Having Tunnel Junction Effect Patents (Class 360/324.2)
  • Patent number: 10997989
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to data storage devices, and more specifically, to a magnetic media drive employing a magnetic recording head. A magnetic recording head comprises a main pole disposed between a leading shield and a trailing shield. A spin torque oscillator is disposed between the main pole and the trailing shield at a media facing surface. A hot seed bilayer is disposed between the spin torque oscillator and the trailing shield, where the hot seed bilayer is conformal with the spin torque oscillator. The hot seed bilayer comprises a first layer comprised of a high magnetic moment material disposed at the media facing surface and a second layer comprised of a low magnetic material recessed from the media facing surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2021
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Muhammad Asif Bashir, Alexander Goncharov, Petrus Antonius Van Der Heijden
  • Patent number: 10964887
    Abstract: A magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) structure comprises a pinned layer on a bottom electrode. a barrier layer on the pinned layer, wherein a second metal re-deposition layer is on sidewalls of the barrier layer and the pinned layer, a free layer on the barrier layer wherein the free layer has a first width smaller than a second width of the pinned layer, a top electrode on the free layer having a same first width as the free layer wherein a first metal re-deposition layer is on sidewalls of the free layer and top electrode, and dielectric spacers on sidewalls of the free layer and top electrode covering the first metal re-deposition layer wherein the free layer and the top electrode together with the dielectric spacers have a same the second width as the pinned layer wherein the dielectric spacers prevent shorting between the first and second metal re-deposition layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2021
    Assignee: TAIWAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LTD.
    Inventors: Yi Yang, Dongna Shen, Yu-Jen Wang
  • Patent number: 10950783
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element includes a channel layer, a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a reference electrode. The first ferromagnetic layer, the second ferromagnetic layer, and the reference electrode are apart from each other and are electrically connected to each other through the channel layer. The average resistivity of a sixth region composed of a first region, a second region, and a fourth region is higher than the average resistivity of a seventh region composed of the second region, a third region, and a fifth region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Hayato Koike
  • Patent number: 10948316
    Abstract: The magnetic sensor of the invention has an element portion that is elongate, that exhibits magnetoresistive effect and that has a magnetically sensitive axis in a direction of a short axis thereof. The element portion is non-oval and can be arranged in an imaginary ellipse, wherein the imaginary ellipse has a major axis that connects both ends of the element portion with regard to a direction of a long axis thereof to each other and a minor axis that connects both ends of the element portion with regard to a direction of the short axisthereof to each other, as viewed in a direction that is perpendicular both to the short axis and to the long axis of the element portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2021
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Keisuke Uchida, Kazuya Watanabe
  • Patent number: 10937955
    Abstract: There is disclosed an information storage element including a first layer including a ferromagnetic layer with a magnetization direction perpendicular to a film face; an insulation layer coupled to the first layer; and a second layer coupled to the insulation layer opposite the first layer, the second layer including a fixed magnetization so as to be capable of serving as a reference of the first layer. The first layer is capable of storing information according to a magnetization state of a magnetic material, and the magnetization state is configured to be changed by a spin injection. A magnitude of an effective diamagnetic field which the first layer receives is smaller than a saturated magnetization amount of the first layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2020
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Hiroyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Asayama
  • Patent number: 10937958
    Abstract: A method of forming a magnetoresistive element comprises of forming a novel Boron-absorbing cap layer provided on the top surface of an amorphous CoFeB (or CoB, FeB) ferromagnetic recording layer. As the magnetoresistive film is thermally annealed, a crystallization process occurs to form bcc CoFe grains having epitaxial growth with (100) plane parallel to the surface of the tunnel barrier layer as Boron elements migrate into the novel Boron-absorbing cap layer. Removing the top portion of the Boron-absorbing cap layer by means of sputtering etch or RIE etch processes followed by optional oxidization process, a thin thermally stable portion of cap layer is remained on top of the recording layer with low damping constant. Accordingly, a reduced write current is achieved for spin-transfer torque MRAM application.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Inventor: Yimin Guo
  • Patent number: 10923652
    Abstract: Embodiments of the disclosure provide methods and apparatus for fabricating magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structures on a substrate for MRAM applications. In one embodiment, a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device structure includes a junction structure disposed on a substrate, the junction structure comprising a first ferromagnetic layer and a second ferromagnetic layer sandwiching a tunneling barrier layer, a dielectric capping layer disposed on the junction structure, a metal capping layer disposed on the junction structure, and a top buffer layer disposed on the metal capping layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2019
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2021
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Lin Xue, Chando Park, Chi Hong Ching, Jaesoo Ahn, Mahendra Pakala
  • Patent number: 10923649
    Abstract: There is provided a spin current magnetization rotation magnetoresistance effect element that can reduce generation of a magnetic field influencing other elements. The spin current magnetization rotation magnetoresistance effect element in which a spin-orbit torque wiring layer, a first ferromagnetic layer, an antiferromagnetic coupling layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, a nonmagnetic layer, and a magnetization reference layer are disposed in an order, wherein a magnitude of the product of the saturation magnetization of the first ferromagnetic layer and the film thickness of the first ferromagnetic layer is larger than a magnitude of the product of the saturation magnetization of the second ferromagnetic layer and the film thickness of the second ferromagnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Tomoyuki Sasaki, Yohei Shiokawa
  • Patent number: 10902900
    Abstract: A magnetic memory device includes a conductive member, a stacked body, and a controller. The stacked body includes a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer provided between the conductive member and the first magnetic layer, and a third magnetic layer stacked with the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer. The controller causes a current to flow in the conductive member. The controller causes a current to flow between the conductive member and the stacked body. The controller is able to identify three or more levels of an electrical resistance value of the stacked body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2021
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Katsuhiko Koui, Hiroaki Yoda, Tomoaki Inokuchi, Naoharu Shimomura, Hideyuki Sugiyama
  • Patent number: 10878871
    Abstract: Spin transfer torque memory (STTM) devices incorporating an Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) device or at least one layer of Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) material are disclosed. The Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) device or at least one layer of Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) material are utilized for providing a spike current when the voltage across it exceeds the threshold voltage to reduce a critical current required for transfer torque induced magnetization switching.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2020
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Brian S. Doyle, Prashant Majhi, Kaan Oguz, Kevin P. O'Brien, Abhishek A. Sharma, David L. Kencke
  • Patent number: 10873021
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic device includes a magnetoresistive effect element including a first ferromagnet, a conductor, and an oxide provided between the first ferromagnet and the conductor, the oxide including a first oxide of a rare-earth element and a second oxide of an element of which a covalent radius is smaller than a covalent radius of the rare-earth element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2020
    Assignees: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION, SK HYNIX INC.
    Inventors: Young Min Eeh, Daisuke Watanabe, Jae-Hyoung Lee, Toshihiko Nagase, Kazuya Sawada, Tadaaki Oikawa, Kenichi Yoshino, Taiga Isoda
  • Patent number: 10868233
    Abstract: Strain engineering of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (PMTJs) is described. In an example, a memory structure includes a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) element disposed above a substrate. A lateral strain-inducing material layer is disposed on the pMTJ element. An inter-layer dielectric (ILD) layer disposed laterally adjacent to both the pMTJ element and the lateral strain-inducing material layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2020
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Daniel G. Ouellette, Christopher J. Wiegand, Md Tofizur Rahman, Brian Maertz, Oleg Golonzka, Justin S. Brockman, Kevin P. O'Brien, Brian S. Doyle, Kaan Oguz, Tahir Ghani, Mark L. Doczy
  • Patent number: 10825985
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a tunnel barrier layer that is interposed between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer. The tunnel barrier layer is a stacked body including one or more first oxide layers having a spinel structure and one or more second oxide layers having a spinel structure with a composition which is different from a composition of the first oxide layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 3, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Shinto Ichikawa, Katsuyuki Nakada, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10802087
    Abstract: A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based sensor device includes a MTJ element and processing circuitry. The MTJ element includes a free layer, a pinned layer, and a tunnel barrier, the tunnel barrier being arranged between the free layer and the pinned layer. The free layer is adapted to flex away from the tunnel barrier during acceleration. The processing circuitry is configured to measure a resistance at the MTJ element and determine acceleration based on the resistance at the MTJ element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2020
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventor: Romney R. Katti
  • Patent number: 10803889
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one approach includes a servo reader transducer structure on a module. The servo reader transducer structure has a lower shield, an upper shield above the lower shield, the upper and lower shields providing magnetic shielding, a current-perpendicular-to-plane sensor between the upper and lower shields, an electrical lead layer between the sensor and one of the shields, and a spacer layer between the electrical lead layer and the one of the shields. The electrical lead layer is in electrical communication with the sensor. The conductivity of the electrical lead layer is higher than the conductivity of the spacer layer. An array of writers is also present on the module. Writer modules having this structure are less susceptible to shorting, and therefore enable use of TMR servo readers on writer modules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2019
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 10796718
    Abstract: An apparatus, according to one embodiment, includes a first circuit electrically coupled to a first read transducer and a first parallel circuit, the first read transducer having a tunnel valve structure having a resistance. A second circuit is electrically coupled to a second read transducer having a tunnel valve structure. An area of a tunnel barrier portion of the second read transducer along a plane of deposition thereof is larger than an area of a tunnel barrier portion of the first read transducer along a plane of deposition thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Robert E. Fontana, Jr., Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 10784442
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing an MRAM device, the method including forming a first magnetic layer on a substrate; forming a first tunnel barrier layer on the first magnetic layer such that the first tunnel barrier layer includes a first metal oxide, the first metal oxide being formed by oxidizing a first metal layer at a first temperature; forming a second tunnel barrier layer on the first tunnel barrier layer such that the second tunnel barrier layer includes a second metal oxide, the second metal oxide being formed by oxidizing a second metal layer at a second temperature that is greater than the first temperature; and forming a second magnetic layer on the second tunnel barrier layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: September 22, 2020
    Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Whan-Kyun Kim, Deok-Hyeon Kang, Woo-Jin Kim, Woo-Chang Lim, Jun-Ho Jeong
  • Patent number: 10755732
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one embodiment includes a module having a plurality of tunnel valve read transducers arranged in an array extending along the tape bearing surface of the module. Each of the tunnel valve read transducers has upper and lower shields for providing magnetic shielding. A sensor structure is positioned between the shields. An electrical lead layer is positioned between the sensor structure and one of the shields. The electrical lead layer is in electrical communication with the sensor structure. A spacer layer is positioned between the electrical lead layer and the one of the shields. A conductivity of the electrical lead layer is higher than a conductivity of the spacer layer. At least some of the sensor structures are recessed from a plane extending along the tape bearing surface. An at least partially polycrystalline coating is positioned on a media facing side of the recessed sensor structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 10742077
    Abstract: A soft magnetic laminated core is provided which comprises first laminations and second laminations arranged in a stack having a stacking direction substantially perpendicular to a major surface of the first laminations and the second laminations. The first laminations comprise a first soft magnetic alloy and the second laminations comprise a second soft magnetic alloy different from the first soft magnetic alloy. The first laminations and the second laminations are distributed in the stacking direction throughout the stack. The first laminations and/or the second laminations comprise an insulating coating that is thermally stable up to at least 850° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2020
    Assignee: VACUUMSCHMELZE GMBH & CO. KG
    Inventor: Niklas Volbers
  • Patent number: 10727400
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a magnetic memory element including a magnetic free layer structure having a variable magnetization direction perpendicular to a layer plane thereof; a non-magnetic metal layer formed adjacent to the magnetic free layer structure; an oxide layer formed adjacent to the non-magnetic metal layer; an insulating tunnel junction layer formed adjacent to the magnetic free layer structure opposite the non-magnetic metal layer; a first magnetic reference layer formed adjacent to the insulating tunnel junction layer; a second magnetic reference layer separated from the first magnetic reference layer by a perpendicular enhancement layer; an antiferromagnetic coupling layer formed adjacent to the second magnetic reference layer; and a magnetic fixed layer structure formed adjacent to the antiferromagnetic coupling layer. The first and second magnetic reference layers have a first invariable magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to layer planes thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2020
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Zihui Wang, Yiming Huai, Huadong Gan, Yuchen Zhou
  • Patent number: 10720569
    Abstract: A magnetic tunnel junction comprises a conductive first magnetic electrode comprising magnetic recording material, a conductive second magnetic electrode spaced from the first electrode and comprising magnetic reference material, and a non-magnetic tunnel insulator material between the first and second electrodes. The magnetic reference material of the second electrode comprises a synthetic antiferromagnetic construction comprising two spaced magnetic regions one of which is closer to the tunnel insulator material than is the other. The one magnetic region comprises a polarizer region comprising CoxFeyBz where “x” is from 0 to 90, “y” is from 10 to 90, and “z” is from 10 to 50. The CoxFeyBz is directly against the tunnel insulator. A non-magnetic region comprising an Os-containing material is between the two spaced magnetic regions. The other magnetic region comprises a magnetic Co-containing material. Other embodiments are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Wei Chen, Witold Kula, Manzar Siddik, Suresh Ramarajan, Johnathan D. Harms
  • Patent number: 10714681
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention are directed to a method of forming a memory element pillar. The method includes forming memory element stack layers, forming a conductive cap layer over the memory element stack layers, forming a conductive seal layer over the cap layer, and forming a conductive etch stop layer over the conductive seal layer, wherein the conductive etch stop layer comprises a substantially planar surface. A hardmask is formed over the substantially planar surface of the conductive etch stop layer, wherein the hardmask defines dimensions of the memory element pillar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Michael Rizzolo, Theodorus E. Standaert, Cornelius Brown Peethala
  • Patent number: 10714125
    Abstract: A magnetic recording head having air bearing surface (ABS) includes a main pole, a side shield laterally spaced from the main pole by a first side gap and a second side gap, an electrically conductive non-magnetic gap material layer disposed between the main pole and the side shield in the first side gap, and a dielectric non-magnetic gap material matrix and a conformal dielectric spacer layer disposed between the main pole and the side shield in the second side gap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: SANDISK TECHNOLOGIES LLC
    Inventors: Jinqiu Zhang, Ming Sun, Feng Liu, Xiaojun Zhang
  • Patent number: 10714126
    Abstract: A magnetic recording head includes a slider having an air bearing surface, a main magnetic pole including a fore-end portion that extends towards the air bearing surface and configured to generate recording magnetic fields in a first direction, a write shield magnetic pole located across from the fore-end portion to form a write gap that extends therebetween in a second direction and forming a magnetic core in conjunction with the main magnetic pole, a coil configured to excite a magnetic flux in the magnetic core, first and second spin-torque oscillators in the write gap and arranged along a third direction with a spacing therebetween, and a current circuit connected to the first and second spin-torque oscillators via the main magnetic pole and the write shield magnetic pole and configured to supply current to oscillate the first or second spin-torque oscillators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignees: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA, TOSHIBA ELECTRONIC DEVICES & STORAGE CORPORATION
    Inventor: Takuya Matsumoto
  • Patent number: 10706996
    Abstract: A magnetic material includes a structure in which a first magnetic layer 1 and a second magnetic layer 2 are stacked such that each layer is formed at least partially in a stacking direction by substantially one atomic layer. The first magnetic layer contains Co as a principal component. The second magnetic layer includes at least Ni. The magnetic material has magnetic anisotropy in the stacking direction. Preferably, an atomic arrangement within a film surface of the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer has six-fold symmetry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2020
    Assignee: TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Shunsuke Fukami, Hideo Sato, Michihiko Yamanouchi, Shoji Ikeda, Hideo Ohno
  • Patent number: 10707268
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element according to an embodiment includes: a first layer; a first magnetic layer; a second magnetic layer disposed between the first layer and the first magnetic layer; a nonmagnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer; and an insulating layer disposed at least on side surfaces of the nonmagnetic layer, the first layer including: at least one element selected from a first group consisting of Hf, Zr, Al, Cr, and Mg; and at least one element selected from a second group consisting of Ta, W, Mo, Nb, Si, Ge, Be, Li, Sn, Sb, and P, and the insulating layer including at least one element selected from the first group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2020
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Masaki Endo, Tadaomi Daibou, Shumpei Omine, Akiyuki Murayama, Junichi Ito
  • Patent number: 10700264
    Abstract: A method includes forming in sequence a bottom magnetic layer, a tunnel barrier layer, a top magnetic layer, and a top electrode layer over a bottom electrode layer; performing a first etching process to recess the top electrode layer, in which the first etching process stops before the top magnetic layer is etched; performing a second etching process to pattern the top electrode layer as a top electrode and the top magnetic layer as a patterned top magnetic layer, in which the second etching process stops before the bottom magnetic layer is etched; forming a first spacer around the top electrode and the patterned top magnetic layer; and after forming the first spacer, performing a third etching process to pattern the tunnel barrier layer as a patterned tunnel barrier layer and the bottom magnetic layer as a patterned bottom magnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2020
    Assignee: TAIWAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Wei-Hao Liao, Chih-Wei Lu, Hsi-Wen Tien, Pin-Ren Dai, Chung-Ju Lee
  • Patent number: 10700267
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element has a magnetization free layer whose magnetization direction changes in an external magnetic field; a magnetization pinned layer whose magnetization direction is pinned in the external magnetic field; and a barrier layer that is positioned between the magnetization free layer and the magnetization pinned layer and that exhibits a magnetoresistive effect. The barrier layer is an oxide of an alloy that includes Mg and Al, and the barrier layer includes a crystalline region and a non-crystalline region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2020
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Kohei Honma, Satoshi Miura
  • Patent number: 10665778
    Abstract: Methods and apparatuses for producing magneto resistive apparatuses are provided. Here, structures are formed for defining regions of the same magnetization, magnets are magnetized, and structures are formed within the magnets of the regions, for example, in order to define magneto resistive elements.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 12, 2017
    Date of Patent: May 26, 2020
    Assignee: Infineon Technologies AG
    Inventor: Wolfgang Raberg
  • Patent number: 10644226
    Abstract: A magnetic junction, a memory using the magnetic junction and method for providing the magnetic junction are described. The magnetic junction includes first and second reference layers, a main barrier layer, a free layer, an engineered secondary barrier layer and a second reference layer. The free layer is switchable between stable magnetic states when a write current is passed through the magnetic junction. The main barrier layer is between the first reference layer and the free layer. The secondary barrier layer is between the free layer and the second reference layer. The engineered secondary barrier layer has a resistance and a plurality of regions having a reduced resistance less than the resistance. The free and reference layers each has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy and an out-of-plane demagnetization energy less than the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 5, 2020
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Zheng Duan, Dmytro Apalkov, Vladimir Nikitin
  • Patent number: 10622550
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element includes a bias layer comprised of an antiferromagnetic material and having a shape in which a first length in a first direction greater than a second length in a second direction perpendicular to the first direction, a recording layer comprised of a ferromagnetic material and being disposed on the bias layer, a direction of magnetization of the recording layer being reversible, a barrier layer comprised of an insulation material and being disposed on the recording layer, and a reference layer comprised of a ferromagnetic material and being disposed on the barrier layer, a direction of magnetization of the reference layer being substantially fixed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2020
    Assignee: TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Shunsuke Fukami, Hideo Ohno, Tetsuo Endoh
  • Patent number: 10586561
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one embodiment includes a sensor having an active region, a magnetic shield adjacent the active region, a spacer between the active region and the magnetic shield, a second magnetic shield on an opposite side of the active region as the magnetic shield, and a second spacer between the active region and the second magnetic shield. Both spacers include an electrically conductive ceramic layer. The electrically conductive ceramic layer of the spacer has a different composition than the electrically conductive ceramic layer of the second spacer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Calvin S. Lo, Philip M. Rice, Teya Topuria
  • Patent number: 10586562
    Abstract: A hybrid dual reader. The hybrid dual reader includes first and second read sensors with conflicting design characteristics. The first read sensor includes at least one signal-to-noise ratio favoring design characteristic. The second read sensor includes at least one pulse width favoring design characteristic. The at least one signal-to-noise ratio favoring design characteristic is in conflict with the at least one pulse width favoring design characteristic.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 1, 2017
    Date of Patent: March 10, 2020
    Assignee: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC
    Inventors: Victor Sapozhnikov, Pavol Krivosik, Mohammed Shariat Ullah Patwari, Scott Wilson Stokes
  • Patent number: 10534047
    Abstract: Tunnel magneto-resistive (TMR) sensors employing TMR devices with different magnetic field sensitivities for increased detection sensitivity are disclosed. For example, a TMR sensor may be used as a biosensor to detect the presence of biological materials. In aspects disclosed herein, free layers of at least two TMR devices in a TMR sensor are fabricated to exhibit different magnetic properties from each other (e.g., MR ratio, magnetic anisotropy, coercivity) so that each TMR device will exhibit a different change in resistance to a given magnetic stray field for increased magnetic field detection sensitivity. For example, the TMR devices may be fabricated to exhibit different magnetic properties such that one TMR device exhibits a greater change in resistance in the presence of a smaller magnetic stray field, and another TMR device exhibits a greater change in resistance in the presence of a larger magnetic stray field.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 14, 2020
    Assignee: QUALCOMM Incorporated
    Inventors: Wei-Chuan Chen, Wah Nam Hsu, Xia Li, Seung Hyuk Kang, Nicholas Ka Ming Stevens-Yu
  • Patent number: 10497860
    Abstract: Some embodiments of the present disclosure relate to a method that achieves a substantially uniform pattern of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells with a minimum dimension below the lower resolution limit of some optical lithography techniques. A copolymer solution comprising first and second polymer species is spin-coated over a heterostructure which resides over a surface of a substrate. The heterostructure comprises first and second ferromagnetic layers which are separated by an insulating layer. The copolymer solution is subjected to self-assembly into a phase-separated material comprising a pattern of micro-domains of the second polymer species within a polymer matrix comprising the first polymer species. The first polymer species is then removed, leaving a pattern of micro-domains of the second polymer species. A pattern of magnetic memory cells within the heterostructure is formed by etching through the heterostructure while utilizing the pattern of micro-domains as a hardmask.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2019
    Assignee: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Chih-Ming Chen, Chern-Yow Hsu, Szu-Yu Wang, Chung-Yi Yu, Chia-Shiung Tsai, Xiaomeng Chen
  • Patent number: 10490737
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a magnetic memory element including a magnetic free layer structure that includes two magnetic free layers separated by a magnesium perpendicular enhancement layer; an insulating tunnel junction layer formed adjacent to the magnetic free layer structure; a first magnetic reference layer formed adjacent to the insulating tunnel junction layer; a second magnetic reference layer separated from the first magnetic reference layer by a non-magnetic perpendicular enhancement layer; an anti-ferromagnetic coupling layer formed adjacent to the second magnetic reference layer; and a magnetic fixed layer structure formed adjacent to the anti-ferromagnetic coupling layer. The two magnetic free layers have a same variable magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to layer planes thereof. The first and second magnetic reference layers have a first invariable magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to layer planes thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2019
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Zihui Wang, Yiming Huai
  • Patent number: 10454021
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a semiconductor structure, including an Nth metal layer, a bottom electrode over the Nth metal layer, a magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) over the bottom electrode, a top electrode over the MTJ, and an (N+M)th metal layer over the Nth metal layer. N and M are positive integers. The (N+M)th metal layer surrounds a portion of a sidewall of the top electrode. A manufacturing method of forming the semiconductor structure is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 10, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2019
    Assignee: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd.
    Inventors: Fu-Ting Sung, Chung-Chiang Min, Yuan-Tai Tseng, Chern-Yow Hsu, Shih-Chang Liu
  • Patent number: 10347823
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element includes a channel layer, a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a reference electrode. The first ferromagnetic layer, the second ferromagnetic layer, and the reference electrode are apart from each other and are electrically connected to each other through the channel layer. The average resistivity of a sixth region composed of a first region, a second region, and a fourth region is higher than the average resistivity of a seventh region composed of the second region, a third region, and a fifth region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2019
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Hayato Koike
  • Patent number: 10326074
    Abstract: Embodiments are directed to STT MRAM devices. One embodiment of an STT MRAM device includes a reference layer, a tunnel barrier layer, a free layer and one or more conductive vias. The reference layer is configured to have a fixed magnetic moment. In addition, the tunnel barrier layer is configured to enable electrons to tunnel between the reference layer and the free layer through the tunnel barrier layer. The free layer is disposed beneath the tunnel barrier layer and is configured to have an adaptable magnetic moment for the storage of data. The conductive via is disposed beneath the free layer and is connected to an electrode. Further, the conductive via has a width that is smaller than a width of the free layer such that a width of an active STT area for the storage of data in the free layer is defined by the width of the conductive via.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 8, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 18, 2019
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Michael C. Gaidis, Janusz J. Nowak, Daniel C. Worledge
  • Patent number: 10320404
    Abstract: Described is an oscillating apparatus which comprises: an interconnect with spin-coupling material (e.g., Spin Hall Effect (SHE) material); and a magnetic stack having two magnetic layers such that one of the magnetic layers is coupled to the interconnect, wherein each of the two magnetic layers have respective magnetization directions to cause the magnetic stack to oscillate.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2019
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Sasikanth Sasi Manipatruni, George I. Bourianoff, Dmitri E. Nikonov, Ian A. Young
  • Patent number: 10297278
    Abstract: Structures and methods for fabrication servo and data heads of tape modules are provided. The servo head may have two shield layers spaced apart by a plurality of gap layers and a sensor. Similarly, the data head may have two shield layers spaced apart by a plurality of gap layers and a sensor. The distance between the shield layers of the servo head may be greater than the distance between the shield layers of the data head. The material of the gap layers may include tantalum or an alloy of nickel and chromium. The material for the gap layers permits deposition of gap layers with sufficiently small surface roughness to prevent distortion of the tape module and increase the stability of the tape module operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2014
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2019
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Satoru Araki, Diane L. Brown, Hiroaki Chihaya, Dustin W. Erickson, David J. Seagle
  • Patent number: 10283701
    Abstract: A magnetic junction and method for providing the magnetic junction are described. The method includes providing a pinned layer, a nonmagnetic spacer layer and a free layer switchable between stable magnetic states. The nonmagnetic spacer layer is between the pinned and free layers. Providing the pinned layer and/or providing the free layer includes cooling a portion of the magnetic junction, depositing a wetting layer while the portion of the magnetic junction is cooled, oxidizing/nitriding the wetting layer and depositing a boron-free magnetic layer on the oxide/nitride wetting layer. The portion of the magnetic junction is cooled to within a temperature range including temperature(s) not greater than 250 K. The wetting layer has a thickness of at least 0.25 and not more than three monolayers. The wetting layer includes at least one magnetic material. The boron-free magnetic layer has a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy greater than an out-of-plane demagnetization energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 6, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2019
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Ikhtiar, Xueti Tang, Mohamad Towfik Krounbi
  • Patent number: 10263182
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element is capable of realizing a high magnetoresistance (MR) ratio. The magnetoresistance effect element includes a laminate in which: an underlayer; a first ferromagnetic metal layer; a tunnel barrier layer; and a second ferromagnetic metal layer are laminated in that order. The underlayer is made of a nitride, the tunnel barrier layer is made of any one selected from a group consisting of MgAl2O4, ZnAl2O4, MgO, and ?-Al2O3, and a degree of lattice mismatching between a lattice constant of the tunnel barrier layer and a lattice constant of a crystal structure to be taken by the underlayer is 5% or less.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 22, 2017
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2019
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10217934
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a method for manufacturing a memory cell that includes a magnetic memory element electrically connected to a two-terminal selector.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2018
    Date of Patent: February 26, 2019
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Hongxin Yang, Dong Ha Jung, Jing Zhang, Bing K. Yen
  • Patent number: 10186656
    Abstract: A magnetic memory according to an embodiment includes: a first magnetic layer; a second magnetic layer; a first nonmagnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer; a third magnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the first nonmagnetic layer; and a first layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the third magnetic layer, wherein the first layer contains at least one element selected from the group consisting of Co, Fe, Ni, and Mn, and at least one element selected from the group consisting of Ta, Mo, Zr, Nb, Hf, V, Ti, Sc, and La.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 13, 2017
    Date of Patent: January 22, 2019
    Assignee: Toshiba Memory Corporation
    Inventors: Shumpei Omine, Takeshi Iwasaki, Masaki Endo, Akiyuki Murayama, Tadaomi Daibou, Tadashi Kai, Junichi Ito
  • Patent number: 10170687
    Abstract: The disclosed technology relates generally to magnetic devices, and more particularly to spin torque majority gate devices such as spin torque magnetic devices (STMG), and to methods of fabricating the same. In one aspect, a majority gate device includes a plurality of input zones and an output zone. A magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) is formed in each of the input zones and the output zone, where the MTJ includes a non-magnetic layer interposed between a free layer stack and a hard layer. The free layer stack in turn includes a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) layer on a seed layer, a magnetic layer formed on and in contact with the bulk PMA layer, and a non-magnetic layer formed on the magnetic layer. Each of the bulk PMA layer and the seed layer is configured as a common layer for each of the input zones and the output zone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2016
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2019
    Assignee: IMEC vzw
    Inventors: Johan Swerts, Mauricio Manfrini, Christoph Adelmann
  • Patent number: 10164177
    Abstract: A magnetic junction usable in a magnetic device and a method for providing the magnetic junction are described. A first portion of a magnetoresistive stack corresponding to the magnetic junction is provided. Providing this portion of the magnetoresistive stack includes providing at least one layer for a free layer of the magnetic junction. A second portion of the magnetoresistive stack is provided after the step of providing the first portion of the magnetoresistive stack. The magnetoresistive stack is patterned to provide the magnetic junction after the step of providing the second portion of the magnetoresistive stack. An ambient temperature for the magnetoresistive stack and the magnetic junction does not exceed a crystallization temperature of the free layer after the step of providing the free layer through the step of patterning the magnetoresistive stack.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2018
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Sebastian Schafer, Dmytro Apalkov, Vladimir Nikitin, Don Koun Lee
  • Patent number: 10141037
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic memory device includes a conductive layer, a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer, a first nonmagnetic layer, and a controller. The conductive layer includes a first portion, a second portion, and a third portion. The first magnetic layer is separated from the third portion. The first nonmagnetic layer is provided between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer that is electrically connected with the third portion. The first nonmagnetic layer is curved. The controller is electrically connected to the first portion and the second portion. The controller implements a first operation and a second operation. The controller in the first operation supplies a first current to the conductive layer from the first portion toward the second portion. The controller in the second operation supplies a second current to the conductive layer from the second portion toward the first portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 14, 2017
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2018
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Yuichi Ohsawa, Hiroaki Yoda, Altansargai Buyandalai, Satoshi Shirotori, Mariko Shimizu, Hideyuki Sugiyama, Yushi Kato
  • Patent number: 10119988
    Abstract: An MLU-based accelerometer including: at least one MLU including a tunnel barrier layer between a first magnetic layer having a fixed first magnetization direction and a second magnetic layer having a second magnetization direction that can be varied. A proof-mass includes a ferromagnetic material having a proof-mass magnetization inducing a proof-mass field, the proof-mass being elastically suspended such as to be deflected in at least one direction when subjected to an acceleration vector. The proof-mass is magnetically coupled to the MLU cell via the proof-mass field. A read module is configured for determining a magnetoresistance of each MLU cell such as to determine an acceleration vector from the deflection of the proof-mass relative to any one of the at least one MLU cell.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 30, 2015
    Date of Patent: November 6, 2018
    Assignee: CROCUS TECHNOLOGY SA
    Inventor: Ali Alaoui
  • Patent number: 10102870
    Abstract: A magnetic read head including a first read element magnetically coupled to a bottom shield; a second read element magnetically coupled to a top shield; a magnetic shielding structure that magnetically shields the first read element from the second read element; and a first electrical contact electrically coupled to the bottom shield, a second electrical contact electrically coupled to the top shield and a third electrical contact electrically coupled to the magnetic shielding structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 19, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 16, 2018
    Assignee: Seagate Technology LLC
    Inventor: Steven A. Mastain