a machine bed and wherein the hard finish machine furthermore comprises cooling lubricant supplying means for a supply of cooling lubricant to a machining region between the workpiece and the hard finish tool,

wherein
the cooling lubricant supplying means comprise at least one nozzle element, wherein the nozzle element comprises at least two nozzle chambers each having a stream exit opening, wherein each stream exit opening is arranged at a same working position in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle and wherein the nozzle element is movable in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle.

2. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element has at least two separate nozzle bodies each having a nozzle chamber, wherein each stream exit opening is arranged at an outlet end of the nozzle bodies.

3. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element has a single nozzle body with the at least two nozzle chambers, wherein the each stream exit opening is arranged at an outlet end of the nozzle body.

4. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein a form of each stream exit opening is different.

5. The hard finish machine according to claim 4, wherein each stream exit opening has a rectangular shape.

6. The hard finish machine according to claim 4, wherein differences in the form relate to a width and a height of each stream exit opening.

7. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein each stream exit opening is arranged symmetrically to a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle.

8. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element is arranged pivotable around an axis which is parallel to the axis of the tool spindle.

9. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element is arranged translational movable in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the tool spindle.

10. The hard finish machine according to claim 9, wherein the nozzle element is arranged movable on a linear guide.

11. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element is arranged stationary in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle at or on the tool carrier.

12. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element is arranged movable on a linear guide in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle relatively to the tool carrier.

13. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element is arranged stationary in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle at or on the machine bed.

14. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the nozzle element is arranged movable on a linear guide in the direction of the axis of the tool spindle relatively to the machine bed.

15. The hard finish machine according to claim 1, wherein the hard finish tools are gear machining tools.

16. The hard finish machine according to claim 15, wherein the hard finish tools are a grinding a wheel or grinding worm.

Patent History

Publication number: 20110081844
Type: Application
Filed: Sep 30, 2010
Publication Date: Apr 7, 2011
Applicants: KAPP GMBH (Coburg), NILES WERKZEUGMASCHINEN GMBH (Berlin)
Inventors: Ralf DREMEL (LICHTENFELS), Frank MUELLER (WIESENFELD), Thomas SCHENK (COBURG)
Application Number: 12/894,349

Classifications

Current U.S. Class: Rotary Disk (451/259); Machine (451/64)
International Classification: B24B 19/00 (20060101);