Having Tunnel Junction Effect Patents (Class 360/324.2)
  • Patent number: 11380355
    Abstract: A read head includes a permanent magnet (PM) layer formed up to 100 nm behind a free layer where PM layer magnetization may be initialized in a direction that adjusts free layer (FL) bias point, and shifts sensor asymmetry (Asym) closer to 0% for individual heads at slider or Head Gimbal Assembly level to provide a significant improvement in device yield. Asym is adjusted using different initialization schemes and initialization directions. With individual heads, initialization direction is selected based on a prior measurement of asymmetry. The PM layer is CoPt or CoCrPt and has coercivity from 500 Oersted to 1000 Oersted. The PM layer may have a width equal to the FL, or a width equal to the cross-track distance between outer sides of the longitudinal bias layers. In another embodiment, the PM layer adjoins a backside of the top shield.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2020
    Date of Patent: July 5, 2022
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Glen Garfunkel, Yan Wu, Wenyu Chen, Kunliang Zhang, Min Li, Shohei Kawasaki
  • Patent number: 11367834
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element has a first ferromagnetic metal layer, a second ferromagnetic metal layer, and a tunnel barrier layer that is sandwiched between the first and second ferromagnetic metal layers, and the tunnel barrier layer has a spinel structure in which cations are disordered, and contains a divalent cation of a non-magnetic element, a trivalent cation of a non-magnetic element, oxygen, and one of nitrogen and fluorine.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2020
    Date of Patent: June 21, 2022
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Tomoyuki Sasaki, Tatsuo Shibata, Katsuyuki Nakada, Yoshitomo Tanaka
  • Patent number: 11309489
    Abstract: A magnetic tunnel junction is disclosed wherein the reference layer and free layer each comprise one layer having a boron content from 25 to 50 atomic %, and an adjoining second layer with a boron content from 1 to 20 atomic %. One of the first and second layers in each of the free layer and reference layer contacts the tunnel barrier. Each boron containing layer has a thickness of 1 to 10 Angstroms and may include one or more B layers and one or more Co, Fe, CoFe, or CoFeB layers. As a result, migration of non-magnetic metals along crystalline boundaries to the tunnel barrier is prevented, and the MTJ has a low defect count of around 10 ppm while maintaining an acceptable TMR ratio following annealing to temperatures of about 400° C. The boron containing layers are selected from CoB, FeB, CoFeB and alloys thereof including CoFeNiB.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 31, 2020
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2022
    Assignee: TAIWAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LTD.
    Inventors: Huanlong Liu, Yuan-Jen Lee, Jian Zhu, Guenole Jan, Po-Kang Wang
  • Patent number: 11302372
    Abstract: A top pinned magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) stack containing a magnetic pinned layered structure including a second magnetic pinned layer having strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) is provided. In the present application, the magnetic pinned layered structure includes a crystal grain growth controlling layer located between a first magnetic pinned layer having a body centered cubic (BCC) texture and the second magnetic pinned layer. The presence of the crystal grain growth controlling layer facilitates formation of a second magnetic pinned layer having a face centered cubic (FCC) texture or a hexagonal closed packing (HCP) texture which, in turn, promotes strong PMA to the second magnetic pinned layer of the magnetic pinned layered structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2020
    Date of Patent: April 12, 2022
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Seonghoon Woo, Matthias Georg Gottwald
  • Patent number: 11276422
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to data storage devices, and more specifically, to a magnetic media drive employing a magnetic recording head. The head includes a trailing shield, a main pole, an STO disposed between the trailing shield and the main pole, and a non-magnetic conductive structure (or non-magnetic conductive layers) adjacent to the main pole and in contact with the STO. The non-magnetic conductive structure provides additional paths for electrical currents to flow to the STO. The non-magnetic conductive structure enables higher current density to the STO without creating hot spots at the MFS. Maximum current efficiency and uniformity can be achieved with the non-magnetic conductive structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 13, 2021
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2022
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Quang Le, Michael Kuok San Ho, Suping Song, Goncalo Marcos Baião De Albuquerque
  • Patent number: 11276423
    Abstract: A reader includes a bearing surface and a free layer having a front surface and a rear surface. The front surface of the free layer forms a portion of the bearing surface. The reader also includes a compensating layer behind the rear surface of the free layer. The reader further includes a tunnel barrier layer below the free layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2021
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2022
    Assignee: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC
    Inventors: Alexey Dobrynin, Kevin Anthony McNeill
  • Patent number: 11275130
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to sensor device, such as a magnetic sensor bridge, that utilizes a dual free layer (DFL) structure. The device includes a plurality of resistors that each includes the same DFL structure. Adjacent the DFL structure is a magnetic structure that can include a permanent magnet, an antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer having a synthetic AFM (SAF) structure thereon, a permanent magnetic having a SAF structure thereon, or an AFM layer having a ferromagnetic layer thereon. The DFL structures are aligned with different layers of the magnetic structures to differentiate the resistors. The different alignment and/or different magnetic structures result in a decrease in production time due to reduced complexity and, thus, reduces costs.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2020
    Date of Patent: March 15, 2022
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Xiaoyong Liu, Quang Le, Zhigang Bai, Daniele Mauri, Zhanjie Li, Kuok San Ho, Thao A. Nguyen, Rajeev Nagabhirava
  • Patent number: 11271037
    Abstract: Data storage devices are provided. A data storage device includes a memory transistor on a substrate and a data storage structure electrically connected to the memory transistor. The data storage structure includes a magnetic tunnel junction pattern and a top electrode on the magnetic tunnel junction pattern. The top electrode includes a first top electrode and a second top electrode on the first top electrode, and the first and second top electrodes include the same metal nitride. The first top electrode includes first crystal grains of the metal nitride, and the second top electrode includes second crystal grains of the metal nitride. In a section of the top electrode, the number of the first crystal grains per a unit length is greater than the number of the second crystal grains per the unit length.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 27, 2020
    Date of Patent: March 8, 2022
    Inventors: Junghwan Park, Younghyun Kim, Se Chung Oh, Jungmin Lee, Kyungil Hong
  • Patent number: 11251364
    Abstract: Embodiments herein provide film stacks that include a buffer layer; a synthetic ferrimagnet (SyF) coupling layer; and a capping layer, wherein the capping layer comprises one or more layers, and wherein the capping layer, the buffer layer, the SyF coupling layer, or a combination thereof, is not fabricated from Ru.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2020
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2022
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Lin Xue, Chi Hong Ching, Jaesoo Ahn, Mahendra Pakala, Rongjun Wang
  • Patent number: 11251361
    Abstract: An electronic device may include a semiconductor memory, and the semiconductor memory may include a substrate; a variable resistance element formed over the substrate and exhibiting different resistance values representing different digital information, the variable resistance element including a free layer having a variable magnetization direction, a pinned layer having a fixed magnetization direction and a tunnel barrier layer interposed between the free layer and the pinned layer; and a blocking layer disposed on at least sidewalls of the variable resistance element, wherein the blocking layer may include a layer that is substantially free of nitrogen, oxygen or a combination thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 2020
    Date of Patent: February 15, 2022
    Assignee: SK hynix Inc.
    Inventor: Gayoung Ha
  • Patent number: 11205447
    Abstract: A read head is disclosed wherein a Spin Hall Effect (SHE) layer is formed on a free layer (FL) in a sensor and between the FL and top shield (S2). Preferably, the sensor has a seed layer, an AP2 reference layer, antiferromagnetic coupling layer, AP1 reference layer, and a tunnel barrier sequentially formed on a bottom shield (S1). In a three terminal configuration, a first current flows between S1 and S2 such that the AP1 reference layer produces a first spin torque on the FL, and a second current flows across the SHE layer thereby generating a second spin torque on the FL that opposes the first spin torque. When the stripe heights of the FL and SHE layer are equal, a two terminal configuration is employed where a current flows between one side of the SHE layer to a center portion thereof and then to S1, or vice versa.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 21, 2019
    Date of Patent: December 21, 2021
    Assignee: Headway Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Wenyu Chen, Yan Wu
  • Patent number: 11200934
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive memory device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a layer stack located between the first electrode and the second electrode. The layer stack may include a ferroelectric material layer and a metamagnetic tunnel junction containing a metamagnetic material layer, an insulating barrier layer, and a metallic material layer. Alternatively, the layer stack may include a multiferroic material layer, the metamagnetic material layer, the insulating barrier layer, and a reference magnetization layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2020
    Date of Patent: December 14, 2021
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Bhagwati Prasad, Alan Kalitsov
  • Patent number: 11169227
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to a Wheatstone bridge that includes a plurality of resistors comprising dual free layer (DFL) TMR structures. The DFL TMR structures include one or more hard bias structures on the side of DLF. Additionally, one or more soft bias structures may also be present on a side of the DFL. Two resistors will have identical hard bias material while two other resistors will have hard bias material that is identical to each other, yet different when compared to the first two resistors. The hard bias materials will provide opposite magnetizations that will provide opposite bias fields that result in two different magnetoresistance responses for the DFL TMR.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 30, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 9, 2021
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Chih-Ching Hu, Yung-Hung Wang, Yuankai Zheng, Chen-jung Chien, Ming Mao, Daniele Mauri, Ming Jiang
  • Patent number: 11152048
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive memory device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a layer stack located between the first electrode and the second electrode. The layer stack may include a ferroelectric material layer and a metamagnetic tunnel junction containing a metamagnetic material layer, an insulating barrier layer, and a metallic material layer. Alternatively, the layer stack may include a multiferroic material layer, the metamagnetic material layer, the insulating barrier layer, and a reference magnetization layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2020
    Date of Patent: October 19, 2021
    Assignee: WESTERN DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Bhagwati Prasad, Alan Kalitsov
  • Patent number: 11133458
    Abstract: Disclosed is a memory device. A memory device according to an embodiment of the present invention includes a memory device including a substrate; and a lower electrode, seed layer, lower synthetic antiferromagnetic layer, magnetic tunnel junction, upper synthetic antiferromagnetic layer, and upper electrode that are laminated on the substrate, wherein the magnetic tunnel junction includes a lower pinned layer, lower tunnel barrier layer, lower free layer, separation layer, upper free layer, upper tunnel barrier layer and upper pinned layer that are sequentially laminated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 4, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2021
    Assignee: Industry-University Cooperation Foundation Hanyang University
    Inventors: Jea Gun Park, Jin Young Choi, Han Sol Jun, Dong Gi Lee, Kondo Kei, Jong Ung Baek
  • Patent number: 11127445
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic device includes a magnetic tunnel junction element, the magnetic tunnel junction element comprising: a first structure having ferromagnetism; a second structure having ferromagnetism; and a first nonmagnet provided between the first structure and the second structure; wherein: the first structure and the second structure are antiferromagnetically coupled via the first nonmagnet; and the first structure includes a first ferromagnetic nitride.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignees: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION, SK HYNIX INC.
    Inventors: Young Min Eeh, Taeyoung Lee, Kazuya Sawada, Eiji Kitagawa, Taiga Isoda, Tadaaki Oikawa, Kenichi Yoshino
  • Patent number: 11127518
    Abstract: In one aspect, a tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) element includes a magnesium oxide (MgO) layer, a cobalt iron boron (CoFeB) layer in direct contact with the MgO layer and a cobalt iron (CoFe) layer. The TMR element also includes a tantalum layer in direct contact with the CoFeB layer and the CoFe layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 18, 2019
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2021
    Assignee: ALLEGRO MICROSYSTEMS, LLC
    Inventors: Paolo Campiglio, Amal Hamdache, Julien Voillot
  • Patent number: 11114609
    Abstract: A TMR element includes a magnetic tunnel junction, a side wall portion that is disposed on a side surface of the magnetic tunnel junction, a cap layer that covers a top surface of the magnetic tunnel junction and a surface of the side wall portion, and an upper electrode layer that is disposed on the cap layer. The cap layer includes an upper surface and a lower surface. The upper surface has a protruding shape that protrudes in a direction away from the magnetic tunnel junction in a first region which is positioned immediately above the top surface of the magnetic tunnel junction. The upper surface has a recess that is recessed in a direction toward the side wall portion in a second region which is positioned immediately above the surface of the side wall portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 8, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 7, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Zhenyao Tang, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 11081153
    Abstract: In some embodiments, the present application provides a magnetic memory device. The magnetic memory device comprises a bottom electrode, and a first synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SyAF) layer including a first pinning layer and a second pinning layer disposed over the bottom electrode and having opposite magnetization directions and separated by a first spacer layer. The magnetic memory device further comprises a reference layer disposed over the first pair of pinning layers and a free layer disposed over the reference layer and separated from the reference layer by a tunneling barrier layer. The magnetic memory device further comprises a second synthetic anti-ferromagnetic (SyAF) layer including a third pinning layer and a fourth pinning layer disposed over the free layer and having opposite magnetization directions and separated by a second spacer layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: August 3, 2021
    Assignee: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Ltd.
    Inventors: Gaurav Gupta, Zhiqiang Wu, William J. Gallagher
  • Patent number: 11073575
    Abstract: The present invention provides a magnetoresistance effect element that has a first ferromagnetic metal layer, a second ferromagnetic metal layer, and a tunnel barrier layer provided between the first ferromagnetic metal layer and the second ferromagnetic metal layer. The tunnel barrier layer has a cubic crystal structure, and the first ferromagnetic metal layer or the second ferromagnetic metal layer is formed of a material having a cubic crystal structure represented by Fe2CoSi. A crystal surface for crystals constituting the tunnel barrier layer and a crystal surface for crystals constituting the first ferromagnetic metal layer or the second ferromagnetic metal layer are matched to be inclined at 0° or 45° in at least a part of a crystal interface between the tunnel barrier layer and the first ferromagnetic metal layer or the second ferromagnetic metal layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 1, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 27, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 11069852
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a tunnel barrier layer that is interposed between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer. The tunnel barrier layer is a stacked body including one or more high-barrier-height layers and one or more low-barrier-height layers, the one or more high-barrier-height layers having a relatively high barrier height with respect to the one or more low-barrier-height layers and the one or more low-barrier-height layers having a relatively low barrier height with respect to the one or more high-barrier-height layers. A minimum difference of barrier height between the one or more high-barrier-height layers and the one or more low-barrier-height layers is equal to or higher than 0.5 eV.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 8, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 20, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Shinto Ichikawa, Katsuyuki Nakada, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 11031032
    Abstract: A method of forming a magnetic element. The method includes cooling a substrate to a cryogenic temperature. The method further includes depositing a magnetic layer with a grain refining dopant on the substrate. The magnetic layer with the grain refining dopant deposited on the substrate cooled to the cryogenic temperature has a magnetic moment that is greater than 2 Tesla and very soft magnetic properties.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 3, 2017
    Date of Patent: June 8, 2021
    Assignee: SEAGATE TECHNOLOGY LLC
    Inventors: Venkateswara Inturi, Joseph Mundenar
  • Patent number: 11005023
    Abstract: A superconducting logic element includes a superconducting tunnel junction including first and second superconductors. First and second insulating ferromagnets in contact with the first and second superconductors, respectively, generate by magnetic proximity effect a predetermined density of spin-split states in the first and second superconductors, respectively. A writing element applies a writing current to at least a superconductor and is in contact with one of the first or second insulating ferromagnets, so that the first and second insulating ferromagnets commute, by the magnetic field generated by the applied writing current, between a state with parallel magnetization to a state with antiparallel magnetization with respect to each other.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 23, 2018
    Date of Patent: May 11, 2021
    Assignees: CONSIGLIO NAZIONALE DELLE RICERCHE, UNIVERSIDAD DEL PAÍS VASCO (UPV)
    Inventors: Francesco Giazotto, Elia Strambini, Giorgio De Simoni, F. Sebastian Bergeret Sbarbaro
  • Patent number: 10997989
    Abstract: The present disclosure generally relates to data storage devices, and more specifically, to a magnetic media drive employing a magnetic recording head. A magnetic recording head comprises a main pole disposed between a leading shield and a trailing shield. A spin torque oscillator is disposed between the main pole and the trailing shield at a media facing surface. A hot seed bilayer is disposed between the spin torque oscillator and the trailing shield, where the hot seed bilayer is conformal with the spin torque oscillator. The hot seed bilayer comprises a first layer comprised of a high magnetic moment material disposed at the media facing surface and a second layer comprised of a low magnetic material recessed from the media facing surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 11, 2019
    Date of Patent: May 4, 2021
    Assignee: Western Digital Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Muhammad Asif Bashir, Alexander Goncharov, Petrus Antonius Van Der Heijden
  • Patent number: 10964887
    Abstract: A magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ) structure comprises a pinned layer on a bottom electrode. a barrier layer on the pinned layer, wherein a second metal re-deposition layer is on sidewalls of the barrier layer and the pinned layer, a free layer on the barrier layer wherein the free layer has a first width smaller than a second width of the pinned layer, a top electrode on the free layer having a same first width as the free layer wherein a first metal re-deposition layer is on sidewalls of the free layer and top electrode, and dielectric spacers on sidewalls of the free layer and top electrode covering the first metal re-deposition layer wherein the free layer and the top electrode together with the dielectric spacers have a same the second width as the pinned layer wherein the dielectric spacers prevent shorting between the first and second metal re-deposition layers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 22, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 30, 2021
    Assignee: TAIWAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING COMPANY, LTD.
    Inventors: Yi Yang, Dongna Shen, Yu-Jen Wang
  • Patent number: 10950783
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element includes a channel layer, a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a reference electrode. The first ferromagnetic layer, the second ferromagnetic layer, and the reference electrode are apart from each other and are electrically connected to each other through the channel layer. The average resistivity of a sixth region composed of a first region, a second region, and a fourth region is higher than the average resistivity of a seventh region composed of the second region, a third region, and a fifth region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 17, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventor: Hayato Koike
  • Patent number: 10948316
    Abstract: The magnetic sensor of the invention has an element portion that is elongate, that exhibits magnetoresistive effect and that has a magnetically sensitive axis in a direction of a short axis thereof. The element portion is non-oval and can be arranged in an imaginary ellipse, wherein the imaginary ellipse has a major axis that connects both ends of the element portion with regard to a direction of a long axis thereof to each other and a minor axis that connects both ends of the element portion with regard to a direction of the short axisthereof to each other, as viewed in a direction that is perpendicular both to the short axis and to the long axis of the element portion.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 2018
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2021
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Keisuke Uchida, Kazuya Watanabe
  • Patent number: 10937955
    Abstract: There is disclosed an information storage element including a first layer including a ferromagnetic layer with a magnetization direction perpendicular to a film face; an insulation layer coupled to the first layer; and a second layer coupled to the insulation layer opposite the first layer, the second layer including a fixed magnetization so as to be capable of serving as a reference of the first layer. The first layer is capable of storing information according to a magnetization state of a magnetic material, and the magnetization state is configured to be changed by a spin injection. A magnitude of an effective diamagnetic field which the first layer receives is smaller than a saturated magnetization amount of the first layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 20, 2020
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Assignee: Sony Corporation
    Inventors: Kazutaka Yamane, Masanori Hosomi, Hiroyuki Ohmori, Kazuhiro Bessho, Yutaka Higo, Hiroyuki Uchida, Tetsuya Asayama
  • Patent number: 10937958
    Abstract: A method of forming a magnetoresistive element comprises of forming a novel Boron-absorbing cap layer provided on the top surface of an amorphous CoFeB (or CoB, FeB) ferromagnetic recording layer. As the magnetoresistive film is thermally annealed, a crystallization process occurs to form bcc CoFe grains having epitaxial growth with (100) plane parallel to the surface of the tunnel barrier layer as Boron elements migrate into the novel Boron-absorbing cap layer. Removing the top portion of the Boron-absorbing cap layer by means of sputtering etch or RIE etch processes followed by optional oxidization process, a thin thermally stable portion of cap layer is remained on top of the recording layer with low damping constant. Accordingly, a reduced write current is achieved for spin-transfer torque MRAM application.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: March 2, 2021
    Inventor: Yimin Guo
  • Patent number: 10923649
    Abstract: There is provided a spin current magnetization rotation magnetoresistance effect element that can reduce generation of a magnetic field influencing other elements. The spin current magnetization rotation magnetoresistance effect element in which a spin-orbit torque wiring layer, a first ferromagnetic layer, an antiferromagnetic coupling layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, a nonmagnetic layer, and a magnetization reference layer are disposed in an order, wherein a magnitude of the product of the saturation magnetization of the first ferromagnetic layer and the film thickness of the first ferromagnetic layer is larger than a magnitude of the product of the saturation magnetization of the second ferromagnetic layer and the film thickness of the second ferromagnetic layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2019
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2021
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Tomoyuki Sasaki, Yohei Shiokawa
  • Patent number: 10923652
    Abstract: Embodiments of the disclosure provide methods and apparatus for fabricating magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) structures on a substrate for MRAM applications. In one embodiment, a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) device structure includes a junction structure disposed on a substrate, the junction structure comprising a first ferromagnetic layer and a second ferromagnetic layer sandwiching a tunneling barrier layer, a dielectric capping layer disposed on the junction structure, a metal capping layer disposed on the junction structure, and a top buffer layer disposed on the metal capping layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2019
    Date of Patent: February 16, 2021
    Assignee: Applied Materials, Inc.
    Inventors: Lin Xue, Chando Park, Chi Hong Ching, Jaesoo Ahn, Mahendra Pakala
  • Patent number: 10902900
    Abstract: A magnetic memory device includes a conductive member, a stacked body, and a controller. The stacked body includes a first magnetic layer, a second magnetic layer provided between the conductive member and the first magnetic layer, and a third magnetic layer stacked with the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer. The controller causes a current to flow in the conductive member. The controller causes a current to flow between the conductive member and the stacked body. The controller is able to identify three or more levels of an electrical resistance value of the stacked body.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2019
    Date of Patent: January 26, 2021
    Assignee: Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba
    Inventors: Katsuhiko Koui, Hiroaki Yoda, Tomoaki Inokuchi, Naoharu Shimomura, Hideyuki Sugiyama
  • Patent number: 10878871
    Abstract: Spin transfer torque memory (STTM) devices incorporating an Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) device or at least one layer of Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) material are disclosed. The Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) device or at least one layer of Insulator-Metal-Transition (IMT) material are utilized for providing a spike current when the voltage across it exceeds the threshold voltage to reduce a critical current required for transfer torque induced magnetization switching.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 29, 2020
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Brian S. Doyle, Prashant Majhi, Kaan Oguz, Kevin P. O'Brien, Abhishek A. Sharma, David L. Kencke
  • Patent number: 10873021
    Abstract: According to one embodiment, a magnetic device includes a magnetoresistive effect element including a first ferromagnet, a conductor, and an oxide provided between the first ferromagnet and the conductor, the oxide including a first oxide of a rare-earth element and a second oxide of an element of which a covalent radius is smaller than a covalent radius of the rare-earth element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 6, 2018
    Date of Patent: December 22, 2020
    Assignees: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION, SK HYNIX INC.
    Inventors: Young Min Eeh, Daisuke Watanabe, Jae-Hyoung Lee, Toshihiko Nagase, Kazuya Sawada, Tadaaki Oikawa, Kenichi Yoshino, Taiga Isoda
  • Patent number: 10868233
    Abstract: Strain engineering of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (PMTJs) is described. In an example, a memory structure includes a perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) element disposed above a substrate. A lateral strain-inducing material layer is disposed on the pMTJ element. An inter-layer dielectric (ILD) layer disposed laterally adjacent to both the pMTJ element and the lateral strain-inducing material layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 30, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 15, 2020
    Assignee: Intel Corporation
    Inventors: Daniel G. Ouellette, Christopher J. Wiegand, Md Tofizur Rahman, Brian Maertz, Oleg Golonzka, Justin S. Brockman, Kevin P. O'Brien, Brian S. Doyle, Kaan Oguz, Tahir Ghani, Mark L. Doczy
  • Patent number: 10825985
    Abstract: A magnetoresistance effect element includes a first ferromagnetic layer, a second ferromagnetic layer, and a tunnel barrier layer that is interposed between the first ferromagnetic layer and the second ferromagnetic layer. The tunnel barrier layer is a stacked body including one or more first oxide layers having a spinel structure and one or more second oxide layers having a spinel structure with a composition which is different from a composition of the first oxide layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2019
    Date of Patent: November 3, 2020
    Assignee: TDK CORPORATION
    Inventors: Shinto Ichikawa, Katsuyuki Nakada, Tomoyuki Sasaki
  • Patent number: 10803889
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one approach includes a servo reader transducer structure on a module. The servo reader transducer structure has a lower shield, an upper shield above the lower shield, the upper and lower shields providing magnetic shielding, a current-perpendicular-to-plane sensor between the upper and lower shields, an electrical lead layer between the sensor and one of the shields, and a spacer layer between the electrical lead layer and the one of the shields. The electrical lead layer is in electrical communication with the sensor. The conductivity of the electrical lead layer is higher than the conductivity of the spacer layer. An array of writers is also present on the module. Writer modules having this structure are less susceptible to shorting, and therefore enable use of TMR servo readers on writer modules.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2019
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 10802087
    Abstract: A magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) based sensor device includes a MTJ element and processing circuitry. The MTJ element includes a free layer, a pinned layer, and a tunnel barrier, the tunnel barrier being arranged between the free layer and the pinned layer. The free layer is adapted to flex away from the tunnel barrier during acceleration. The processing circuitry is configured to measure a resistance at the MTJ element and determine acceleration based on the resistance at the MTJ element.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: October 13, 2020
    Assignee: Honeywell International Inc.
    Inventor: Romney R. Katti
  • Patent number: 10796718
    Abstract: An apparatus, according to one embodiment, includes a first circuit electrically coupled to a first read transducer and a first parallel circuit, the first read transducer having a tunnel valve structure having a resistance. A second circuit is electrically coupled to a second read transducer having a tunnel valve structure. An area of a tunnel barrier portion of the second read transducer along a plane of deposition thereof is larger than an area of a tunnel barrier portion of the first read transducer along a plane of deposition thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 26, 2019
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Robert E. Fontana, Jr., Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 10784442
    Abstract: A method of manufacturing an MRAM device, the method including forming a first magnetic layer on a substrate; forming a first tunnel barrier layer on the first magnetic layer such that the first tunnel barrier layer includes a first metal oxide, the first metal oxide being formed by oxidizing a first metal layer at a first temperature; forming a second tunnel barrier layer on the first tunnel barrier layer such that the second tunnel barrier layer includes a second metal oxide, the second metal oxide being formed by oxidizing a second metal layer at a second temperature that is greater than the first temperature; and forming a second magnetic layer on the second tunnel barrier layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 28, 2018
    Date of Patent: September 22, 2020
    Assignee: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Whan-Kyun Kim, Deok-Hyeon Kang, Woo-Jin Kim, Woo-Chang Lim, Jun-Ho Jeong
  • Patent number: 10755732
    Abstract: An apparatus according to one embodiment includes a module having a plurality of tunnel valve read transducers arranged in an array extending along the tape bearing surface of the module. Each of the tunnel valve read transducers has upper and lower shields for providing magnetic shielding. A sensor structure is positioned between the shields. An electrical lead layer is positioned between the sensor structure and one of the shields. The electrical lead layer is in electrical communication with the sensor structure. A spacer layer is positioned between the electrical lead layer and the one of the shields. A conductivity of the electrical lead layer is higher than a conductivity of the spacer layer. At least some of the sensor structures are recessed from a plane extending along the tape bearing surface. An at least partially polycrystalline coating is positioned on a media facing side of the recessed sensor structures.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 12, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 25, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robert G. Biskeborn, Calvin S. Lo
  • Patent number: 10742077
    Abstract: A soft magnetic laminated core is provided which comprises first laminations and second laminations arranged in a stack having a stacking direction substantially perpendicular to a major surface of the first laminations and the second laminations. The first laminations comprise a first soft magnetic alloy and the second laminations comprise a second soft magnetic alloy different from the first soft magnetic alloy. The first laminations and the second laminations are distributed in the stacking direction throughout the stack. The first laminations and/or the second laminations comprise an insulating coating that is thermally stable up to at least 850° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2017
    Date of Patent: August 11, 2020
    Assignee: VACUUMSCHMELZE GMBH & CO. KG
    Inventor: Niklas Volbers
  • Patent number: 10727400
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a magnetic memory element including a magnetic free layer structure having a variable magnetization direction perpendicular to a layer plane thereof; a non-magnetic metal layer formed adjacent to the magnetic free layer structure; an oxide layer formed adjacent to the non-magnetic metal layer; an insulating tunnel junction layer formed adjacent to the magnetic free layer structure opposite the non-magnetic metal layer; a first magnetic reference layer formed adjacent to the insulating tunnel junction layer; a second magnetic reference layer separated from the first magnetic reference layer by a perpendicular enhancement layer; an antiferromagnetic coupling layer formed adjacent to the second magnetic reference layer; and a magnetic fixed layer structure formed adjacent to the antiferromagnetic coupling layer. The first and second magnetic reference layers have a first invariable magnetization direction substantially perpendicular to layer planes thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 24, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2020
    Assignee: Avalanche Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Zihui Wang, Yiming Huai, Huadong Gan, Yuchen Zhou
  • Patent number: 10720569
    Abstract: A magnetic tunnel junction comprises a conductive first magnetic electrode comprising magnetic recording material, a conductive second magnetic electrode spaced from the first electrode and comprising magnetic reference material, and a non-magnetic tunnel insulator material between the first and second electrodes. The magnetic reference material of the second electrode comprises a synthetic antiferromagnetic construction comprising two spaced magnetic regions one of which is closer to the tunnel insulator material than is the other. The one magnetic region comprises a polarizer region comprising CoxFeyBz where “x” is from 0 to 90, “y” is from 10 to 90, and “z” is from 10 to 50. The CoxFeyBz is directly against the tunnel insulator. A non-magnetic region comprising an Os-containing material is between the two spaced magnetic regions. The other magnetic region comprises a magnetic Co-containing material. Other embodiments are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 21, 2020
    Assignee: Micron Technology, Inc.
    Inventors: Wei Chen, Witold Kula, Manzar Siddik, Suresh Ramarajan, Johnathan D. Harms
  • Patent number: 10714125
    Abstract: A magnetic recording head having air bearing surface (ABS) includes a main pole, a side shield laterally spaced from the main pole by a first side gap and a second side gap, an electrically conductive non-magnetic gap material layer disposed between the main pole and the side shield in the first side gap, and a dielectric non-magnetic gap material matrix and a conformal dielectric spacer layer disposed between the main pole and the side shield in the second side gap.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: SANDISK TECHNOLOGIES LLC
    Inventors: Jinqiu Zhang, Ming Sun, Feng Liu, Xiaojun Zhang
  • Patent number: 10714126
    Abstract: A magnetic recording head includes a slider having an air bearing surface, a main magnetic pole including a fore-end portion that extends towards the air bearing surface and configured to generate recording magnetic fields in a first direction, a write shield magnetic pole located across from the fore-end portion to form a write gap that extends therebetween in a second direction and forming a magnetic core in conjunction with the main magnetic pole, a coil configured to excite a magnetic flux in the magnetic core, first and second spin-torque oscillators in the write gap and arranged along a third direction with a spacing therebetween, and a current circuit connected to the first and second spin-torque oscillators via the main magnetic pole and the write shield magnetic pole and configured to supply current to oscillate the first or second spin-torque oscillators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 25, 2019
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignees: KABUSHIKI KAISHA TOSHIBA, TOSHIBA ELECTRONIC DEVICES & STORAGE CORPORATION
    Inventor: Takuya Matsumoto
  • Patent number: 10714681
    Abstract: Embodiments of the invention are directed to a method of forming a memory element pillar. The method includes forming memory element stack layers, forming a conductive cap layer over the memory element stack layers, forming a conductive seal layer over the cap layer, and forming a conductive etch stop layer over the conductive seal layer, wherein the conductive etch stop layer comprises a substantially planar surface. A hardmask is formed over the substantially planar surface of the conductive etch stop layer, wherein the hardmask defines dimensions of the memory element pillar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2020
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Michael Rizzolo, Theodorus E. Standaert, Cornelius Brown Peethala
  • Patent number: 10706996
    Abstract: A magnetic material includes a structure in which a first magnetic layer 1 and a second magnetic layer 2 are stacked such that each layer is formed at least partially in a stacking direction by substantially one atomic layer. The first magnetic layer contains Co as a principal component. The second magnetic layer includes at least Ni. The magnetic material has magnetic anisotropy in the stacking direction. Preferably, an atomic arrangement within a film surface of the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer has six-fold symmetry.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2020
    Assignee: TOHOKU UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Shunsuke Fukami, Hideo Sato, Michihiko Yamanouchi, Shoji Ikeda, Hideo Ohno
  • Patent number: 10707268
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element according to an embodiment includes: a first layer; a first magnetic layer; a second magnetic layer disposed between the first layer and the first magnetic layer; a nonmagnetic layer disposed between the first magnetic layer and the second magnetic layer; and an insulating layer disposed at least on side surfaces of the nonmagnetic layer, the first layer including: at least one element selected from a first group consisting of Hf, Zr, Al, Cr, and Mg; and at least one element selected from a second group consisting of Ta, W, Mo, Nb, Si, Ge, Be, Li, Sn, Sb, and P, and the insulating layer including at least one element selected from the first group.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 14, 2018
    Date of Patent: July 7, 2020
    Assignee: TOSHIBA MEMORY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Masaki Endo, Tadaomi Daibou, Shumpei Omine, Akiyuki Murayama, Junichi Ito
  • Patent number: 10700267
    Abstract: A magnetoresistive element has a magnetization free layer whose magnetization direction changes in an external magnetic field; a magnetization pinned layer whose magnetization direction is pinned in the external magnetic field; and a barrier layer that is positioned between the magnetization free layer and the magnetization pinned layer and that exhibits a magnetoresistive effect. The barrier layer is an oxide of an alloy that includes Mg and Al, and the barrier layer includes a crystalline region and a non-crystalline region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2018
    Date of Patent: June 30, 2020
    Assignee: TDK Corporation
    Inventors: Kohei Honma, Satoshi Miura