Agitating Or Moving Electrolyte During Coating Patents (Class 205/148)
  • Patent number: 7811440
    Abstract: A plating apparatus performs a plating process while placing a work in a pod disposed in a plating bath storing a plating solution. The pod has a pair of meshes that allow the plating solution to pass but substantially inhibit the work from passing. The plating apparatus is provided with a solution flowing mechanism for flowing the plating solution out of the pod through one of the pair of meshes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 12, 2010
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Kou Onodera, Hiroshi Shindo, Takashi Sakurai
  • Patent number: 7776197
    Abstract: An electrode surface coating and method for manufacturing the electrode surface coating comprising a conductive substrate; and one or more surface coatings comprising one or more of the following metals titanium, niobium, tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, palladium, or gold, or an alloy of two or more metals, or a combination of two or more alloys or metal layers thereof having an increase in the surface area of 5 times to 500 times of the corresponding surface area resulting from the basic geometric shape.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2008
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2010
    Assignee: Second Sight Medical Products, Inc.
    Inventor: Dao Min Zhou
  • Patent number: 7776198
    Abstract: A method and apparatus of anodizing a component, preferably aluminum, is disclosed. The component is placed in an electrolyte solution. A number of pulses are applied to the solution and component. Each pulse is formed by a pattern including having three magnitudes. The third magnitude is less, preferably substantially less, than the first and second magnitudes, and all three magnitudes are of the same polarity. The pulse pattern may include alternations between the first and second magnitudes, and following the alternations, the third magnitude. Other patterns may be provided. The solution is in a reaction chamber, along with at least a portion of the component. The fluid enters the reaction chamber from a transport chamber through a plurality of inlets directed toward the component, preferably at an angle of between 60 and 70 degrees. The inlet is preferably the cathode, and the component is the anode, whereby current flows between the cathode and the anode in another embodiment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 12, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 17, 2010
    Assignee: Pioneer Metal Finishing, LLC
    Inventor: Jean Rasmussen
  • Patent number: 7771578
    Abstract: In a method for production of a corrosion resistant and/or oxidation resistant coating, at least one metal of the platinum group or an alloy thereof is galvanically deposited onto a surface of a substrate, and thereafter the thusly galvanically coated substrate is aluminized. In a first stage of the galvanic deposition process a current magnitude applied for the galvanizing is increased continuously or step-wise beginning from an initial value up to a maximum value, and in a second stage of the galvanic deposition process the current magnitude applied for the galvanizing is maintained constant at the maximum value. The galvanic deposition of the or each metal of the platinum group or the corresponding alloy may be carried out using an open-celled or open-mesh or porous anode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: August 10, 2010
    Assignee: MTU Aero Engines GmbH
    Inventors: Anton Albrecht, Thomas Dautl, Oemer-Refik Oezcan, Horst Pillhoefer
  • Publication number: 20100167084
    Abstract: Methods of producing one or more biaxially textured layer on a substrate, and articles produced by the methods, are disclosed. An exemplary method may comprise electrodepositing on the substrate a precursor material selected from the group consisting of rare earths, transition metals, actinide, lanthanides, and oxides thereof. An exemplary article (150) may comprise a biaxially textured base material (130), and at least one biaxially textured layer (110) selected from the group consisting of rare earths, transition metals, actinides, lanthanides, and oxides thereof. The at least one biaxially textured layer (110) is formed by electrodeposition on the biaxially textured base material (130).
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 1, 2005
    Publication date: July 1, 2010
    Applicant: Midwest Research Institute
    Inventors: Raghu N. Bhattacharya, Sovannary Phok, Priscila Spagnol, Tapas Chaudhuri
  • Publication number: 20100155250
    Abstract: Systems and methods for the synthesis of lubricant-containing microcapsules are disclosed. Embodiments of composite nickel and copper coatings containing capsules with liquid lubricating oil cores are also disclosed. In certain embodiments, microcapsules can be incorporated into a metal plating solution to perform composite electrodeposition to obtain self lubricant metallic coatings. In some embodiments, much lower friction coefficient (˜0.8) and far better wear resistance was obtained with the copper/microcapsules composite.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 22, 2009
    Publication date: June 24, 2010
    Applicant: Tenaris Connections AG
    Inventors: Maria Jose Churruca, Pablo Adrian Castro, Federico Jose Williams
  • Patent number: 7713397
    Abstract: The invention relates to a metal membrane filter (1) and to a method and apparatus for the production thereof. The metal membrane filter (1) has rectilinear, cylindrical filter pores (2), which are arranged statistically distributed on the metal membrane filter surface (3) in a density of from a single filter pore (2) per cm2 up to 107 filter pores (2) per cm2. The average diameter of the filter pores (2) is uniform for all filter pores (2) and is from a few tens of nm up to several micrometers. The metal membrane filter (1) comprises a metal electro-deposited with rectilinear, cylindrical filter pores (2) or a correspondingly electro-deposited metal alloy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 9, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2010
    Assignee: Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionen forschung mbH
    Inventors: Dobri Dobrev, Johann Vetter, Reinhard Neumann, Norbert Angert
  • Publication number: 20100065433
    Abstract: A system and apparatus for enhancing convection in electrolytes for improved electrodeposition of copper and other non ferrous metals in industrial electrolytic cells at given a current density providing exact geometric locations of the electrolyte jet infeed supply system used to impart forced convection in the electrolyte, the gas bubbling system for low pressure/low volume convection enhancement, and the electrode bottom and lateral distancing system, and range of operational parameters, for correct electrolyte flow and air bubbling flow improving cell productivity, quality of metal plates with increased electrical efficiency for its industrial application. The system and apparatus can also be used in industrial cells with same optimal results but at increased current densities, provided sufficient suitable electrolyte and additional electric power is available.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 11, 2009
    Publication date: March 18, 2010
    Inventor: Victor Vidaurre Heiremans
  • Publication number: 20090250352
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods of electroplating copper onto at least one surface of a substrate in which more uniform electrical double layers are formed adjacent to the at least one surface being electroplated (i.e., the cathode) and an anode of an electrochemical cell, respectively. In one embodiment, the electroplated copper may be substantially-free of dendrites, exhibit a high-degree of (111) crystallographic texture, and/or be electroplated at a high-deposition rate (e.g., about 6 ?m per minute or more) by electroplating the copper under conditions in which a ratio of a cathode current density at the at least one surface to an anode current density at an anode is at least about 20. In another embodiment, a porous anodic film may be formed on a consumable copper anode using a long conditioning process that promotes forming a more uniform electrical double layer adjacent to the anode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 4, 2008
    Publication date: October 8, 2009
    Applicant: eMat Technology, LLC
    Inventors: Valery M. Dubin, Xingling Xu, Yingxiang Tao, James D. Blanchard
  • Publication number: 20090242413
    Abstract: An electroplating head is disposed above and proximate to an upper surface of a wafer. Cations are transferred from an anode to an electroplating solution within the electroplating head. The electroplating solution flows downward through a porous electrically resistive material at an exit of the electroplating head to be disposed on the upper surface of the wafer. An electric current is established between the anode and the upper surface of the wafer through the electroplating solution. The electric current is uniformly distributed by the porous electrically resistive material present between the anode and the upper surface of the wafer. The electric current causes the cations to be attracted to the upper surface of the wafer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 10, 2009
    Publication date: October 1, 2009
    Applicant: Lam Research Corporation
    Inventors: Yezdi Dordi, Bob Maraschin, John Boyd, Fred C. Redeker
  • Publication number: 20090218231
    Abstract: A plating apparatus according to the present invention has a plating tank for holding a plating solution, an anode disposed so as to be immersed in the plating solution in the plating tank, a regulation plate disposed between the anode and a plating workpiece disposed so as to face the anode, and a plating power supply for supply a current between the anode and the plating workpiece to carry out plating. The regulation plate is disposed so as to separate the plating solution held in the plating tank into a plating solution on the anode side and a plating solution on the plating workpiece side, and a through-hole group having a large number of through-holes is formed in the regulation plate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 7, 2009
    Publication date: September 3, 2009
    Inventors: Toshikazu Yajima, Takashi Takemura, Rei Kiumi, Nobutoshi Saito, Fumio Kuriyama, Masaaki Kimura
  • Patent number: 7569131
    Abstract: A method for multi-layer electrodeposition in a single bath is also provided. A substrate is immersed in a bath. An electrodeposition operation is initiated for depositing a first layer of material on the substrate. The electrodeposition operation includes agitating the bath and applying current pulses. The electrodeposition operation is later altered for depositing a second layer of material on the first layer, where the second layer is of a different composition than the first layer. In the altered mode, the current density is changed for altering a composition of material deposited on the substrate, the duration and/or frequency of the current pulses are altered, and the bath is agitated at a different rate of agitation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 12, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 4, 2009
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: April Dawn Hixon-Goldsmith, Matthew Walter Last, Murali Ramasubramanian, Rolf Beatus Schaefer
  • Patent number: 7553401
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for establishing more uniform deposition across one or more faces of a workpiece in an electroplating process. The apparatus employs eductors in conjunction with a flow dampener member and other measures to provide a more uniform current distribution and a more uniform metal deposit distribution as reflected in a coefficient of variability that is lower than conventional processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2009
    Assignee: Faraday Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence E. Gebhart, Jenny J. Sun, Phillip O. Miller, E. Jennings Taylor
  • Publication number: 20090159451
    Abstract: Variable property deposit, at least partially of fine-grained metallic material, optionally containing solid particulates dispersed therein, is disclosed. The electrodeposition conditions in a single plating cell are suitably adjusted to once or repeatedly vary at least one property in the deposit direction. In one embodiment denoted multidimension grading, property variation along the length and/or width of the deposit is also provided. Variable property metallic material deposits containing at least in part a fine-grained microstructure and variable property in the deposit direction and optionally multidimensionally, provide superior overall mechanical properties compared to monolithic fine-grained (average grain size: 2 nm-5 micron), entirely coarse-grained (average grain size: >20 micron) or entirely amorphous metallic material deposits.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2007
    Publication date: June 25, 2009
    Applicant: Integran Technologies Inc.
    Inventors: Klaus Tomantschger, Glenn Hibbard, Gino Palumbo, Iain Brooks, Jonathan McCrea, Fred Smith
  • Patent number: 7544282
    Abstract: Disclosed are a method and a device for filling material separations on the surface. In methods known in prior art, which are used for filling material separations, the substrate is often influenced in a negative manner by high processing temperatures and dissimilar additives. The inventive method overcomes said disadvantage, taking place at low temperatures and allowing the material separation to be completely filled without using dissimilar substances.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 1, 2003
    Date of Patent: June 9, 2009
    Assignee: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Marc De Vogelaere, Ursus Krüger, Daniel Körtvelyessy, Ralph Reiche
  • Publication number: 20090139871
    Abstract: A plating apparatus can form a bump having a flat top or can form a metal film having a good in-plane uniformity even when the plating of a plating object (substrate) is carried out under high-current density conditions. The plating apparatus includes a plating tank for holding a plating solution; an anode to be immersed in the plating solution in the plating tank; a holder for holding a plating object and disposing the plating object at a position opposite the anode; a paddle, disposed between the anode and the plating object held by the holder, which reciprocates parallel to the plating object to stir the plating solution; and a control section for controlling a paddle drive section which drives the paddle. The control section controls the paddle drive section so that the paddle moves at a velocity whose average absolute value is 70 cm/sec to 100 cm/sec.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 4, 2008
    Publication date: June 4, 2009
    Inventors: Nobutoshi Saito, Jumpei Fujikata, Tadaaki Yamamoto, Kenji Kamimura
  • Patent number: 7514022
    Abstract: There is provided a composite plated product which has a large content of carbon and a large quantity of carbon particles on the surface thereof and which has an excellent wear resistance, by sufficiently dispersing carbon particles in a silver plating solution without using any additives such as dispersing agents and without coating the surface of carbon particles. A wet oxidation treatment for carbon particles is carried out by adding an oxidizing agent to water in which the carbon particles are suspended, and the carbon particles treated by the wet oxidation treatment are added to a cyanide containing silver plating solution for electroplating a substrate to form a coating of a composite material, which contains the carbon particles in a silver layer, on the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2009
    Assignee: Dowa Mining Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Miyazawa, Akito Inoue
  • Publication number: 20090045069
    Abstract: A plating apparatus performs a plating process while placing a work in a pod disposed in a plating bath storing a plating solution. The pod has a pair of meshes that allow the plating solution to pass but substantially inhibit the work from passing. The plating apparatus is provided with a solution flowing mechanism for flowing the plating solution out of the pod through one of the pair of meshes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 28, 2006
    Publication date: February 19, 2009
    Applicant: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Kou Onodera, Hiroshi Shindo, Takashi Sakurai
  • Publication number: 20080271995
    Abstract: In a reverse pulse plating of a substrate (110), the electrolytic solution is agitated with a greater power on forward pulses (210) than on reverse pulses (220). An ultrasound agitation source (170) can be positioned at the bottom of the substrate (110) if the anode (134) is at the top. The ultrasound source may contact the substrate's bottom. Other features are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 3, 2007
    Publication date: November 6, 2008
    Inventors: Sergey Savastiouk, Valentin Kosenko, Alexander J. Berger
  • Publication number: 20080274375
    Abstract: This invention encompasses methods of producing a colored oxide layer on an aluminum material by anodizing the aluminum material in an electrolyte comprising water, sulfuric acid and oxalic acid. The anodizing step comprises passing at least two sequential current densities through the electrolyte. Methods of making and using article with a colored oxide layer on an aluminum material make by the methods disclosed herein are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 4, 2007
    Publication date: November 6, 2008
    Applicant: DURACOUCHE INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
    Inventors: Fuk Chiu Ng, Shu Chung Li
  • Patent number: 7404885
    Abstract: A plating method includes the steps of (a) forming a roughened area in a predetermined area of a substrate, (b) forming a surface-active agent layer above at least the roughened area, (c) forming, above the roughened area, a catalyst layer above the surface-active agent layer, and (d) precipitating a metal layer above the catalyst layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2008
    Assignee: Seiko Epson Corporation
    Inventors: Hidemichi Furihata, Satoshi Kimura
  • Publication number: 20080116077
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a system single-metal plating, a system for binary-metal plating, and a system for solder-bump plating. The solder-bump plating system comprises a single-metal plating system for plating a preconditioned substrate to form a single-metal plated substrate; and a binary-metal plating system for plating the single-metal plated substrate. In a preferred implementation, the solder-bump plating system of the present invention is configured to single-metal plate a preconditioned substrate using a first plating solution to provide a single-plated substrate; to single-metal plate the single-plated substrate using a second plating solution to provide a double-plated substrate; and to binary-metal plate the double-plated substrate using a third plating solution to provide a solder-bump plated substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 21, 2006
    Publication date: May 22, 2008
    Applicant: M/A-COM, Inc.
    Inventor: Prasit Sricharoenchaikit
  • Publication number: 20080105555
    Abstract: An object of the present invention is to provide a face-down type jet plating device in which deterioration in plating quality due to minute solid foreign matters derived from a black film etc. is prevented without impairing operativity. The plating device is designed such that a partition (7) is provided between a semiconductor wafer (1) and an anode (5) so that the anode (5) and the semiconductor wafer (7) are separated from each other and a plating tank (100) is divided into a substrate-to-be-plated chamber and an anode chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 8, 2005
    Publication date: May 8, 2008
    Inventor: Yoshihide Iwazaki
  • Patent number: 7338586
    Abstract: An insulated vibration-stirring apparatus comprising a vibration generating means containing a vibration motor and a vibrating member attached to that motor, and a vibrating rod attached by an installation piece to allow vibration linked with the vibration generating means, and vibrating vanes installed on this vibrating rod. An electrical insulation area made from hard rubber is installed on a section nearer to the installation section to the installation piece than the section where the vibrating vanes are mounted on the vibrating rod. An electrical line is connected to the lower section of the vibrating rod on the electrical insulation area side where the vibrating vanes are installed. This electrical line conducts power to the vibrating vanes by way of the lower section of the vibrating rod.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2008
    Assignee: Japan Techno Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Ryushin Omasa
  • Patent number: 7332066
    Abstract: A process for metallization of a workpiece, such as a semiconductor workpiece. In an embodiment, an alkaline electrolytic copper bath is used to electroplate copper onto a seed layer, electroplate copper directly onto a barrier layer material, or enhance an ultra-thin copper seed layer which has been deposited on the barrier layer using a deposition process such as PVD. The resulting copper layer provides an excellent conformal copper coating that fills trenches, vias, and other microstructures in the workpiece. When used for seed layer enhancement, the resulting copper seed layer provide an excellent conformal copper coating that allows the microstructures to be filled with a copper layer having good uniformity using electrochemical deposition techniques. Further, copper layers that are electroplated in the disclosed manner exhibit low sheet resistance and are readily annealed at low temperatures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2005
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2008
    Assignee: Semitool, Inc.
    Inventors: Linlin Chen, Gregory J. Wilson, Paul R. McHugh, Robert A. Weaver, Thomas L. Ritzdorf
  • Patent number: 7285202
    Abstract: A method is described for electroplating a cylindrical inside surface (4) of a work-piece (3) extending substantially over a semi-circle, with an electrolyte being conveyed from a bath (8) in a circulation through a gap (9) between the inside surface (4) and a revolving guide means (6). In order to ensure advantageous coating conditions it is proposed that the electrolyte is conveyed with the help of the guide means (6) immersed only partly in the bath (8) in the circumferential direction through the gap (9) between the guide means (6) and the work-piece (3) guided outside of the bath (8).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2007
    Assignee: Miba Glietlager GmbH
    Inventor: Thomas Rumpf
  • Patent number: 7097755
    Abstract: The present invention provides an apparatus for electrochemical mechanical processing of a surface of a workpiece by utilizing a process solution. The apparatus of the present invention includes an electrode touching the process solution, a belt workpiece surface influencing device extended between a supply spool and a receiving spool. During the process, the surface of the workpiece is placed in proximity of the workpiece surface influencing device and the process solution is flowed through the process section and onto the surface while a potential difference is applied between the electrode and the surface of the workpiece.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 4, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: ASM Nutool, Inc.
    Inventors: Bulent M. Basol, Halit N. Yakupoglu, Cyprian E. Uzoh, Homayoun Talieh
  • Patent number: 7045050
    Abstract: The purpose of the invention is to provide a method for producing conductive fine particles having a plating layer of extremely uniform thickness and free from scratches without being accompanied with agglomeration of fine particles to be plated during the plating process and a method for producing conductive fine particles comprising resin fine particles and a tin/silver alloy plating layer formed thereon. The invention is a method for producing a conductive fine particle, which comprises forming a plating layer on the surface of a fine particle to be plated using a barrel plating apparatus having a rotatable barrel in a plating bath, said method comprising putting the fine particle to be plated and a dummy particle with a lager particle diameter than that of the fine particle to be plated in the barrel and forming a plating layer while vibrating the barrel at an amplitude of 0.05 to 3.0 mm and a frequency of 20 to 120 Hz.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2006
    Assignee: Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Yoshiaki Tanaka, Nobuyuki Okinaga, Manabu Matsubara
  • Patent number: 6984302
    Abstract: The invention discloses a method of electroplating a material onto a semiconductor substrate. A substrate is placed in a cylindrical processing chamber enclosure. A nozzle for spraying a liquid electroplating solution opposes the top surface of the substrate. The electroplating solution flows through the nozzle and outward angularly from the tip of the nozzle, so that the solution flows rotationally on the surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 1998
    Date of Patent: January 10, 2006
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventor: Kevin J. Lee
  • Patent number: 6974530
    Abstract: The flow of electrolyte and/or of ions is controlled by a diffuser element provided in a plating reactor, wherein, in one embodiment, the diffuser element comprises a mechanical adjustment mechanism to adjust the effective size of passages of the diffuser element. In another embodiment, the diffuser element comprises at least two patterns of passages that are movable relatively to each other so as to adjust an overlap and thus an effective size of the corresponding passages. Moreover, the path of ions within the plating reactor may be controlled by an electromagnetically driven diffuser element so that a required thickness profile on the workpiece surface may be obtained.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2003
    Date of Patent: December 13, 2005
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Matthias Bonkass, Axel Preusse
  • Patent number: 6964792
    Abstract: The present invention provides apparatus and methods for controlling flow dynamics of a plating fluid during a plating process. The invention achieves this fluid control through use of a diffuser membrane. Plating fluid is pumped through the membrane; the design and characteristics of the membrane provide a uniform flow pattern to the plating fluid exiting the membrane. Thus a work piece, upon which a metal or other conductive material is to be deposited, is exposed to a uniform flow of plating fluid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 15, 2005
    Assignee: Novellus Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Steven T. Mayer, R. Marshall Stowell, Evan E. Patton, Seshasayee Varadarajan
  • Patent number: 6958114
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for plating a surface of a semiconductor workpiece (wafer, flat panel, magnetic films, etc.) using a liquid conductor that makes contact with the outer surface of the workpiece. The liquid conductor is stored in a reservoir and pump through an inlet channel to the liquid chamber. The liquid conductor is injected into a liquid chamber such that the liquid conductor makes contact with the outer surface of the workpiece. An inflatable tube is also provided to prevent the liquid conductor from reaching the back face of the workpiece. A plating solution can be applied to the front face of the workpiece where a retaining ring/seal further prevents the plating solution and the liquid conductor from making contact with each other. In an alternative embodiment, electrical contacts may be formed using an inflatable tube that has either been coated with a conductive material or contains a conductive object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2002
    Date of Patent: October 25, 2005
    Assignee: ASM Nutool, Inc.
    Inventors: Homayoun Talieh, Bulent Basol
  • Patent number: 6919011
    Abstract: A method of electroplating an object includes providing a electroplating bath solution with one or more anodes therein, disposing an object to be electroplated in the bath, and passing a complex current waveform between the anode nodes and the object. The waveform is a cyclic alternating type having two portions, a positive triangular shaped portion including one or more spikes and a negative portion. The method further includes vibrating the object and/or agitating the bath solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 27, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 19, 2005
    Assignee: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
    Inventors: Kang Cheung Chan, Kam Chuen Yung, Tai Men Yue
  • Patent number: 6916413
    Abstract: Electroplating station S has a head 1 with anode 2, to one side of which there is located an electrically neutral wall 3. The width of anode 2 is provided to accommodate the width of web 6. Serrations 9 are provided on the anode 2, especially in the area of top surface 8. A passageway 4 for electrolyte 5 is between anode 2 and wall 3. Mesh 11 is located at a throat section 12 of passageway 4 shortly before the start of the guide 7. In addition, mesh 13 is located further upstream in passageway 4 as an alternative and/or as an addition to mesh 11. Guide 7 of wall 3, serrations 9, and meshes 11 and 13 enhance and maximize the production of stream-wise vortices. These vortices cause a substantial increase in the ion flow, which overcomes boundary layers and results in additional deposition of copper onto the web 6.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 13, 2002
    Date of Patent: July 12, 2005
    Assignee: TDAO Limited
    Inventor: John Michael Lowe
  • Patent number: 6899803
    Abstract: In order to regulate the metal ion concentration in an electrolyte fluid serving to electrolytically deposit metal and additionally containing substances of an electrochemically reversible redox system, it has been known in the art to conduct at least one portion of the electrolyte fluid through one auxiliary cell provided with one insoluble auxiliary anode and at least one auxiliary cathode, a current being conducted between them by applying a voltage. Accordingly, excess quantities of the oxidized substances of the redox system are reduced at the auxiliary cathode, the formation of ions of the metal to be deposited being reduced as a result thereof. Starting from this prior art, the present invention relates to using pieces of the metal to be deposited as an auxiliary cathode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2001
    Date of Patent: May 31, 2005
    Assignee: Atotech Deutschland GmbH
    Inventors: Kai-Jens Matejat, Sven Lamprecht
  • Patent number: 6896786
    Abstract: A process for the production of wear-resistant, coated surfaces includes the use of at least two electrodes connected to a voltages source which are mounted in, or border, a reaction space through which an electrolyte flows in which the surface to be coated is located. The process is distinguished by the fact that the direction of the flow of the electrolyte is selectively reversed at least once during the coating process to enable better control of the formation of the oxide layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2005
    Assignee: LuK, Fahrzeug-Hydraulik GmbH & Co. KG
    Inventors: Christof Lausser, Hans-Jürgen Lauth
  • Patent number: 6896785
    Abstract: There is disclosed a process and apparatus for carrying out plasma electrolytic oxidation of metals and alloys, forming ceramic coatings on surfaces thereof at a rate of 2-10 microns per minute. The process comprises the use of high-frequency current pulses of a certain form and having a given frequency range, combined with the generation of acoustic vibrations in a sonic frequency range in the electrolyte, the frequency ranges of the current pulses and the acoustic vibrations being overlapping. The process makes it possible to introduce ultra-disperse powders into the electrolyte, with the acoustic vibrations helping to form a stable hydrosol, and to create coatings with set properties. The process makes it possible to produce dense hard microcrystalline ceramic coatings of thickness up to 150 microns. The coatings are characterised by reduced specific thickness of an external porous layer (less than 14% of the total coating thickness) and low roughness of the oxidised surface, Ra 0.6-2.1 microns.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2005
    Assignee: Isle Coat Limited
    Inventors: Alexander Sergeevich Shatrov, Victor Iosifovich Samsonov
  • Patent number: 6890415
    Abstract: An improved anode, cup and conductor assembly for a reactor vessel includes an anode assembly supported within a cup which holds a supply of process fluid. The cup is supported around its perimeter within the reactor vessel. The anode assembly has an anode shield carrying an anode, the anode shield having upwardly extending brackets with radially extending members. A diffusion plate is supported above the anode by the anode brackets using first bayonet connections. The anode shield and the anode are supported from below by a delivery tube which also serves to deliver process fluid to the cup. A second bayonet connection is provided between a top portion of the delivery tube and the anode assembly. The fluid delivery tube has a fixed height within the vessel. The anode elevation is adjusted by the interposing of a spacer of desired thickness between the anode and the tube. An electrical conductor is connected to the anode, and passes through the tube to be electrically accessible outside the vessel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2002
    Date of Patent: May 10, 2005
    Assignee: Semitool, Inc.
    Inventors: Daniel J. Woodruff, Kyle M. Hanson
  • Patent number: 6878245
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention generally provide an apparatus and method for replenishing organic molecules in an electroplating bath. The replenishment process of the present invention may occur on a real-time basis, and therefore, the concentration of organics minimally varies from desired concentration levels. The replenishment method generally includes conducting pre-processing depletion measurements in order to determine organic depletion rates per current density applied in the electroplating system. Once the organic depletion rates per current density are determined, these depletion rates may be applied to an electroplating processing recipe to calculate the volume of organic depletion per recipe step. The calculated volume of organic depletion per recipe step may then be used to determine the volume of organic molecule replenishment per unit of time that is required per recipe step in order to maintain a desired concentration of organics in the plating solution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2005
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Srinivas Gandikota, Chris R. McGuirk, Deenesh Padhi, Sivakami Ramanathan, Muhammad Atif Malik, Girish A. Dixit
  • Patent number: 6875333
    Abstract: A plating apparatus is provided to allow the whole area of a target plating surface of a wafer to be subjected to more uniform plating treatment and moreover enables a target plating surface of a wider area to be subjected to positive and uniform plating treatment. In the plating apparatus which has a stirring bar within a plating tank and which performs plating treatment of a target plating surface of the wafer while stirring a plating solution near the target plating surface of the wafer by moving the stirring bar, the stirring bar is rotated while being oscillated in a motion plane substantially parallel to the target plating surface of the wafer. By this operation, the occurrence of an eddy flow of the plating solution is suppressed during stirring and it becomes possible to positively carry out more uniform plating treatment of a wider region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 13, 2003
    Date of Patent: April 5, 2005
    Assignee: Electroplating Engineers of Japan Limited
    Inventor: Yasuhiko Sakaki
  • Patent number: 6869515
    Abstract: Embodiments of the present invention provide methods for enhancing void-free metallic filling of narrow openings by electrochemical deposition (ECD). The methods provide enhanced replenishment of plating inhibitor at the field, while depleting the inhibitor inside narrow openings. The resulting inhibitor gradients facilitate void-free ECD filling of narrow openings with large aspect ratios. The inventive methods utilize vigorous electrolyte agitation at the field and top corners of the openings, while maintaining a relatively stagnant electrolyte inside the openings. Vigorous agitation is produced, for example, by high pressure jets flow and/or by mechanical means, such as brush (or pad, or wiper blade) wiping, or by a combination of jets and wiping brushes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2005
    Inventor: Uri Cohen
  • Patent number: 6855239
    Abstract: A plating method and apparatus using contactless electrode is described. In one embodiment an inductive element is placed proximally to a substrate and a moving electromagnetic field generates an emf in the substrate to plate the surface. In another embodiment, a conductive plate is used, so that the conductive plate and the wafer, separated by a dielectric material, operate as two plates of a capacitor when voltage is applied to the conductive plate. The resulting electrostatic field impresses a charge potential on the substrate to plate the surface of the substrate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2005
    Inventor: Rahul Jairath
  • Patent number: 6852209
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for plating a metal onto a substrate. The apparatus generally includes an anode electrode disposed in the electrochemical cell and a cathode electrode disposed opposite the anode electrode in the electrochemical cell. The apparatus further includes an electrode lid having more than one aperture disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, the apertures configured to electrically connect the cathode electrode and the anode electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 2, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2005
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventor: Nicolay Kovarsky
  • Patent number: 6849172
    Abstract: A method of operating a cell for electrowinning of copper, the cell including a plurality of anodes and cathodes therein, the method including the steps of introducing fresh electrolyte and sparging gas to a manifold system in the cell, controlling flow of fresh electrolyte and sparging gas in the manifold system and providing outlet openings in the manifold system such that streams of fresh electrolyte and sparging gas from the outlet openings are directed relatively uniformly across the cathodes in the cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: February 1, 2005
    Assignee: BHP Billiton Innovation Pty., Ltd.
    Inventors: Gregory David Rigby, Alan David Stuart, Philip Ernest Grazier
  • Patent number: 6846392
    Abstract: A plating tool cell anode for venting unwanted gases from a fluid plating solution. In a first embodiment, the solution is introduced into a chamber, defined by the plating tool cell (10), by fluid inlet (12) and contacts the anode (50). The fluid encounters a hydrophobic membrane (14) and a hydrophilic membrane (15) spaced from the hydrophobic membrane. A driving force, such as a vacuum, is applied to the gap (16) between the membranes to remove unwanted gases therein. In a second embodiment, a single membrane is used that is both hydrophobic and hydrophilic. Preferably, the hydrophobic portion of the membrane is located at or near the perimeter of the chamber and gas to be vented is directed toward the hydrophobic portion(s).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 31, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 25, 2005
    Assignee: Mykrolis Corporation
    Inventor: David W. Stockbower
  • Publication number: 20040256241
    Abstract: A reactor and a method of reacting a fluid are provided. The reactor comprises a chamber having an inlet and an outlet to receive and to output a fluid, respectively. A partition with a plurality of perforations is provided in the chamber to separate the fluid into fluid segments. A conductor coupled to the chamber generates a capacitance between the conductor and the partition to vibrate the partition.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 19, 2003
    Publication date: December 23, 2004
    Applicant: AGENCY FOR SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY AND RESEARCH
    Inventors: Diao Xu, Teng Yong Ng, Eng Hann Lim, Hua Pan, Lunsheng Pan, Xuhong Wu, Khin Yong Lam
  • Publication number: 20040256238
    Abstract: The present invention provides an electrolytic processing apparatus which is capable of increasing the in-plane uniformity of the film thickness of a plated film by making more uniform an electric field distribution over the entire surface to be processed of a substrate even if the substrate has a large area and controlling more uniformly the speed, over the entire surface to be processed of the substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 30, 2004
    Publication date: December 23, 2004
    Inventors: Hidenao Suzuki, Kazufumi Nomura, Kunihito Ide, Hiroyuki Kanda, Koji Mishima, Naoki Mihara, Natsuki Makino, Seiji Katsuoka
  • Patent number: 6821408
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for anodizing a component. The component is placed in a container having first and second seal members that seal an annular surface of the component to be anodized. The first and second seal members, the annular surface of the component, and an inner surface of the container form a reaction chamber that holds a reaction medium therein. The reaction medium is supplied to the reaction chamber through a supply passage formed in the container. The reaction medium is drained from the reaction chamber through a drain passage formed in the container.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 23, 2004
    Assignee: Unisia Jecs Corporation
    Inventors: Masato Sasaki, Yuzuru Morioka, Sachiko Sugita, Masazumi Ishikawa
  • Patent number: 6818115
    Abstract: The present invention includes an electrolytic plating system with an elecrolytic plating bath, means for positioning the printed circuit boards in the bath, and means to alternately generate a laminar flow of electrolyte on each side of the printed circuit boards. A preferred means to alternately generate a laminar flow of electolyte comprises a floating shield with a venturi-shaped partition and an aligned partition below the printed circuit boards, and operating a plurality of eductors below the floating shield. The means to alternately generate a laminar flow of electolyte can further comprise a transport mechanism that moves the floating shield and its partitions from side to side relative to the eductors or a mechanism to move the eductors. The plating can be also be improved by using a vibrator and a spring-mounting system that prevents vibration energy being absorbed by fixed portions of the plating system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 16, 2004
    Assignee: Viasystems Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Hein van Kempen, Daniel J. Weber
  • Patent number: 6811671
    Abstract: A method of fabricating a semiconductor device, having a reduced-oxygen Cu—Zn alloy thin film (30) electroplated on a Cu surface (20) by electroplating, using an electroplating apparatus, the Cu surface (20) in a unique chemical solution containing salts of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), their complexing agents, a pH adjuster, and surfactants; and annealing the electroplated Cu—Zn alloy thin film (30); and a semiconductor device thereby formed. The method controls the parameters of pH, temperature, and time in order to form a uniform reduced-oxygen Cu—Zn alloy thin film (30), having a controlled Zn content, for reducing electromigration on the Cu—Zn/Cu structure by decreasing the drift velocity therein which decreases the Cu migration rate in addition to decreasing the void formation rate, for improving device reliability, and for increasing corrosion resistance.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 2002
    Date of Patent: November 2, 2004
    Assignee: Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.
    Inventors: Sergey Lopatin, Alexander H. Nickel, Joffre F. Bernard