Abstract: Coke oven corbel structures include an assembly of multiple stacked tiers of refractory blocks defining a plurality of substantially vertically oriented central flues and a plurality of diagonally oriented lateral flues. At least one tier of refractory blocks in the assembly includes by an alternating plurality of saddle blocks and central diagonal flue blocks. The saddle blocks may include a laterally opposed pair of upright columns which define therebetween a rectangular channel, and a substantially vertically oriented cylindrical flue extending from a bottom surface of the saddle blocks to the rectangular channel thereof. The central diagonal flue blocks may include an arcuately concave flue channel defined between top and bottom surfaces thereof so that an upper opening to the flue channel at the top surface is inwardly offset relative to a lower opening thereof at the bottom surface.
Abstract: A coke oven and a method of operating the same, capable not only of achieving a uniform combustion temperature heightwise within a combustion chamber when a rich gas or a lean gas is burnt, but also of reducing NOx content in the waste gas, while eliminating localized high-temperature combustion. The combustion chamber of the coke oven comprises a rich-gas port 2 located near an oven wall 6 bordering a carbonization chamber in the bottom 5 of combustion chamber, and the midpoint P3, connecting the center P2 of a lean-gas port 7 and the center P of an air port 3, is on the side opposite to the rich-gas port 2 relative to the center line CL of the combustion chamber. (See FIG.
Abstract: The method of reducing a nitrogen oxides content of a flue gas generated on firing of a rich gas or combination coke oven having a plurality of heating walls forming dual heating flues, in which a single stage or multistage combustion takes place, and also having a plurality of regenerators for recovery of flue gas heat and preheating of an underfiring medium, includes the steps of mixing one portion of the flue gas drawn from one flue of the dual heating flues with the underfiring medium, gas and/or air, prior to or on admission to the other flue of the dual heating flues, or a regenerator connected with it, and circulating another portion of the flue gas additionally inside the dual heating flues.
Abstract: NO.sub.x -content in a flue gas during heating of coking oven with heating trains cooperating in pairs, high and low lying combustion stages, and flue gas return at a height of a heating train sole in a circulating stream, is reduced by adjusting a circulating stream rate defined by a volume stream of a returned flue gas divided by a flue gas volume stream without returned flue gas to between 20% and 50%, maintaining a stage ratio for a stage number greater than or equal to 2 defined as an air volume stream of a lower stage divided by a total air volume stream, at between 80/I% and 140/I% wherein I is a number of stages, arranging an upper combustion stage at a height of (45.+-.10%).times.(I-1) of the heating train height.
August 2, 1990
Date of Patent:
May 21, 1991
Krupp Koppers GmbH
Johannes Janicka, Gunter Meyer, Heinz Durselen
Abstract: Coking system, wherein the coking blends particularly based on hard coal, are fed batchwise to a reactor (1), which is heated indirectly by heat recovery in regenerators (I, II) or recuperators, whereby the reactor is built as a high-capacity coking reactor (100), several high-capacity coking reactors are combined to form a reactor block and the high-capacity coking reactors are built as mutually independent modules, whereby each module can be operated or optionally replaced independently of the neighboring modules, with little or no impairment of the operation of the neighboring modules. The individual reactors are independently operatable in terms of statics and heat supply. The regenerators, or recuperators (I, II, R, R') can be arranged laterally or underneath the reactor chamber. Neighboring reactors can have a common intermediate wall (2). The reactor chambers have a width of at least 0.7 m, a height of at least 8.5 m and a length of at least 18 m.
August 22, 1989
Date of Patent:
February 5, 1991
Gerd Nashan, Klaus Wessiepe, Heribert Bertling, Wolfgang Rohde, Manfred Blase, Manfred Galow, Ulrich Kochanski, Heinz Durselen, Johannes Janicka, Dieter Stalherm, Joachim Holtz, Jurgen Tietze, Ralf Schumacher
Abstract: In regenerative coking ovens having vertical heating flues cooperating in pairs, high level and low level combustion stages and means arranged at the bottoms of respective heating flues to recirculate the flue gas, the following measures insure a substantially reduced generation of NO.sub.x contents in the flue gas: the recirculation current rate is between 20% and 50%, the combustion stage ratio is between 40% and 70% and the second combustion stage is arranged between 35% and 55% of the height of the heating flue.
November 8, 1985
Date of Patent:
November 3, 1987
Krupp Koppers GmbH
Johannes Janicka, Wilhelm Jakobi, Heinz Durselen, Gunter Meyer
Abstract: There is disclosed a heating system for regeneratively heating a coke oven battery having twin-heating flues extending side-by-side transversely of the length of the coke oven battery. Halves of the twin-heating flues are separated by a flue midfeather that forms a gas flow space at the top thereof. Between twin-heating flues, there is a heating wall midfeather extending up to the oven crown. Regenerators below the oven sole extend transversely to the coke oven battery with each regenerator coupled by three passageways to the heating flues. Two regenerators are associated with each twin-heating flue. A first passageway extends to the bottom part of one-half of one twin-heating flue, a second passageway extends to the bottom part of one-half of an adjacent twin-heating flue with these two flue halves separated by a heating wall midfeather.
Abstract: Hollow shaft members with orifices at different elevations throughout their heights are located in the heating flues of a coke oven battery. The shafts receive preheated gaseous combustion-supporting agents from the regenerators. Advantages include decreased midfeathers thickness, greater heating area, and having the possibility of rich-gas heating in which the flame is distributed over the whole height of the heating flue.
Abstract: A heating flue for a coke oven includes a wedge-shaped refractory brick having at least one oblique surface and vertical cylindrical bores when the brick is inserted into the vertical portion of a duct at the bottom of the heating flue. This part of the duct has an increased diameter to support the brick so that the vertical sides abut the inner duct walls and the bottom oblique surface extends toward the mouth of an obliquely-rising portion of the duct. The sum of the cross-sectional areas of the cylindrical bores in the brick is from 0.75 to 1.5 times the flow cross section of the obliquely-rising duct portion. The cross-sectional area of the top of a wedge-shaped brick which is coplanar with the flue base is in a range of between 20 and 200 with the cross section of the cylindrical bore in the brick. The diameter of the bore is between 10 and 60 millimeters. A ratio of 0.3 to 1.
Abstract: Burner tubes for coke oven heating flues and method and apparatus for inserting and/or removing the same from burner nozzles. The burner tubes themselves can be inserted or removed from burner nozzles permanently installed in the sole of a heating flue and comprise thin-walled alumina elements provided with external fins adapted to engage the top edges of the burner nozzles. The apparatus for inserting and removing the tubes comprises two pivotally-connected rods, the lower of which is adapted to carry either a fixture which can insert a burner tube into a burner nozzle or a fixture which can remove a burner tube. In either case, the fixture is such that it can be engaged with, or disengaged from, a burner tube by manipulation of the uppermost pivotally-connected rod without manual contact with the tube in the heating flue itself.
Abstract: A coke oven adapted to be regeneratively heated by lean gas or rich gas at choice, characterized in that control flaps are disposed in air inlet chests for the coke oven regenerator and are connected through linkages to a common actuating rod extending along the coke oven battery. Reciprocation of the actuating rod in one direction or the other will open or close all flaps essentially simultaneously to rapidly change the quantity of combustion-supporting air supplied to the regenerator, depending upon whether lean or rich gas is being used.
Abstract: A heating system for tall horizontal slot type coke ovens wherein the heating walls are provided with flues in which combustion occurs at multiple levels. The improvement lies in having a single flue stack of two channel design, each channel having port openings located at corresponding different heights or levels above the flue floor. When lead gas is employed for fuel, lean gas and air are supplied from different regenerator chambers to the separate channels respectively whereby a mixture of fuel gas and air is effected and combustion occurs at the port exit openings at each successive level. When rich gas is employed as a fuel, both regenerator chambers are employed to supply air for combustion through both channels of the stack and rich fuel gas is supplied by a separate distribution system to each vertical flame flue. Regulation of the flow of rich gas or lean gas from the two channels is provided by an adjustable brick means, such as a slide brick at the top of the two channels.
Abstract: A regenerative coke oven battery that produces a coke cake having a low vertical temperature differential throughout its mass. The heating flues are defined by header walls having ducts for air or lean gas and outlet slots incorporated along the vertical length of the header wall which slots connect the ducts with the flues. The flues are combined into groups connected at their upper ends with a horizontal bus channel which communicates by a cross-over duct with a similar horizontal bus channel on the opposite side of a coking chamber.
Abstract: Double heating flues are arranged transversely to the horizontal axes of coke oven chambers within heating walls therefor. Side walls between each double heating flue have an internal passageway in the lower part communicating by exit orifices at vertically-spaced locations with the heating flues at the opposite sides of the side wall. The lower parts of the side walls converge horizontally into side wall portions some of which abut against the vertical heating wall and others extend through the vertical heating wall in an alternating arrangement of superimposed bricks. The upper parts of the side walls extend into load-bearing contact with the roof for the coke oven chambers. In the heating walls, three identical stretcher bricks in each course interlock by tongue-and-groove abutment joints. The middle brick abuts in a symmetrical relation with a flue side wall.
Abstract: A combined control device for the operation of coke oven batteries which includes both a part for converting from heating with a strong gas to a lean gas, and vice versa, and a part for switching the regenerative heating system from one group of heating flues to another, comprises a support frame on which is mounted a rotary switching control cylinder and a rotary conversion control cylinder in end-to-end relationship and for rotation around the same axis. The rotary conversion control cylinder is displaceable in respect to the rotary switching control cylinder, and the two cylinders may be coupled together for rotation together or the conversion cylinder may be shifted axially so that it will not rotate with the switching control cylinder. The switching control cylinder is driven at one side from a motor driven transmission which also permits the manual operation of the cylinders.
Abstract: Vertical heating flues between adjacent coke oven chambers include rich-gas burners extending essentially to progressively increasing elevations in the flues in a manner such that the burner exit zones increase from flue-to-flue to a maximum elevation at the pusher side of each oven chamber. At the pusher side, the coke oven chamber has a minimum width which increases to a maximum width at the coke side where the rich-gas burners have exit zones at the lowest elevation in the heating flues. Such a rich-gas burner arrangement may additionally include rich-gas burners with exit zones at the soles of alternate heating flues while the remaining heating flues contain the burners extended to progressively increasing elevations. When the coke oven chambers are heated by twin-heating flues, the rich-gas burners extend vertically from the soles of only one heating flue in each of the twin-heating flues.
Abstract: Gas-flow resistance elements are incorporated in each of the rich-gas distribution lines, the lean-gas distribution ducts and the smoke-gas ducts forming part of a battery of coke ovens. The flow resistance elements are employed to insure uniform and adequate distribution of combustion media along the individual rows of heating flues of the coke oven battery. Substantially identical gas-flow resistance elements in the rich-gas distribution lines reduce the flow of rich-gas by an amount which is greater than 50 mmWG whereby, for example, a rich-gas head pressure of 120 mmWG is reduced to approximately 70 mmWG. Substantially identical gas-flow resistance elements in the lean-gas distribution branch ducts reduce the lean-gas pressure therein by an amount greater than 100 mmWG. Substantially identical gas-flow resistance elements in the smoke-gas ducts reduce the flow of smoke-gas therein by an amount corresponding to a loss of head pressure which is greater than 15 mmWG.
Abstract: In the cellar located below an underjet-type of battery of coke ovens are gas distribution pipes. A gas dispensing nozzle is located within each of the separate pipes which extend from a distribution pipe through the regenerators into the burners for a row of heating flues between two coking chambers. These nozzles are cleaned by injecting compressed air from a pipeline that extends parallel to the rich gas distribution pipe. A nipple opposite each nozzle interconnects the air pipeline and the gas pipe. The nipple receives a plug having either an orifice or a nozzle tube to direct compressed air toward the gas dispensing nozzle. A supply header for compressed air extends along the battery of coke ovens and this header is connected by a valve to each compressed air pipeline in the cellar. A controller responsive to a timer operates the valves during regenerative heating reversals for periodic cleaning of the gas dispensing nozzles with compressed air.
Abstract: A machine for reversing the heating cycle of a coke oven battery includes mechanism to lock out either one of two reversing rods in proper time sequence so that only three of the normal four reversing rods are operable for the selected mode of underfiring of the battery. Shifting or change over can only be accomplished at the neutral position which occurs when all fuel gas to the battery is shut off. The shifting or change over initiates the change over of rich or lean underfiring gas and also is interlocked so that the main drive cannot operate until all change over functions are completed.
Abstract: An inclined chamber has vertical heating flues on each side thereof. The floors of the heating flues are vertically staggered in an inclined manner. Pairs of heating flues are joined at the tops thereof by guide openings which are vertically staggered in an inclined manner. Central and upper air inlet openings extend into the heating flues and are vertically staggered in an inclined manner.
December 17, 1976
Date of Patent:
January 24, 1978
Didier Engineering GmbH.
Kurt Prange, Friedrich Isermann, Ernst Hasenacker, Manfred Blase
Abstract: A single regenerative coke oven battery is constructed and operated as a plurality of individual and separate groups of heating walls, each group capable of independent reversal and heating cycles. During slow-down operations, one or more of the individual groups of heating walls is shut down for a preselected time period, with no flow of combustion air, fuel and waste gas in the heating walls, while the remainder of the groups are operated at substantially full air and gas flow. The battery is capable of a slow-down operation while avoiding uneven coking and variations in the amount of byproduct coke oven fuel gas generated.
Abstract: The heating walls for a battery of coke oven chambers are formed by rows of twin heating flues. Each heating flue includes a crosswall having an internal passageway with exit ports at graduated elevation to form a header flue. The header flues in two adjacent heating walls are connected by a first series of ducts to regenerators that supply preheated air during the heating half-cycle. A second series of ducts extend between other regenerators and exit ports on the sole of the heating flues for conducting preheated lean gas or, optionally, preheated air when heating with rich gas. The ducts of each series alternate from heating wall to heating wall so that the sequence of upgoing and downgoing flues alternates from heating wall to heating wall.
Abstract: Regenerative heating of a coke oven battery includes the combustion of lean gas and air in heating chambers disposed between the coking chambers or, alternatively, if desired, the combustion of rich gas and air in the heating chambers. Each heating chamber includes a plurality of header walls forming upgoing and downgoing heating flues. Each header wall includes at least one internal duct in open communication with a plurality of vertically-spaced exit ports at the common side of a header wall. The internal ducts receive either preheated air or preheated lean gas for combustion in a heating flue. The cross-sectional size of the exit ports to discharge air in a given heating flue increases upwardly from port to port along the header wall whereby the amount of air supplied at the sole and lower part of the heating flue is insufficient for complete combustion of the amount of lean gas supplied thereto.
Abstract: In one embodiment valve means are provided in the pipe connecting the fuel gas main and air supply main to the respective headers to simultaneously supply a portion of the air to the headers associated with the "on" flues and a portion of the air to the headers associated with the "off" flues. The air supplied to the headers associated with the "on" flues mixes with and dilutes the rich fuel gas to suppress the tendency to deposit carbon in the vertical riser ducts of the "on" flues. The air supplied to the headers associated with the "off" flues removes the carbonaceous material deposited in the vertical riser ducts of the "off" flues. In another embodiment induction or recirculation ducts are provided between the vertical riser ducts of interconnected flues to admix a portion of the waste gas from the "off" flues with the rich fuel gas flowing upwardly through the vertical riser ducts of the "on" flues.