With Electrode Or Reaction Space Heating Or Cooling Means Patents (Class 422/186.22)
  • Publication number: 20150044106
    Abstract: Disclosed is a multi-stage plasma reactor system with hollow cathodes for cracking carbonaceous material with each stage comprising: hollow cathodes and hollow anodes cooled by recycling cooling medium or refrigerant; working gas inlet(s); inlet(s) of carbonaceous material and carrier gas as feedstock; reaction tubes in connection with the anode or cathode, in addition, the reactor system also comprises: at least one inlet(s) of quench medium located lower portion of last one of the reaction tubes; and at least one outlet(s) of quenched products and gases located on bottom or lower portion of last one of the reaction tubes, wherein chambers are formed between the first hollow cathode or the hollow cathode used as the reaction tube of any stage and the anode so as to generate plasma gas and/or electric arc therein, generated plasma gas jet fully contacts and efficiently mixes with the carbonaceous material and carrier gas as feedstock and/or volatiles caused by pyrolysis within or nearby highest temperature re
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 3, 2012
    Publication date: February 12, 2015
    Applicant: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CLEAN-AND-LOW-CARBON ENERGY
    Inventors: Xuan Li, Binhang Yan, Changning Wu, Yi Cheng, Yi Guo
  • Patent number: 8877136
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for generating synthesis gas from coal is provided. A conditioned combustible coal element is packed in a metal case. Oxygen mixed with steam and salt water is applied to the coal element. An electrical direct current direct current is applied to the coal element and oxygen/steam/salt water mixture. An arc is generated at the coal element and synthesis gas is generated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 5, 2013
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Inventor: Andrei Razumau
  • Patent number: 8864964
    Abstract: A system employs a closed electrolyzer vessel into which water is circulated, and an electrode plate assembly is immersed to dissociate water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Only water is used as the electrolyte fluid. An air injector in the water return line injects air bubbling for enhanced dissociation of water. The electrode plate assembly is formed by one or more unit stacks of 7-plates each, including two outer cathode plates, a middle anode plate, and spaced inner plates. The generated gases are maintained in a stable condition by an electromagnetic coil assembly that separates the hydrogen gas from oxygen gas. The system can obtain 180% reduction in fuel usage in a vehicle engine, and 20 times reduction in carbon exhaust. It can obtain a 500% increase in fuel efficiency in an electrical power generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: Tasos Inc.
    Inventor: Tasos Aggelopoulos
  • Patent number: 8617477
    Abstract: An apparatus for removing sulfur from a hydrocarbon feed includes a cell having two compartments and a membrane separating the compartments, wherein one compartment is communicated with a hydrogen source and the other compartment is communicated with the hydrocarbon feed to be treated, wherein the membrane comprises a palladium membrane which is modified to have an additional amount of a mix of palladium and other metals (Ni, Ag, Co and Au) between about 4.62*10?3 and 1.62*10?2 g/cm2; and a power source connected across the hydrogen source compartment to generate a current across same, whereby atomic hydrogen is formed from the hydrogen source at a surface of the membrane and diffuses across the membrane to react with the hydrocarbon feed. A process using this apparatus is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 24, 2008
    Date of Patent: December 31, 2013
    Assignee: Intevap, S.A.
    Inventors: Victor Báez, Luiz Felipe D'Elia, Gaudy Rodriguez, Yolimar Gandica
  • Patent number: 8597470
    Abstract: Systems and methods for extracting recoverable materials from source materials are provided. According to one embodiment, a plasma furnace includes an open-faced tray, a pair of arc rods, Faraday coils and a smooth interior surface. The open-faced tray carries tar sands from one end of the plasma furnace to another. The arc rods are disposed above the open-faced tray and are operable to generate a plasma energy field for vaporizing bitumen contained within the tar sands. The Faraday coils are positioned underneath the open-faced tray to create a magnetic field proximate to the tar sands and cause the plasma energy field to penetrate and heat the tar sands to a temperature sufficient to release a bond between the bitumen and the tar sands by focusing and drawing the plasma energy field through the tar sands. Vaporized bitumen condenses on the smooth interior surface from which it is collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: Green Technology LLC
    Inventors: John Lee Horning, Jan H. Matthias, Nigel Moriarty, John Stuart Lehde
  • Publication number: 20120297665
    Abstract: A hybrid fuel and methods of making the same are disclosed. A process for making a hybrid fuel includes the steps of combining a biofuel emulsion blend and a liquid fuel product to form a hybrid fuel. Optionally, the hybrid fuel can be combined with water in a water-in-oil process and include oxygenate additives and additive packages. A hybrid fuel includes blends of biofuel emulsions and liquid fuel products, including light gas diesel. Optionally, the hybrid fuel can include water, oxygenate additives, and other additive packages.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 29, 2012
    Publication date: November 29, 2012
    Inventor: David J. GOERZ, JR.
  • Patent number: 8277623
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a conductive diamond electrode, comprising a substrate having a plurality of convex and concave part disposed over the entire surface of the conductive diamond electrode, and a diamond film coated on the surface of said substrate, wherein the width of each convex part of said convex and concave part is in a range from 0.2 mm to 1 mm. The present invention can provide a conductive diamond electrode, applying a thin film of conductive diamond and a thick substrate, being less expensive than a self-supported type conductive diamond electrode and also having mechanical strength enough to be used in the zero-gap electrolysis, functioning stably for a long time with smooth water supply or gas liberation, and an ozone generator using the conductive diamond electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 18, 2010
    Date of Patent: October 2, 2012
    Assignee: Chlorine Engineers Corp., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masaaki Kato, Rie Kawaguchi
  • Publication number: 20120148446
    Abstract: A plasma generation apparatus and method, which achieve both sterilization and deodorization of attached bacteria even under the condition that steam or fine droplets of water are present. A pair of electrodes is prepared, plasma discharge is carried out by applying designated voltage between the pair of electrodes, fluid passage holes are provided at corresponding parts of respective electrodes so as to communicate with each other, and steam or fine droplets of water are applied to the fluid passage holes and plasma generated around the fluid passage holes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 6, 2011
    Publication date: June 14, 2012
    Applicant: SAMSUNG ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
    Inventors: Miyamoto MAKOTO, Nakayama Yoko, Kumagai Yuuki, Takenoshita Kazutoshi
  • Publication number: 20110236272
    Abstract: A chemical reactor and method for converting a first material into a second material is disclosed and wherein the chemical reactor is provided with a feed stream of a first material which is to be converted into a second material; and wherein the first material is combusted in the chemical reactor to produce a combustion flame, and a resulting gas; and an electrical arc is provided which is passed through or superimposed upon the combustion flame and the resulting gas to facilitate the production of the second material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 8, 2008
    Publication date: September 29, 2011
    Inventor: Peter C. Kong
  • Publication number: 20100270142
    Abstract: Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 23, 2009
    Publication date: October 28, 2010
    Applicant: BATTELLE ENERGY ALLIANCE, LLC
    Inventor: Peter C. Kong
  • Patent number: 7803328
    Abstract: A microreactor is configured to have a metal substrate having a microchannel portion on one surface thereof, a heater provided on the other surface of the metal substrate via an insulating film, a catalyst supported on the microchannel portion, and a cover member having a feed material inlet and a gas outlet and joined to the metal substrate so as to cover the microchannel portion. Since the microreactor uses the metal substrate having a high thermal conductivity and a small heat capacity, the efficiency of heat conduction from the heater to the supported catalyst becomes high, and the processing of the metal substrate is easy to facilitate the production.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2004
    Date of Patent: September 28, 2010
    Assignee: Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Yagi, Takeshi Kihara, Koichi Suzuki
  • Patent number: 7703445
    Abstract: A fuel supply system of the present invention is characterized by including: a fuel reformer (4) for producing a reformed gas-containing fuel by causing discharge in a raw liquid fuel; and a fuel supply device (8) for supplying the reformed gas-containing fuel or a mixture of the reformed gas-containing fuel and the raw fuel into a combustion chamber of an engine (5).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 21, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 27, 2010
    Assignee: Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.
    Inventor: Fumihiro Haga
  • Patent number: 7691324
    Abstract: In a reaction chamber, which constitutes a component of a process installation for obtaining foodstuffs or foodstuff components, biological products in harvested form that are whole or in pieces are subjected to pulsed electric fields as they pass through said reaction chamber, said electric fields forming pores in the cell walls so as to irreversibly open the latter, thus making the content of the cells more easily accessible. This is achieved by electrode groups, which can be energized to a high voltage and are located in the wall of a longitudinal passage of the reactor through which the process material is moved past grounded electrodes located in an opposing longitudinal wall area. Each electrode group is connected to an electric energy accumulator such as for example, a Marx generator, by means of a switch, in order to rapidly establish electric fields of multiple directions between the charged and the grounded electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 20, 2004
    Date of Patent: April 6, 2010
    Assignees: Südzucker AG, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH
    Inventor: Christoph Schultheiss
  • Patent number: 7678339
    Abstract: A vaporised flow quenching reactor for producing a fine-powder from one or more reactant materials. The reactor comprises a first heat source selected from one of a DC plasma torch and RF plasma torch, a first reaction chamber within which energized reactant materials react and a first convergent-divergent nozzle for quenching the heated reactant materials from the first reaction chamber. The reactor also comprises a second reaction chamber provided for congregation of nano particles formed therefrom and a second convergent-divergent nozzle to deliver the nano particles to a collection chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 28, 2005
    Date of Patent: March 16, 2010
    Inventor: Kurnia Wira
  • Patent number: 7597860
    Abstract: A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (“plasmatron”) that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 8, 2005
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2009
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Alexander Rabinovich, Nikolai Alexeev, Leslie Bromberg, Daniel R. Cohn, Andrei Samokhin
  • Patent number: 7586098
    Abstract: A system and method for developing a solid state stripper device is described that more effectively strips off negative carbon ions to produce positively charged carbon ions. In one embodiment the solid state stripping device is a self-supporting aggregate of nanotubes or Buckminster-Fullerenes. Such devices provide, among other things, carbon stripper foil for use in a tandem generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 26, 2005
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2009
    Assignee: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Inventors: Karl von Reden, Enid Sichel
  • Patent number: 7498000
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for forming NO-containing gas flow to treat a biologic object are disclosed. The NO-containing gas flow is formed from a source gas comprising at least oxygen and nitrogen in a housing (1) comprising at least two electrodes (2,3) insulated from each other, a stationary dc arc discharge being generated and maintained between the electrodes. The NO-containing gas flow is formed from the source gas in the area between the electrodes (2,3) under the effect of the arc discharge and withdrawn through a cooled channel, enabling nitrogen oxide to be fixed in the flow and the temperature of the flow and the NO content therein to be brought to values required to provide efficient therapy of a biologic object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 1, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 3, 2009
    Inventors: Aleksandr Valerievich Pekshev, Andrei Borisovich Vagapov, Sergei Vitalievich Grachev, Nikolai Pavlovich Kozlov, Anatoly Borukhovich Shekhter
  • Patent number: 7407634
    Abstract: A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (“plasmatron”) that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The plasmatron has multiple decoupled gas flow apertures or channels for performing multiple functions including fuel atomization, wall protection, plasma shaping, and downstream mixing. In one aspect, the invention is a plasmatron fuel converter comprising a first electrode and a second electrode separated from the first electrode by an electrical insulator and disposed to create a gap with respect to the first electrode so as to form a discharge region adapted to receive a reactive mixture. A power supply is connected to the first and second electrodes and adapted to provide voltage and current sufficient to generate a plasma discharge within the discharge region. Fluid flows are established in the vicinity of the plasma discharge region by multiple decoupled flow establishing means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 11, 2003
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2008
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Alexander Rabinovich, Nicolai Alexeev, Leslie Bromberg, Daniel R. Cohn, Andrei Samokhin
  • Patent number: 7398643
    Abstract: A combined EGR cooler and non-thermal plasma device has first and second fluid passageways which are in heat exchange communication with one another. One or more electrodes are located in the second fluid passageway. The electrodes are connected to a voltage source. When a voltage of sufficient magnitude is applied to the electrodes, a non-thermal plasma is generated in the second fluid passageway. The device can be constructed in the form of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger or a stacked-tube type heat exchanger, wherein the electrodes extend through the heat exchange tubes. Hot exhaust gases preferably flow through the tubes in heat exchange contact with a liquid coolant, thereby cooling the exhaust gases. The electrodes generate non-thermal plasma inside the tubes, converting at least a portion of the NO in the exhaust to NO2, which reacts with soot in the exhaust gases to generate CO2 and N2, thereby cleaning the exhaust gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2006
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2008
    Assignee: Dana Canada Corporation
    Inventor: James Scott Cotton
  • Patent number: 7381382
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for a multistage plasmatron fuel reformer system having a wide dynamic operational range. In one aspect, the system includes a plasmatron configured for low flow operation followed by a reaction extension cylinder and then by a nozzle section capable of providing additional air and/or fuel inputs. The nozzle section is then followed by another reaction extension region. When high flow rate of the system is needed, the low fuel flow rate provided by the plasmatron followed by the first reaction extension region provides the high temperature used to effectively initiate the partial oxidation reaction in the next section. The initiation of this reaction may also be facilitated by the presence of hydrogen.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 29, 2004
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2008
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Alexander Rabinovich, Nikolai Alexeev, Andrei Samokhin, Leslie Bromberg, Daniel R. Cohn, Kamal Hadidi
  • Publication number: 20080056961
    Abstract: A triple helical flow vortex reactor has a reaction chamber (100) with the means to create three fluid flow vortexes and an optional double end orbiting plasma arc to sustain combustion. The first vortex is of fuel and combusted gases such that said fuel and combusted gases spiral away from a fuel inlet end (150) towards an exhaust nozzle or gas outlet end (110) of the reaction chamber (100). The second vortex is one starting at the gas outlet end (110) and confined to a thin layer at the inner wall surface (130) of the reaction chamber (100). The second vortex spirals in a direction reverse to the flow of the first vortex towards the fuel inlet end (150) of the reaction chamber (100). The third vortex is starting at the fuel inlet end and also confined to a thin layer at the inner wall surface (130) of the reaction chamber (100) in a direction with the flow of the first vortex.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 2, 2006
    Publication date: March 6, 2008
    Inventor: Igor Matveev
  • Patent number: 7331170
    Abstract: Provided is an exhaust emission control device which can properly burn off soot and soluble organic fraction attached to and accumulated on electrodes of a plasma generator. The exhaust emission control device with a post-processing device (catalyst regenerative particulate filter) for allowing exhaust gas to pass therethrough for gas purification incorporated in an exhaust pipe of an internal combustion engine (diesel engine) comprises a plasma generator arranged upstream of the post-processing device for discharging electricity in the exhaust gas to generate plasma, flow-through type oxidation catalyst arranged upstream of the plasma generator, fuel adding means (controller) arranged upstream of the oxidation catalyst for adding fuel into the exhaust gas, temperature increasing means (suction throttling valve or controller) for increasing the exhaust temperature to a level enough for oxidation reaction on the oxidation catalyst of the fuel added by said fuel adding means.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2004
    Date of Patent: February 19, 2008
    Assignee: Hino Motors, Ltd.
    Inventor: Masatoshi Shimoda
  • Patent number: 7285247
    Abstract: A method of operating a fuel reformer includes advancing a first air/fuel mixture having a first air-to-fuel ratio into the fuel reformer. The method further includes determining if a soot purge is to be performed and generating a purge-soot signal in response thereto. Further, a second air/fuel mixture having a second air-to-fuel ratio is advanced into the fuel reformer in response to generation of the purge-soot signal. The second air-to-fuel ratio is greater than the first air-to-fuel ratio in order to burn soot present within the fuel reformer. A fuel reformer system is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: October 23, 2007
    Assignee: Arvin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Rudolf M. Smaling, Leslie Bromberg, William Taylor, III, Rodney H. Cain, Michael J. Daniel
  • Patent number: 7244281
    Abstract: A plasma fuel reformer assembly for producing reformate gas includes a fuel reformer having an air/fuel input assembly, an electrode assembly, and a soot trap positioned downstream of the electrode assembly. The electrode assembly includes a first electrode and a second electrode that is spaced apart from the first electrode. The fuel reformer further includes a reformer controller electrically coupled to the air/fuel input assembly. The reformer controller includes a processing unit electrically connected to a memory unit.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 17, 2007
    Assignee: Arvin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Samuel N. Crane, Jr., William Taylor, III
  • Patent number: 7241429
    Abstract: A plasma fuel reformer comprises an electrode assembly and a cap. The cap defines an interior region. At least a portion of the electrode assembly is positioned in the interior region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 2, 2003
    Date of Patent: July 10, 2007
    Assignee: Arvin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Michael W. Greathouse, Jon J. Huckaby
  • Patent number: 7132039
    Abstract: An apparatus for manufacturing a carbon nanotube includes: at least two electrodes whose tips oppose to each other; a power supply which applies a voltage between the electrodes so as to generate discharge plasma in a discharge area between the electrodes; a plurality of magnets which generates at least one of a magnetic field having lines of magnetic force in multiple directions or a magnetic field having a component in parallel with the direction of a discharge current in the generation area of the discharge plasma; and a magnet cooling unit which cools the magnets.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 23, 2003
    Date of Patent: November 7, 2006
    Assignee: Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Kazunori Anazawa, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Kentaro Kishi, Masaki Hirakata, Masaaki Shimizu
  • Patent number: 7097675
    Abstract: A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 27, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 29, 2006
    Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventors: Brent A. Detering, Peter C. Kong
  • Patent number: 6926872
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for processing crude oil, or oil-base or water-base liquid waste into a clean burning combustible gas via a submerged electric arc between at least one pair of consumable electrodes, which have a geometry permitting the operation for at least one month prior to their replacement, are completely contained inside a pressurized vessel, and have copper holders that are placed at a minimal possible mutual distance so as to minimize the power loss in the propagation of electricity through the electrodes, while having the other dimensions essentially unrestricted to maximize life. The invention is complemented with three optional recirculating flows substantially through the electric arc: i) a flow of the produced combustible gas; ii) a flow of the liquid feedstock; and iii) a flow of a liquid additive rich in a substance missing in the liquid feedstock for the production of the combustible gas with desired features.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 2001
    Date of Patent: August 9, 2005
    Assignee: Hadronic Press, Inc.
    Inventor: Rugerro Maria Santilli
  • Patent number: 6881386
    Abstract: A novel apparatus and method is disclosed for a plasmatron fuel converter (“plasmatron”) that efficiently uses electrical energy to produce hydrogen rich gas. The volume and shape of the plasma discharge is controlled by a fluid flow established in a plasma discharge volume. A plasmatron according to this invention produces a substantially large effective plasma discharge volume allowing for substantially greater volumetric efficiency in the initiation of chemical reactions within a volume of bulk fluid reactant flowing through the plasmatron.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 19, 2005
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Alexander Rabinovich, Nikolai Alexeev, Leslie Bromberg, Daniel R. Cohn, Andrei Samokhin
  • Patent number: 6869574
    Abstract: A charged particle generating method in which mode is changeable between an ion generation mode and an electron generation mode. In the ion generation mode, a raw material is supplied to a tip end of a charged particle generating electrode through a raw-material passage formed in the charged particle generating electrode. A first electric field, in which the charged particle generating electrode is positive and the charged particle extract electrode is negative, is generated to emit ions from the raw material at the charged particle generating electrode. In the electron generation mode, supplying the raw material from the raw-material supply section is stopped. A second electric field, in which the charged particle generating electrode is negative and the charged particle extract electrode is positive, is generated to emit electrons from the raw material at the charged particle generating electrode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 7, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 22, 2005
    Assignee: Vacuum Products Corporation
    Inventors: Hisao Hojoh, Masatoshi Ono, Morinobu Endo, Tetsuo Uchiyama
  • Patent number: 6852293
    Abstract: A process is disclosed for the pyrolysis and gasification of waste materials, in particular of special and/or hazardous waste materials, comprising a gasification and melting step, a step of treatment of the mixture of the obtained gases, and a vitrification step, wherein said steps provide for the following passages: a) the material to be treated, at a temperature comprised between 1300 and 1500° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2005
    Assignee: RGR Ambiente-Reattori Gassificazione Rifiuti S.r.l.
    Inventor: Domenico Ronchi
  • Patent number: 6840034
    Abstract: An apparatus for reducing pollutants in internal combustion engine emissions, particularly marine electric generator engines, includes a treatment chamber having an intake opening for receiving gaseous emissions from the engine, and an exhaust opening for exiting emissions. A perforated metal tube is disposed within the treatment chamber, and an electrode is disposed within the metal tube in spaced apart relation to the metal tube. The electrode is encircled by the metal tube so that, upon applying a voltage at a predetermined frequency to the electrode, an arc is generated across the space between the electrode and the metal tube to promote a chemical reaction reducing the concentration of pollutants. The treatment chamber is contained within a manifold, and cooled by a flow of water. A supplemental air source is connected to the treatment chamber, and a chemical substrate is disposed within the treatment chamber for promoting the chemical reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2003
    Date of Patent: January 11, 2005
    Assignee: Envirolift, LLC
    Inventors: Michael Mills, David James
  • Patent number: 6793898
    Abstract: A plasma-based fuel reformer in which a fuel/air mixture is subjected to an electrical plasma arc that reforms the fuel/air mixture into a hydrogen-rich gas. The reformer includes a first electrode defining a reaction chamber and a second electrode axially aligned with the longitudinal axis of the first electrode. A plasma arc forms between the first and the second electrodes in the reaction chamber when an electrical voltage is applied. An insulator is positioned between the first and the second electrode to prevent the formation of a plasma arc between the first and the second electrodes except in the reaction chamber. Means for providing a fuel/air mixture to the reaction chamber and means for diverting the air flow into the reaction chamber so as to create a vortex-like flow of air in the reaction chamber are also included.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: September 21, 2004
    Assignee: Texaco Inc.
    Inventors: Christopher Stewart Brown, Frederick Jacobus Kirstein, Paul Francis Martin, Harold Troy Wong
  • Patent number: 6702991
    Abstract: A fuel reforming assembly has a control unit electrically coupled to a temperature sensor to determine the temperature of a catalyst positioned in the reaction chamber of a plasma fuel reformer. Based on the temperature of the catalyst, operation of the reformer's plasma-generating assembly may be selectively actuated and deactuated.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 12, 2002
    Date of Patent: March 9, 2004
    Assignee: Arvin Technologies, Inc.
    Inventors: Rudolf M. Smaling, Michael J. Daniel, Shawn D. Bauer
  • Patent number: 6673322
    Abstract: A process for the production of a clean burning combustible gas by flowing a liquid through an electric arc. The electrodes have several configurations. The invention prevents the production of carbon dioxide in the gas thereby reducing its presence when combusted and exhausted to about half that associated with gasoline exhaust; increases the cost efficiency of the process by eliminating secondary chemical reactions; and increases the life of the electrodes. The chemical structure of the combustible gas is composed of stable magnetically bonded clusters of conventional molecules and atoms that are fully detectable via peaks in conventional mass spectrometric detectors, yet such clusters remain unidentifiable by the computer search among all known molecules, and have no infrared signature other than those of the conventional molecules constituting the clusters. The liquid which is flown through the arc also acquires the chemical structure of magnetically bonded clusters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2001
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2004
    Assignee: Hadronic Press, Inc.
    Inventor: Rugerro Maria Santilli
  • Patent number: 6663752
    Abstract: The invention relates to a novel self-sustaining method for the clean production of a clean burning liquid fuel called MagneFuel, which method is based, first, in the production of a combustible gas via submerged electric arcs between carbon-base electrodes from crude oil, oil-base, or water-base liquid waste and then passing the combustible gas via a high pressure pipe into a tower for the catalytic liquefaction, whereby the sum of the heat output in the production of the combustible gas and that for its catalytic liquefaction is sufficient for the process to be self-sustaining, that is, capable to produce its own electricity. It is emphasized that this abstract is provided to comply with the rules requiring an abstract that will allow a searcher or other reader to quickly ascertain the subject matter of the technical disclosure. It is submitted with the understanding that it will not be used to interpret or limit the scope of meaning of the claims.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 3, 2001
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2003
    Assignee: Hadronic Press, Inc.
    Inventor: Ruggero Maria Santilli
  • Patent number: 6645438
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for producing fullerenes, in large quantities at an economical cost, from liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons treated by a high energy source in a reactor devoid of oxygen are presented. The liquid hydrocarbons preferably selected from used hazardous materials such as used motor oils, oils, crude petroleum or petroleum cracking by-products, and the gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane and acetylene, are introduced into the oxygen deprived reactor and exposed to a high energy source which may be a plasma jet, a laser beam or a submerged electrical arc. Exposure to the high energy source causes the hydrocarbon atoms to disassociate, thereby converting the liquid and gaseous components into a vapor or cloud of mixed material. The vapor or cloud is then processed to enable the liberated carbon atoms to bind and recombine to form fullerenes. The cloud is then introduced into a condensation zone of said reactor to form a mixture of fullerenes, solid soot and residue gases.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 5, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 11, 2003
    Assignee: New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Inventor: Roman Dubrovsky
  • Patent number: 6630113
    Abstract: Methods and apparatus for treating waste are provided. Waste is converted in an arc plasma-joule heated melter system utilizing one or more arc plasma electrodes and a plurality of joule heating electrodes. The arc plasma electrode(s) can be configured for operation utilizing AC or DC power, or for switching between AC and DC power. The arc plasma electrodes can also be configured for independent arc voltage and arc current control. The joule heating circuits are configured for simultaneous operation with the arcing electrodes, but without detrimental interaction with the arcing electrodes. The systems provide stable, non-leachable products and a gaseous fuel. The gaseous fuel can be utilized in a combustion or non-combustion process to generate electricity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 9, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 7, 2003
    Assignee: Integrated Environmental Technologies, LLC
    Inventor: Jeffrey E. Surma
  • Patent number: 6604356
    Abstract: A system for reducing pollutants in internal combustion engine emissions, particularly marine electric generator engines, includes a treatment chamber having an intake opening for receiving gaseous emissions from the engine, and an exhaust opening for exiting emissions. A perforated metal tube is disposed within the treatment chamber, and an electrode is disposed within the metal tube in spaced apart relation to the metal tube. The electrode is encircled by the metal tube so that, upon applying a voltage at a predetermined frequency to the electrode, an arc is generated across the space between the electrode and the metal tube to promote a chemical reaction reducing the concentration of pollutants. The treatment chamber is contained within a manifold, and cooled by a flow of water. A supplemental air source is connected to the treatment chamber, and a chemical substrate is disposed within the treatment chamber for promoting the chemical reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 19, 2002
    Date of Patent: August 12, 2003
    Assignee: Envirolift, LLC
    Inventors: Michael Mills, David James
  • Publication number: 20030129107
    Abstract: A plasma generator includes several plasma sources distributed in an array for plasma treatment of surfaces. Each plasma source includes first and second conductive electrodes. Each second electrode has a gas passage defined therein, and one of the first electrodes is situated within the gas passage in spaced relation from the second electrode, with each gas passage thereby constituting the free space for plasma generation between each pair of first and second electrodes. An insulating layer is interposed between the first and second electrodes to facilitate plasma formation via dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in the gas passages between the first and second electrodes. The first electrodes may be provided in a monolithic structure wherein they all protrude from a common bed, and similarly the second electrodes may be monolithically formed by defining the gas passages within a common second electrode member.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 8, 2002
    Publication date: July 10, 2003
    Inventors: Ferencz S. Denes, Sorin O. Manolache, Noah Hershkowitz
  • Patent number: 6540966
    Abstract: Reactors for the total recycling of contaminated liquid waste, which produce a clean burning combustible gas, usable heat, and solid precipitates. Different embodiments include the efficient recycling of automotive antifreeze and oil waste, a new method for the production of a fuel from crude oil, for desalting seawater and for recycling biologically contaminated liquid waste, such as town sewage, into a clean burning combustible gas, nutrient rich water useful for irrigation, and solid precipitates useful for fertilizers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 2000
    Date of Patent: April 1, 2003
    Assignee: Hadronic Press Inc.
    Inventor: Ruggero Maria Santilli
  • Publication number: 20020013508
    Abstract: A process is provided for vaporizing volatile contaminants present in soil and removing the contaminant vapors. The process involves heating the soil by passing current between electrodes buried in the soil and simultaneously injecting water through the electrodes to transfer heat by convection. The coupling of electrical heating with heat transfer by convection improves the efficiency and uniformity of heating. The contaminant vapors are removed by applying suction at extraction wells positioned between the electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 22, 2001
    Publication date: January 31, 2002
    Inventor: Bruce C.W. McGee
  • Patent number: 6322757
    Abstract: The plasma fuel converter includes an electrically conductive structure for forming a first electrode and a second electrode is disposed to create a gap with respect to the first electrode in a reaction chamber. A fuel-air mixture is introduced into the gap and the power supply is connected to the first and second electrodes to provide voltage in the range of approximately 100 volts to 40 kilovolts and current in the range of approximately 10 milliamperes to 1 ampere to generate a glow discharge to reform the fuel. The high voltage low current plasmatron of the invention is low cost, has long electrode life, utilizes a simple power supply and control and eliminates the need for an air compressor.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 1999
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2001
    Assignee: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Inventors: Daniel R. Cohn, Leslie Bromberg, Alexander Rabinovich, Nikolai Alexeev
  • Publication number: 20010031230
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for plasma-chemical production of nitrogen monoxide is used to produce inhalation gas enriched with nitrogen monoxide for medical purposes. The nitrogen-monoxide production is achieved through the use of a dielectric barrier discharge created in a process gas containing nitrogen and oxygen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 11, 2001
    Publication date: October 18, 2001
    Applicant: Siemens Aktiengesellschaft
    Inventors: Rolf Castor, Thomas Hammer
  • Patent number: 6290823
    Abstract: A corona treatment system (10d) has a corona treatment generator (11d), a first stationary electrode (12d) having a dielectric layer (18d) disposed thereon and a second roller electrode (13d) spaced from the first stationary electrode (12d) by a gap (15d). The second roller electrode (13d) has a layer of dielectric material (19d) disposed around a core (23d) and has a conductive layer (24d) disposed over a substantial portion of a length of the second roller (13d). A switch (20) is electrically connected between the conductive layer (24d) and an electrical ground, and the switch (20) is operable to switch the system between a grounded web mode and a dual dielectric mode.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 21, 2000
    Date of Patent: September 18, 2001
    Assignee: American Roller Company
    Inventors: Bruce E. Hyllberg, Gary S. Butters