Arc Or Spark Discharge Means Patents (Class 422/186.21)
  • Patent number: 10787362
    Abstract: An apparatus is disclosed for the pre-capture of carbon from natural gas and/or other light gaseous hydrocarbons and oils, and for co-firing the resulting hydrogen and any remaining hydrocarbons with higher carbon ratio fuels, such as coal and heavy oils and even lower carbon ratio natural gas, in a steam electric generator and/or other boilers, processes, reactors, power plants, engines and combustion turbines, and combined cycle units, to reduce their carbon dioxide production and emissions to the environment, and for co-processing the syngas with other feed materials to react them in a separate vessel and produce a desired outcome.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 16, 2017
    Date of Patent: September 29, 2020
    Inventor: Christopher L. de Graffenried, Sr.
  • Patent number: 10722859
    Abstract: To provide a reactor to improve evenness in the thickness of shell metals coated on the surface of core particles by increasing area sizes in the reactor chamber to control electric potentials, the present invention is configured to comprise a top surface able to move up and down while serving as a working electrode, a wall serving as a working electrode, a bottom surface, a standard electrode, a power supplying part and a solution injecting part, wherein the top surface can move up and down automatically by an electric motor or manually. Also, the top surface is configured to be suitable for the interior diameter of the reactor chamber, for solutions inside the reactor chamber not to leak from the top surface or from the crevice between the top surface and the wall of the reactor chamber. The bottom surface of the reactor chamber may comprise an impeller or an ultrasonic wave diffuser to bring about even diffusion in the reactor chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 11, 2017
    Date of Patent: July 28, 2020
    Assignee: Korea Institute of Energy Research
    Inventors: Gu-Gon Park, Sun-Mi Hwang, Sung-Dae Yim, Chang-Soo Kim, Won-Yong Lee, Tae-Hyun Yang, Seok-Hee Park, Minjin Kim, Young-Jun Sohn, Byungchan Bae, Seung-Gon Kim, Dongwon Shin
  • Patent number: 9908096
    Abstract: An energy conversion system includes a water-containing vessel with a transparent sidewall. Energized carbon rods are fed into the vessel such that the carbon rods are immersed in the water. The carbon rods are juxtaposed sufficiently that electrical arcing occurs between them, causing decomposition of some water molecules into constituent hydrogen and oxygen gas. Photon emissions resulting from the arcing are collected by photovoltaic cells placed around the sidewall of the vessel. The hydrogen gas is cooled by passing it through a water reservoir which also provides a source for water in the vessel. The cooled hydrogen gas may be used to fuel an internal combustion engine. Byproduct heat from the arcing reaction may be utilized in a Stirling engine or radiated from the system. As the carbon rods become depleted during arcing, additional rods are fed through conductive sleeves into the vessel by linear actuators.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 10, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2018
    Assignee: Hydrogreen Innovations, LLC
    Inventor: James D. Hunt
  • Patent number: 9622509
    Abstract: A method and device for the plasma perforation of tipping paper, wherein a low temperature plasma is generated on the surface of the tipping paper by briefly ionizing a gas mixture using an energy source that is as close in form to a point as possible, wherein the ionizable gas mixture is locally restricted to a very small surface region of the tipping paper.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 18, 2017
    Inventor: Michael Lindner
  • Patent number: 9527742
    Abstract: Provided are a graphene sheet and a process of preparing the same. Particularly, a process of economically preparing a large-area graphene sheet having a desired thickness and a graphene sheet prepared by the process are provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2016
    Inventors: Jae-young Choi, Hyeon-Jin Shin, Seon-mi Yoon
  • Patent number: 9187328
    Abstract: The present invention provides various methods and apparatus for the production of fullerenes and other carbon-containing materials. In some aspects, the invention provides an arc chamber comprising a graphite element support, wherein the support comprises a rotatable frame adapted for moving each graphite element towards and away from an arc discharge position. In other aspects, the invention provides a collection chamber for collecting carbon-containing materials produced in an arc chamber, wherein the collection chamber comprises an inlet and a rotatable element arranged to direct the carbon-containing material to a wall of the collection chamber, wherein the sectional area occupied by the rotatable element increases with distance from the inlet. In other aspects, the invention provides a collection chamber comprising means for isolating the collection chamber from an arc discharge apparatus and an inlet for the introduction of solvent into the collection chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 3, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 17, 2015
    Assignee: Isis Innovation Limited
    Inventors: Kyriakos Porfyrakis, Simon R. Plant
  • Patent number: 9034270
    Abstract: Sterilization and cleaning of an escalator hand rail are performed. A sterilization and cleaning device including a hand rail; a plasma source for irradiating the hand rails with ions or radicals or UV light; an enclosure for housing the plasma source; a power source for generating plasma; a fan for generating relatively negative pressure in the enclosure; filter units for removing removed bacteria, viruses, and organic matters such as hand marks; and filter plates located backward and forward of a moving direction of the hand rail in the enclosure along the hand rail is provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 3, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2015
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Takumi Tandou, Naoshi Itabashi
  • Publication number: 20150122632
    Abstract: A flow-through electric arc system includes a chamber within an insulated sleeve having an anode at one end of the insulated sleeve and a cathode at a distal end of the insulated sleeve. Fluid flows from an inlet of the chamber, through the insulated sleeve where it is exposed to an electric arc formed between the anode and cathode, and then flows out of an outlet of the chamber. By way of increasing the flow rate of the fluid, bi-products that are released from a reaction of the fluid to the electric arc are flushed by the fluid and at least some of the bi-products are precluded from accumulating on either of the anode, cathode, or both.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 31, 2014
    Publication date: May 7, 2015
    Inventors: Christopher Lynch, Scott Marton, Jack Michael Armstrong, Mike Rodriguez, Richard Conz
  • Patent number: 9011697
    Abstract: A method for the treatment of fluid including the step of exposing the fluid to a pulsed plasma discharge. The pulsed plasma discharge will be generated using a suitable electrode configuration to generate the plasma discharge in the fluid. Apparatus useful in the method may include a vessel, at least two electrodes for generating a plasma discharge in water, and a flow inlet and a flow outlet to allow water to be passed through the vessel. Also described is an in-line water treatment, where a pulsed plasma discharge is used in a pipe carrying moving water. Plasma based fluid treatment system may have many advantages in comparison to other treatment methods, such as very minimal maintenance, low operating power, and minimal pressure loss through the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 21, 2015
    Assignee: Drexel University
    Inventors: Christopher A. Campbell, Young I. Cho, Alexander F. Gutsol, Alexander Fridman, Frank T. Snyder, Vincent Szarko, Erik Yelk, Jesse Zanolini, Victor Vasilets
  • Patent number: 9005536
    Abstract: Apparatus and method converting feedstock (e.g., chicken litter) into oil, gas, and ash fertilizer has a reformer unit with (i) a feedstock input, (ii) an outer wall, (iii) a reaction chamber with an inner wall, (iv) a combustion gas input, (v) a scrubbing liquid input, (vi) a feedstock stirrer, (vii) an ash stirrer, (viii) an ash plate below the reaction chamber, and (ix) a combined liquid/gas output. The ash plate is separated from the inner wall. Feedstock and scrubbing liquid are preferably reacted within the reaction chamber to release useful hydrocarbon liquids and gasses which migrate to the top of the reformer, while ash from the reaction falls onto the ash plate from where it is output. Liquid/gas pump structure sends the combined liquid/gas from the reformer to gas/liquid separator structure which provides a gas output and a liquid output. The gas output may be used, flamed off, and/or recirculated to the reaction chamber. Oil/water separator structure receives the liquid output and provides a (e.g.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: ARK Power Dynamics, LLC
    Inventor: Michael W. Rogers
  • Patent number: 8956508
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for preparing an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide from oxygen, hydrogen and optionally water. The invention more particularly relates to a method for preparing an aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide in which at least a portion of the reactor is cooled down to a temperature lower than 15° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 27, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignees: Arkema France, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1
    Inventors: Jean-Luc Dubois, Markus Brandhorst, Daniel Bianchi, Frederic Thevenet
  • Patent number: 8957265
    Abstract: Systems and methods for extracting recoverable materials from source materials are provided. Source materials are introduced into a furnace. A condition is created within the furnace in which a gaseous pressure within the furnace is less than an atmospheric pressure outside of the furnace by removing air from within the furnace with a vacuum pump. Hydrocarbons contained within the source material are separated from the source material without using a significant amount of water by heating the source material to a temperature sufficient to cause the hydrocarbons to liquefy or vaporize. The liquefied hydrocarbons or vaporized hydrocarbons are then captured.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 13, 2014
    Date of Patent: February 17, 2015
    Assignee: Green Technology LLC
    Inventors: John Lee Horning, Jan H. Matthias, Nigel Moriarty, John Stuart Lehde
  • Patent number: 8951481
    Abstract: A system for creating a nitrate combined with a liquid. A corona discharge cell to generate an electrical field. The corona discharge cell further comprising a conduit to pass air through the electrical field to produce nitric oxide NO, wherein the air comprises a mixture of at least nitrogen N2 and oxygen O2, the conduit for combining the nitric oxide NO with the oxygen O2 to form nitrogen dioxide NO2. The corona discharge cell further comprising an injector for combining the nitrogen dioxide NO2 with the liquid to generate nitric acid HNO3 which combines with the liquid to generate the nitrate comprised of nitrate radical NO3 mixed with the liquid.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Inventor: Russell J. Keller
  • Publication number: 20150004071
    Abstract: An apparatus for producing high yields of carbon nanostructures is disclosed. The apparatus includes an electric arc furnace and a feeder that directs solid carbon dioxide into an electrical arc generated by the electric arc furnace. Carbon nanostructures are produced within the electrical arc without producing magnesium oxide (MgO).
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 12, 2014
    Publication date: January 1, 2015
    Inventors: Kevin M. Frink, Bentley D. Frink
  • Publication number: 20140360861
    Abstract: A method for controlling selectivity or turnover frequency of a catalyst is provided. The catalyst is provided between a first electrode and a second electrode spaced apart from the first electrode, wherein the first electrode has an insulating layer on a first side of the first electrode and the second electrode has an insulating layer on a first side of the second electrode wherein where the first side of the first electrode and the first side of the second electrode are between the first electrode and second electrode. A fluid solution that contains a salt electrolyte and a substrate for a catalytic reaction is provided between the electrodes. A voltage is provided between the first electrode and second electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 23, 2012
    Publication date: December 11, 2014
    Applicant: The Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
    Inventors: Matthew W. Kanan, Eugene Beh, Craig Gorin
  • Publication number: 20140363334
    Abstract: Process, and system, for sterilization of a product constituted by a non-distilled or demineralized liquid solution (3) contained in a rigid and/or flexible container (2). The process provides for at least one step of heating via capacitive supply of high-frequency current, with electrodes with facing surface of a closed-circuit electrode system (1) on the product, followed by a step of cooling with interruption of the supplied current; during at least part of the heating step, a counter-pressure pressure (P2) is supplied and acts inside the system (1) and on the product being treated.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 10, 2012
    Publication date: December 11, 2014
    Applicant: G.E.A.F. S.R.L.
    Inventor: Marco Fabiano
  • Publication number: 20140328728
    Abstract: There is provided a plasma generation device capable of suppressing arc discharge in which discharge is localized to cause a high temperature, and allowing atmospheric discharge plasma to be stably generated with a high generation efficiency in a low temperature at about a room temperature without being spatially biased. The plasma generation device arranged with a plurality of electrodes facing each other includes a discharge position control unit, which is arranged between each of the plurality of electrodes, and is formed by containing an inverse characteristic material composed of a fluid having polarizability and a property that dielectric constant decreases with an increase in temperature, in a container formed of a dielectric material, wherein the inverse characteristic material is spaced apart from each of the plurality of electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 9, 2014
    Publication date: November 6, 2014
    Applicant: SAGA UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: Tatsuya MISAWA, Nobuya HAYASHI
  • Patent number: 8870735
    Abstract: The waste disposal system disclosed herein includes a chamber operated at high ampere and low voltage, the chamber configured to inject smoke on a stream of free radicals. In one implementation, the stream of free radicals is generated from a plasma igniter and the smoke is generated from waste products, such as hospital waste products.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 1, 2013
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2014
    Assignee: Strategic Environmental & Energy Resources, Inc.
    Inventor: Fortunato Villamagna
  • Patent number: 8864964
    Abstract: A system employs a closed electrolyzer vessel into which water is circulated, and an electrode plate assembly is immersed to dissociate water into hydrogen and oxygen gases. Only water is used as the electrolyte fluid. An air injector in the water return line injects air bubbling for enhanced dissociation of water. The electrode plate assembly is formed by one or more unit stacks of 7-plates each, including two outer cathode plates, a middle anode plate, and spaced inner plates. The generated gases are maintained in a stable condition by an electromagnetic coil assembly that separates the hydrogen gas from oxygen gas. The system can obtain 180% reduction in fuel usage in a vehicle engine, and 20 times reduction in carbon exhaust. It can obtain a 500% increase in fuel efficiency in an electrical power generator.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 21, 2014
    Assignee: Tasos Inc.
    Inventor: Tasos Aggelopoulos
  • Publication number: 20140286850
    Abstract: A method of making sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is disclosed in which carbon dioxide gas is reacted with an aqueous solution sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of a compound of the formula (I): Na+[X—O]? where X is Cl, Br, or I.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 30, 2013
    Publication date: September 25, 2014
    Applicant: New York Synthetics, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard L. Peterson, Luke Ice, Omar Bradley Sheikh, Omar Ayaz Hussein, Vasilios Spiridon Koutsogiannis
  • Publication number: 20140286833
    Abstract: A method and device for destroying and inhibiting exposure to microbes and infection includes a first element and a second element, and a power source. At least one of the elements includes antimicrobial metal, which, when energized by the power source, produces ions that are lethal to microbes. The device can be incorporated into virtually any useful object. During normal use of the object, electrical communication is established between the two elements, causing current supplied from the power source to flow through the antimicrobial metal. The two elements are configured and arranged to ensure that ions flowing from the antimicrobial metal flow through the region in which it is desired to kill microbes. The antimicrobial metal can be on the surface of the element, incorporated into the material making up the element, or provided in any other way that allows the antimicrobial effect to be achieved.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 26, 2013
    Publication date: September 25, 2014
    Applicant: ArgentumCidal Electrics, Inc.
    Inventors: Thomas A. FULLER, Richard WYSK, Wayne J. SEBASTIANELLI, Paul H. COHEN, Robert C. VOIGT
  • Publication number: 20140275298
    Abstract: Systems and methods for fabricating syngas mixtures or fuels are disclosed. A system may include parallel processing chambers, each processing chamber configured to produce one component of a syngas mixture. Each chamber may include at least one plasma torch having a source of a working gas. In one embodiment, a first processing chamber may be optimized to produce hydrogen gas, and a second processing chamber may be optimized to produce carbon monoxide gas. The system may include a mixing component configured to mix the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas. The system may also include a reaction system to receive the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas and produce a fuel therefrom. The parallel processing chamber system may be used in methods for producing a syngas mixture or a fuel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2014
    Publication date: September 18, 2014
    Applicant: Powerdyne, Inc.
    Inventors: Geoffrey Hirson, Gus F. Shouse
  • Publication number: 20140239232
    Abstract: The present invention discloses a pyrolysis unit that operates using a plasma pyrolysis reactor. Hydrocarbon material that is to be converted to syngas can be in gas, liquid and/or solid form including a slurry of very small powder particles. The hydrocarbons are subjected to very high levels of heat from one or more plasma torches in order to break the hydrocarbon chemical bonds. The residue from heating the hydrocarbon material drops into a pyrolysis unit quench section where the residue and molten ash are removed. Syngas that is extracted from the pyrolysis unit passes through syngas preparation processes that remove contaminants from the syngas. The syngas then passes through a syngas-to-liquid hydrocarbons process. Carbon dioxide that is removed from the syngas preparation and syngas-to-hydrocarbons processes is recycled to the pyrolysis unit.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 19, 2012
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Inventors: Vernon Eric Staton, James Michael Lawrence
  • Patent number: 8808635
    Abstract: A new and low cost method for producing single wall nanotubes and other allotropic forms of carbon. The method uses a high electric current and 127 VAC or 220 VAC power supplies to sublimation of a solid precursor, which material can be made of graphite. The solid precursor is connected to metallic electrodes, so that an intense electric current cross the contacts to pulverize the graphite under high temperature. The carbon materials are deposited in the wall of the reactor as well as in the electrodes, in an atmospheric pressure. The obtained material is purified in acids and, then, the carbon nanotubes are separated. In general, the synthesis is characterized by the absence of a metal catalyst, the employ of a short circuit current with an agent to produce carbon materials, the low pressure into reaction, and the assembly of the apparatus involving a low voltage of operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 21, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 19, 2014
    Assignee: Universidade Federal do Pará
    Inventors: Marcos Allan Leite dos Reis, Jordan Del Nero
  • Patent number: 8784617
    Abstract: A non-thermal, repetitively-pulsed gliding discharge reactor includes a high-voltage power source configured to provide a pulsed high-voltage potential; a gas inlet; a liquid sorbent inlet; a product outlet; a plurality of first electrodes connected to the high-voltage power source; a plurality of second electrodes that are grounded; and a trough; the plurality of first electrodes being separated from the plurality of second electrodes by a discharge region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: EVOEnergy, LLC
    Inventors: Yury N. Novoselov, Alexey I. Suslov, Oleg P. Kutenkov
  • Patent number: 8784657
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 7, 2008
    Date of Patent: July 22, 2014
    Assignee: Drexel University
    Inventors: Young I. Cho, Alexander Fridman, Alexander F. Gutsol, Yong Yang
  • Publication number: 20140175335
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are described for supplying municipal solid waste (MSW), and/or other types of solid waste comprising both organic waste material and inorganic waste material, into a plasma gasifier reactor (PGR) in which the solid waste is to be processed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 20, 2012
    Publication date: June 26, 2014
    Inventors: Alan Donald Anderson, Francis Peter Petrocelli, Frank Stephen Winger
  • Patent number: 8753488
    Abstract: An apparatus for growing nano-clusters includes a pair of electrodes separated by an electrode pair spacing and a field generation module that generates a corona discharge across the electrodes. The corona discharge generates an electromagnetic field near the electrodes. A voltage potential across the electrodes is a medium voltage. The field generation module includes a medium voltage module that generates a medium voltage waveform, which is transmitted to the electrodes to generate the corona discharge. The field generation module includes a broad frequency generation module that generates a broad spectrum of frequencies within the medium voltage waveform. A raw material feeder module feeds particles of a raw material through the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field with the broad spectrum of frequencies is operative to separate at least a portion of the raw material fed through the electromagnetic field into free atoms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: June 17, 2014
    Assignee: JTW, LLC
    Inventor: James T. Wilkinson
  • Publication number: 20140144517
    Abstract: Apparatus and methods for forming and propagating a plurality of plasma armatures along electrodes. In particular embodiments, the electrodes are flush mounted to the surface and the plasma armatures are formed and propagated at a high frequency and velocity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 8, 2013
    Publication date: May 29, 2014
    Applicant: Board of Regents, The University of Texas System
    Inventors: Laxminarayan RAJA, Jayant SIROHI, Mark CRAWFORD, Francesco STEFANI
  • Publication number: 20140134091
    Abstract: An electrically heated deposition cartridge for use in the production of materials via the chemical vapor deposition process that has (i) a higher ratio of surface area to volume than a seed rod pair, (ii) a higher ratio of starting effective deposition surface area to final effective deposition surface area than a seed rod pair, and (iii) a higher ratio of effective deposition surface area to gross surface area than a basic deposition plate, which are achieved by reaching and maintaining the desired temperatures on all desired surfaces of the deposition cartridge, which in turn is achieved by distribution of the desired amount of current through all desired cross-sectional areas of the deposition cartridge.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 1, 2012
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Inventor: Kagan Ceran
  • Publication number: 20140072504
    Abstract: The present disclosure provides a method for producing carbon nanoparticles at low cost and with good efficiency. According to the disclosure of the present description, a voltage is applied between a graphite positive electrode and a negative electrode in an aqueous medium to generate arc discharge in a gap. An inert gas is introduced into the gap from a cylinder bottle at a predetermined flow rate. In this manner, carbon nanoparticles can be produced from carbon steam that is generated in the gap as a result of the arc discharge.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 13, 2012
    Publication date: March 13, 2014
    Inventor: Tadashi Goino
  • Patent number: 8663571
    Abstract: A system comprising: a plasma production chamber configured to produce a plasma; a reaction chamber vaporize a precursor material with the plasma to form a reactive mixture; a quench chamber having a frusto-conical surface and a quench region formed within the quench chamber between an ejection port of the reaction chamber and a cooled mixture outlet, wherein the quench region configured to receive the reactive mixture from the ejection port, to cool the reactive mixture to form a cooled mixture, and to supply the cooled mixture to the cooled mixture outlet; and a conditioning fluid injection ring disposed at the ejection port and configured to flow a conditioning fluid directly into the reactive mixture as the reactive mixture flows through the ejection port, thereby disturbing the flow of the reactive mixture, creating turbulence within the quench region and cooling the reactive mixture to form a cooled mixture comprising condensed nanoparticles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 9, 2008
    Date of Patent: March 4, 2014
    Assignee: SDCmaterials, Inc.
    Inventors: Maximilian A. Biberger, Frederick P. Layman
  • Publication number: 20140014496
    Abstract: Disclosed are methods and systems of producing plasma from a polar liquid under relatively benign conditions of temperature and pressure, by providing at least one dielectric medium in contact with the polar liquid, such that an interface forms between the liquid and the medium; and creating an electric potential across the interface to produce plasma from the polar liquid inside the dielectric medium. The plasma may be used to convert hydrocarbons into useful products or intermediates.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 23, 2012
    Publication date: January 16, 2014
    Inventors: Mehmet Derya Yinanc, Paul Daniel Harris
  • Patent number: 8603403
    Abstract: A reactor for reforming a hydrocarbon, and associated processes and systems, are described herein. In one example, a reactor is provided that is configured to use non-equilibrium gliding arc discharge plasma. In another example, the reactor uses a vortex flow pattern. Two stages of reforming are described. In a first stage, the hydrocarbon absorbs heat from the wall of the reactor and combusts to form carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and water. In a second stage, a gliding arc discharge is use to form syngas, which is a mixture of hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. The heat generated by the combustion of the first stage transfers to the wall of the reactor and heated products of the second stage mix with incoming hydrocarbon to provide for partial recuperation of the reaction energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 30, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2013
    Assignee: Drexel University
    Inventors: Alexander F. Gutsol, Alexander Fridman, Anatoliy Polevich, Michael J. Gallagher
  • Patent number: 8597470
    Abstract: Systems and methods for extracting recoverable materials from source materials are provided. According to one embodiment, a plasma furnace includes an open-faced tray, a pair of arc rods, Faraday coils and a smooth interior surface. The open-faced tray carries tar sands from one end of the plasma furnace to another. The arc rods are disposed above the open-faced tray and are operable to generate a plasma energy field for vaporizing bitumen contained within the tar sands. The Faraday coils are positioned underneath the open-faced tray to create a magnetic field proximate to the tar sands and cause the plasma energy field to penetrate and heat the tar sands to a temperature sufficient to release a bond between the bitumen and the tar sands by focusing and drawing the plasma energy field through the tar sands. Vaporized bitumen condenses on the smooth interior surface from which it is collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 3, 2013
    Assignee: Green Technology LLC
    Inventors: John Lee Horning, Jan H. Matthias, Nigel Moriarty, John Stuart Lehde
  • Patent number: 8591821
    Abstract: Combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor systems, chemical reactant sources, and related methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor system comprising a reaction chamber, a combustion torch positioned to direct a flame into the reaction chamber, and one or more reactant feed assemblies configured to electrically energize at least one electrically conductive solid reactant structure to form a plasma and feed each electrically conductive solid reactant structure into the plasma to form at least one product is disclosed. In an additional embodiment, a chemical reactant source for a combustion flame-plasma hybrid reactor comprising an elongated electrically conductive reactant structure consisting essentially of at least one chemical reactant is disclosed. In further embodiments, methods of forming a chemical reactant source and methods of chemically converting at least one reactant into at least one product are disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 23, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC
    Inventor: Peter C. Kong
  • Patent number: 8574505
    Abstract: A reactor and a plant containing the reactor for conducting a continuous, industrial process for preparing high-purity silicon tetrachloride or high-purity germanium tetrachloride is provided. The plant contains a plasma reactor having a dielectric, a high voltage electrode and an earthed, metallic heat exchanger, in which the longitudinal axes of the dielectric, of the high-voltage electrode and of the earthed, metallic heat exchanger are oriented parallel to one another and at the same time parallel to the force vector of gravity.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Evonik Degussa GmbH
    Inventors: Juergen Erwin Lang, Rainer Nicolai, Hartwig Rauleder
  • Patent number: 8574325
    Abstract: The present invention is directed to system and method for processing material to generate syngas. A reactor chamber is implemented with a plurality of electrodes that can generate an arc within the chamber when electricity is applied to them. The arc can be used to create free radicals which along with the heat and light of the arc breakdown material comprising carbonaceous material, such as Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), into gas components that form syngas. The syngas can be extracted from the reactor chamber and be used for various commercial purposes. The reactor chamber may comprise a material feed system operable to move material from a material input opening in the reactor chamber towards the electrodes at a controlled rate. Further, the reactor chamber may comprise a water injection system within the reactor chamber operable to inject water into the reactor chamber while electricity is applied to the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Responsible Energy Inc.
    Inventors: Robert Christian Jensen, Graham Campbell Houze
  • Patent number: 8568663
    Abstract: The present invention provides a glow discharge cell comprising an electrically conductive cylindrical vessel having a first end and a second end, and at least one inlet and one outlet; a hollow electrode aligned with a longitudinal axis of the cylindrical vessel and extending at least from the first end to the second end of the cylindrical vessel, wherein the hollow electrode has an inlet and an outlet; a first insulator that seals the first end of the cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and maintains a substantially equidistant gap between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode; a second insulator that seals the second end of the cylindrical vessel around the hollow electrode and maintains the substantially equidistant gap between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode; a non-conductive granular material disposed within the gap, wherein the non-conductive granular material (a) allows an electrically conductive fluid to flow between the cylindrical vessel and the hollow electrode
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 29, 2013
    Assignee: Foret Plasma Labs, LLC
    Inventor: Todd Foret
  • Patent number: 8551413
    Abstract: A method of producing carbon nanotubes, comprising, in a reaction chamber: evaporating at least a partially melted electrode comprising a catalyst by an electrical arc discharge; condensing the evaporated catalyst vapors to form nanoparticles comprising the catalyst; and decomposing gaseous hydrocarbons in the presence of the nanoparticles to form carbon nanotubes on the surface of the nanoparticles. Also a system for producing carbon nanotubes, comprising: a reactor comprising two electrodes, wherein at least one of the electrodes is at least a partially melted electrode comprising a catalyst, the reactor adapted for evaporating the at least partially melted electrode by an electrical arc discharge and for condensing its vapors to form nanoparticles comprising the catalyst, wherein the electrodes are disposed in a reaction chamber for decomposing gaseous hydrocarbons in the presence of the nanoparticles to form carbon nanotubes on the surface of the nanoparticles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 30, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2013
    Assignee: MCD Technologies S.A R. L.
    Inventors: Mikhail Rudolfovich Predtechensky, Oleg Mikhailovich Tukhto, Ilya Yurievich Koval
  • Patent number: 8545764
    Abstract: A microplasma array for the production of low-temperature plasmas at or near atmospheric pressures is described. The walls of holes made in a substrate at regular intervals with respect to one another form hollow electrodes and are coated with metal. The hollow electrodes are supplied individually or as a group from one side of the substrate with an electrical excitation in the GHz-region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 11, 2006
    Date of Patent: October 1, 2013
    Assignee: Forschungsverbund Berlin E.V.
    Inventor: Roland Gesche
  • Publication number: 20130192979
    Abstract: An apparatus for plasmatizing solid-fuel combustion additive and the method for using the same are provided. The apparatus is made from a reaction vessel, electrodes, a power supply, a carrier gas intake device, a feed device and an outlet of the plasmatization reaction vessel. The method to use this apparatus is as following: The additive is added into the reaction vessel through the feed device in which the carrier gas passes and carries the additive into the electrode region for evaporation and (partially) plasmatization; and the plasmatized gas from the outlet of the reactor is introduced into any combustion chamber. The additive is an organometallic compound or a mixture of the organometallic compounds, or their derivative, eutectic compound or coordination agent containing at least one organometallic compound.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 17, 2011
    Publication date: August 1, 2013
    Inventors: Weili Xu, Heguang Zhu
  • Patent number: 8454899
    Abstract: A gas reforming device including: a flow passage forming body flow passage through which process gas flows; a cathode provided on a cross section of the flow passage; an anode provided apart from the cathode, and including a bar-like portion; and a pulse power supply that applies a pulse voltage between the cathode and the anode. The cathode includes: an opening array body that has at least a surface thereof made of an insulator, and has a planar structure in which openings through which the process gas passes are arrayed; and a grounding electrode provided on a peripheral portion of the flow passage. A tip end of the bar-like portion of the anode is located in an inside of the flow passage of the process gas, and is spaced apart from the opening array body in a direction parallel to a direction where the process gas flows.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2013
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Naohiro Shimizu, Yuuichirou Imanishi, Sozaburo Hotta
  • Patent number: 8445873
    Abstract: A system for detecting at least one contamination species in an interior space of a lithographic apparatus, including: at least one monitoring surface configured to be in contact with the interior space, a thermal controller configured to control the temperature of the monitoring surface to at least one detection temperature, and at least one detector configured to detect condensation of the at least one contamination species onto the monitoring surface.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 21, 2013
    Assignee: ASML Netherlands B.V.
    Inventors: Vadim Yevgenyevich Banine, Levinus Pieter Bakker, Ralph Kurt, Johannes Hubertus Josephina Moors, Lucas Henricus Johannes Stevens, Peter Cornelis Zalm
  • Patent number: 8420021
    Abstract: There is provided an ignition or plasma generation apparatus that eliminates the need for resonance means in a combustion chamber and simplifies the electrode structure within the combustion chamber in an instance where energy from each of a spark discharge and microwaves is used to ignite an air-fuel mixture gas in an internal combustion engine. The ignition or plasma generation apparatus includes a mixing circuit for mixing a high-voltage pulse from a high-voltage pulse generator and microwave energy from a microwave generator; and an ignition plug into which an output from the mixing circuit is supplied, the plug used for introducing the output into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The output supplied from the mixing circuit to the ignition plug is supplied in a manner in which the microwave energy and the high-voltage pulse are superimposed on each other on a same transmission line.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: April 16, 2013
    Assignee: Imagineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Minoru Makita, Yuji Ikeda
  • Publication number: 20130084237
    Abstract: A method is disclosed for making graphenic carbon particles. The method includes introducing a methane precursor material into a thermal zone, heating the methane precursor material in the thermal zone to form the graphenic carbon particles from the methane precursor material, and collecting the graphenic carbon particles. Apparatus for performing such a method, and graphenic particles produced by the method, are also disclosed.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 2, 2011
    Publication date: April 4, 2013
    Applicant: PPG Industries Ohio, Inc.
    Inventors: Noel R. Vanier, Cheng-Hung Hung
  • Publication number: 20130064710
    Abstract: A device having dielectric layer with opposite sides and a length. First and second electrodes are each on an opposite side of the dielectric layer and offset along the length of the dielectric layer. A voltage source selectively provides a first voltage on the first electrode and a second voltage on the second electrode such that plasma is generated along the dielectric layer, the plasma providing a decontamination mechanism of adjacent air, and movement of the adjacent air along the dielectric layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 2, 2012
    Publication date: March 14, 2013
    Inventor: Jamey D. JACOB
  • Publication number: 20130064726
    Abstract: The invention relates to an appliance (18) for at least partially disinfecting/sterilising a contaminated surface (21), wherein the appliance (18) comprises an integrated plasma source for at least partially disinfecting/sterilising the surface by generating a non-thermal atmospheric plasma on the surface thereby reducing the concentration of pathogenic germs on the surface.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 19, 2011
    Publication date: March 14, 2013
    Applicants: Adtec Europe Ltd., Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Wissenschaften e.V.
    Inventors: Gregor Morfill, Tetsuji Shimizu, Yang-Fang Li, Takuya Urayama, Julia Zimmermann, Bernd Steffes
  • Publication number: 20130039816
    Abstract: A plasma reaction apparatus and method applied to reformation of fuel by generating and using rotating arc plasma in a furnace, the chemical treatment of a persistent gas, and the apparatus for decreasing NOx by an occlusion catalyst. A raw material for a reaction is allowed to flow into the furnace through a hole, causing it to flow within the furnace in a continuous swirl. Furthermore, an expanded plasma reaction zone is provided by a wide area chamber which is formed on an upper part of the furnace and has a greater width than that of a lower part of the furnace, and thus a plasma being generated can be expanded by the expanded plasma zone and delayed from flowing out of the furnace by corners of the wide area chamber that is spaced from a plasma inducing electrode therein.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 6, 2012
    Publication date: February 14, 2013
    Applicant: Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
    Inventors: Dae Hoon LEE, Kwan Tae Kim, Young Hoon Song, Min Suk Cha, Jae Ok Lee, Seok Joon Kim
  • Patent number: 8367008
    Abstract: The disclosure relates to a method for purifying silicon by exposing liquid silicon to a plasma, wherein the silicon flows continuously into a channel so that the free surface thereof is exposed to the plasma. The disclosure also relates to a device for implementing the method.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: February 5, 2013
    Inventors: Christian Claude Cyprien Trassy, Yves Jean Noël Delannoy