Having Three Or More Layers Patents (Class 204/290.03)
  • Patent number: 10435782
    Abstract: Method for forming a metallic component surface to achieve lower electrical contact resistance. The method comprises modifying a surface chemical composition and creating a micro-textured surface structure of the metallic component that includes small peaks and/or pits. The small peaks and pits have a round or irregular cross-sectional shape with a diameter between 10 nm and 10 microns, a height/depth between 10 nm and 10 microns, and a distribution density between 0.4 million/cm2 and 5 billion cm2.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2016
    Date of Patent: October 8, 2019
    Assignee: TREADSTONE TECHNOLOGIES, INC.
    Inventors: Conghua Wang, Yong Tao, Lin Zhang, Gerald A. Gontarz
  • Patent number: 10266956
    Abstract: The present invention provides a method for manufacturing an electro-catalytic honeycomb for controlling exhaust emissions, comprising steps of: providing a honeycomb structural frame including an outer surface, a plurality of airflow channels and a plurality of partition walls, and contacting the outer surface of the honeycomb structural frame with a molten metal to attach the molten metal in the plurality of partition walls to form a reducing environment. Accordingly, through the reducing environment in the partition wall and the oxidizing environment of a lean-burn exhaust contacted by a cathode, the electro-catalytic honeycomb generates an electromotive force between the partition wall and the cathode to drive the nitrogen oxides in the lean-burn exhaust to decompose at the cathode in order to control exhaust emissions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 20, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2019
    Assignee: JM INTERNATIONAL PATENT COMPANY
    Inventor: Ta-Jen Huang
  • Patent number: 9887396
    Abstract: Provided is a surface-treated steel sheet for battery containers (100) that is obtained in such a manner that after iron-nickel alloy plating is performed on a steel sheet (10), a thermal treatment is performed and is characterized in that an outermost layer is an iron-nickel alloy layer (20), and the iron-nickel alloy layer (20) has an average crystal size of 1 to 8 ?m at the outermost surface thereof. The present invention makes it possible to provide the surface-treated steel sheet for battery containers that can suppress the elution of iron inside the battery when being used for a battery container, whereby the service life of the battery can be extended and battery characteristics such as discharge characteristics is improved, and to provide a battery container and a battery that can be obtained using the surface-treated steel sheet for battery containers.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 29, 2016
    Date of Patent: February 6, 2018
    Assignee: Toyo Kohan Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Koh Yoshioka, Shinichirou Horie, Kazuhiko Ishihara
  • Patent number: 9680159
    Abstract: The present application is directed to mesoporous carbon materials comprising bi-functional catalysts. The mesoporous carbon materials find utility in any number of electrical devices, for example, in lithium-air batteries. Methods for making the disclosed carbon materials, and devices comprising the same, are also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 17, 2014
    Date of Patent: June 13, 2017
    Assignee: BASF SE
    Inventors: Aaron M. Feaver, Henry R. Costantino, Richard D. Varjian
  • Patent number: 9550426
    Abstract: A vehicle-side current transmission device (4) for the stationary charging of electrical energy stores of vehicles (7) at charging stations includes current-supplying contact surfaces (13, 14, 14) arranged above the vehicle (7), wherein a charge current collector (4) formed as an articulated arm system (4) is multi-pole and has, for making stationary contact with the current-supplying contact surfaces (13, 14, 15), at least two isolated electrical contact elements (1, 2, 3) that transmit different electrical phases. The collector enables electrical contacts by a single current collector, which transmit different electrical phases while grounding the vehicle. The articulated arm system allows for an especially compact design with low weight, and enables the vehicle driver to simply position the vehicle below the overhead charging station, coupled with a reliable contacting of the contact surfaces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 26, 2013
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2017
    Assignee: SCHUNK BAHN- UND INDUSTRIETECHNIK GMBH
    Inventor: Josef Santner
  • Patent number: 9553252
    Abstract: Provided is a piezoelectric/electrostrictive film type element in which the film thickness of the piezoelectric/electrostrictive film is small, the piezoelectric/electrostrictive film is dense, and the piezoelectric/electrostrictive film has good durability and insulation quality. The piezoelectric/electrostrictive film type element includes a substrate, a lower electrode film, a piezoelectric/electrostrictive film and an upper electrode film. The substrate and the lower electrode film are fixed adherently each other. The film thickness of the piezoelectric/electrostrictive film is 5 ?m or less. The piezoelectric/electrostrictive film is composed of a piezoelectric/electrostrictive ceramic. The piezoelectric/electrostrictive ceramic contains lead zirconate titanate and a bismuth compound.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 29, 2014
    Date of Patent: January 24, 2017
    Assignee: NGK Insulators, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takaaki Koizumi, Tomohiko Hibino, Takashi Ebigase
  • Patent number: 9546433
    Abstract: A non alpha controlled plating bath including Tin species and a trace amount of Polonium species is utilized in a plating tool. The plating tool includes a Polonium filter element to remove Polonium species from the plating bath to selectively plate Tin upon a plating cathode. The filter may include a Titanium inner portion surrounding by a stannic oxide exterior. The filter may reduce the Polonium species by having the polonium absorb and then enter within the stannic oxide matrix. The filter may be located within the plating tool reservoir or filter housing. The filter may be fabricated by forming Tin upon a Titanium filter backbone and converting the Tin to stannic oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 2015
    Date of Patent: January 17, 2017
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Charles L. Arvin, Michael S. Gordon
  • Patent number: 9199540
    Abstract: The invention relates to a current collector strip (12) for a sliding contact device (10) which bears in a prestressed fashion against a contact wire (16), in particular in order to supply current to rail vehicles, having a sliding strip (14) which is arranged on a sliding strip carrier (13) and which has a carbon molding (18) and at least one metallic conducting device (23) which is arranged in the carbon molding and has the purpose of bringing about locally increased conductivity, wherein the conducting device is formed as at least one disc-shaped conducting device which extends transversely to a sliding direction (19) and in the direction of a prestressing force in a plane and which is connected to the sliding strip carrier and extends in a slot (22), formed in the carbon molding, as far as to a contact surface (21) of the sliding strip.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 1, 2015
    Assignee: HOFFMANN & CO. ELEKTROKOHLE AG
    Inventors: Klaus Reiser, Johann Angerer, Martin Ganzel
  • Patent number: 9150974
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an anode assembly for use in an electrolytic cell for recovery of metal. The assembly includes a hanger bar, a first perimeter bar, a second perimeter bar, optionally one or more center conductor bars, a base bar, a first tab coupled to the first perimeter bar and/or the base bar, and a second tab coupled to the second perimeter bar and/or the base bar. The assembly may also include insulating separators coupled to the tabs and/or insulators coupled to an active area of the anode assembly. A system includes the anode assembly, a cathode assembly, and a tank.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: October 6, 2015
    Assignee: FREEPORT MINERALS CORPORATION
    Inventors: Luis A. Gonzalez Olguin, Rafael Garcia Navarro, Luis Ricardo Olivares, Larry R. Todd, Ron Haines, Chris Zanotti, Casey J. Clayton, Mark Peabody, Scot P. Sandoval
  • Patent number: 9061593
    Abstract: A sliding strip and a method for producing a sliding strip for a sliding contact device which rests in a prestressed manner against an overhead wire includes a carbon molding and at least one metallic conduction device arranged in the carbon molding. The conduction device has at least one conduction layer extending on a plane transversely with respect to a sliding direction and in a direction of a prestressing force. The conduction device is formed by a layer of a metallic conductive material arranged on at least one flank of a slot which extends transversely with respect to the sliding direction in the carbon molding.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 16, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2015
    Assignee: HOFFMANN & CO., ELECTROKOHLE AG
    Inventors: Hans Rastl, Klaus Reiser
  • Publication number: 20150111119
    Abstract: Provided is a semiconductor photoelectrode comprising a first conductive layer; a first n-type semiconductor layer disposed on the first conductive layer; and a second conductive layer covering the first n-type semiconductor layer. The first n-type semiconductor layer has a first n-type surface region and a second n-type surface region. The first n-type surface region is in contact with the first conductive layer. The second n-type surface region is in contact with the second conductive layer. The first n-type semiconductor layer is formed of at least one selected from the group consisting of a nitride semiconductor and an oxynitride semiconductor. The second conductive layer is light-transmissive. The second conductive layer is formed of a p-type oxide conductor.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 8, 2014
    Publication date: April 23, 2015
    Inventors: SATORU TAMURA, KAZUHITO HATO, TAKAIKI NOMURA, TAKAHIRO SUZUKI, YOSHIHIRO KOZAWA, RYOSUKE KIKUCHI
  • Publication number: 20150086837
    Abstract: Articles and methods for forming ceramic/polymer composite structures for electrode protection in electrochemical cells, including rechargeable lithium batteries, are presented.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 25, 2014
    Publication date: March 26, 2015
    Applicant: Sion Power Corporation
    Inventors: Michael G. Laramie, Yuriy V. Mikhaylik, James A. Phipps, Veronika G. Viner
  • Publication number: 20150027899
    Abstract: Provided is an anode for electroplating which uses an aqueous solution as an electrolytic solution, and the anode which is low in potential when compared with a conventional anode, able to decrease an electrolytic voltage and an electric energy consumption rate and may also be used as an anode for electroplating various types of metals, and which is low in cost. Also provided is a method for electroplating which uses an aqueous solution as an electrolytic solution, in which the anode is low in potential and electrolytic voltage, thereby making it possible to decrease the electric energy consumption rate. The anode for electroplating of the present invention is an anode for electroplating which uses an aqueous solution as an electrolytic solution, in which a catalytic layer containing amorphous ruthenium oxide and amorphous tantalum oxide is formed on a conductive substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 31, 2012
    Publication date: January 29, 2015
    Applicant: THE DOSHISHA
    Inventor: Masatsugu Morimitsu
  • Patent number: 8932442
    Abstract: The invention relates to a catalytic coating suitable for oxygen-evolving anodes in electrochemical processes. The catalytic coating comprises an outermost layer with an iridium and tantalum oxide-based composition modified with amounts not higher than 5% by weight of titanium oxide.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2012
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Alice Calderara, Antonio Lorenzo Antozzi, Ruben Ornelas Jacobo
  • Patent number: 8932977
    Abstract: A catalyst for the electrolysis of water molecules and hydrocarbons, the catalyst including catalytic groups comprising A1-xB2-yB?yO4 spinels having a cubical M4O4 core, wherein A is Li or Na, B and B? are independently any transition metal or main group metal, M is B, B?, or both, x is a number from 0 to 1, and y is a number from 0 to 2. In photo-electrolytic applications, a plurality of catalytic groups are supported on a conductive support substrate capable of incorporating water molecules. At least some of the catalytic groups, supported by the support substrate, are able to catalytically interact with water molecules incorporated into the support substrate. The catalyst can also be used as part of a photo-electrochemical cell for the generation of electrical energy.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 24, 2011
    Date of Patent: January 13, 2015
    Assignee: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
    Inventors: G. Charles Dismukes, Martha Greenblatt
  • Publication number: 20140360883
    Abstract: Disclosed is an anode electrode including a nitride semiconductor layer. This nitride semiconductor layer includes an AlxGa1-xN layer (0<x?0.25), an AlyGa1-yN layer (0?y?x), and a GaN layer. The AlyGa1-yN layer is interposed between the AlxGa1-xN layer and the GaN layer. The value of x is fixed in the thickness direction of the AlxGa1-xN layer. The value of y decreases from the interface with the AlxGa1-xN layer f toward the interface with the GaN layer. The AlxGa1-xN layer is irradiated with light having a wavelength of 360 nm or less so as to reduce carbon dioxide.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 22, 2014
    Publication date: December 11, 2014
    Inventors: Masahiro DEGUCHI, Satoshi YOTSUHASHI, Reiko TANIGUCHI, Hiroshi HASHIBA, Yuka YAMADA, Kazuhiro OHKAWA
  • Publication number: 20140238847
    Abstract: A light absorbing layer for a photoelectrode structure, the light absorbing layer including copper oxide, wherein metallic copper (Cu) is present at a grain boundary of the copper oxide. Also, a photoelectrode structure including the light absorbing layer, a photoelectrochemical cell including the photoelectrode structure, and a solar cell including the light absorbing layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 11, 2013
    Publication date: August 28, 2014
    Applicant: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Jeong-hee LEE, Tae-gon KIM, Tae-hyung KIM, Seoung-jae IM
  • Patent number: 8795485
    Abstract: Microelectrode comprising a body formed from electrically non-conducting material and including at least one region of electrically conducting material and at least one passage extending through the body of non-conducting material and the region of conducting material, the electrically conducting region presenting an area of electrically conducting material to a fluid flowing through the passage in use. An electrochemical cell which includes such a microelectrode is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 22, 2011
    Date of Patent: August 5, 2014
    Assignee: Element Six Technologies Limited
    Inventors: Andrew John Whitehead, Geoffrey Alan Scarsbrook, Julie Victoria Macpherson, Mark Newton, Patrick Robert Unwin, William Joseph Yost, III
  • Publication number: 20140209456
    Abstract: A composite protective layer for a photoelectrode, the composite protective layer including a chemical protective layer; and a physical protective layer, wherein the chemical protective layer has corrosion rate of 0.1 Coulombs per square centimeter per 10 hours or less when evaluated at a water decomposition potential, and the physical protective layer has a moisture transmittance rate of 0.001 grams per square meter per day or less and has an electrical conductivity.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 30, 2013
    Publication date: July 31, 2014
    Applicant: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Tae-gon KIM, Jeong-hee LEE, Seoung-jae IM, Tae-hyung KIM
  • Publication number: 20140158526
    Abstract: A cathode catalyst used for conversion of a carbon dioxide gas by an electrochemical reduction includes at least one first catalyst layer and at least one second catalyst layer disposed on a surface of the at least one first catalyst layer. The at least one second catalyst layer is a porous structure. The at least one first catalyst layer and the at least one second catalyst layer are physically combined with each other, and materials of the at least one first catalyst layer and the at least one second catalyst layer are different. A cathode material and a reactor include the cathode catalyst are also provided.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 11, 2013
    Publication date: June 12, 2014
    Applicants: HON HAI PRECISION INDUSTRY CO., LTD., TSINGHUA UNIVERSITY
    Inventors: JIAN-WEI GUO, CHEN-CHEN ZHAO, XIANG-MING HE, LI WANG, JIAN-JUN LI, JIAN GAO
  • Patent number: 8729798
    Abstract: Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H2 production from water splitting half-reaction.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 28, 2011
    Date of Patent: May 20, 2014
    Assignee: Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC
    Inventors: Jihun Oh, Howard M. Branz
  • Publication number: 20140076721
    Abstract: An electroplating etching apparatus includes a power to output current, and a container configured to contain an electrolyte. A cathode is coupled to the container and configured to fluidly communicate with the electrolyte. An anode is electrically connected to the output, and includes a graphene layer. A metal substrate layer is formed on the graphene layer, and is etched from the graphene layer in response to the current flowing through the anode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 14, 2012
    Publication date: March 20, 2014
    Applicant: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION
    Inventors: Shu-Jen Han, Lian Guo, Xuesong Li
  • Publication number: 20130341202
    Abstract: Disclosed is an electrode for electrolytic synthesis of a fluorine compound, including: an electrode substrate having at least a surface thereof formed of a conductive carbon material; a conducting diamond layer formed on a part of the surface of the electrode substrate; and a metal fluoride-containing coating layer formed on an exposed part of the electrode substrate that is uncovered by the conducting diamond layer. It is possible for the electrolytic synthesis electrode to limit the growth of a graphite fluoride layer on the electrode surface, prevent decrease in effective electrolysis area and allow stable electrolysis in an electrolytic bath of a hydrogen fluoride-containing molten salt.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 27, 2012
    Publication date: December 26, 2013
    Applicant: Central Glass Company, Limited
    Inventors: Isamu Mori, Akifumi Yao, Akiou Kikuchi, Masaaki Yonekura, Hiroshi Horiuchi
  • Patent number: 8608917
    Abstract: A reference electrode for improving a product life cycle without using a gelled hydrophobic ionic liquid having a prescribed hardness or viscosity and without having a large thickness so as to be difficult to manufacture is provided. The reference electrode is provided with a housing for accommodating an internal electrode, a filler for electrically connecting the internal electrode, and a sample liquid. The filler is formed having a layer between the internal electrode and an opening formed in the housing for contacting the sample liquid and the filler. The filler includes a first layer including a water soluble electrolytic solution formed to be in contact with the internal electrode a second layer including a hydrophobic ionic liquid formed to be in contact with the first layer; and a third layer including a gelled hydrophobic ionic liquid formed in the opening so as to be in contact with the second layer.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 25, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2013
    Assignee: HORIBA, Ltd.
    Inventors: Manabu Shibata, Yasukazu Iwamoto
  • Patent number: 8580091
    Abstract: A composition and method of manufacture of electrodes having controlled electrochemical activity to allow the electrodes to be designed for a variety of electro-oxidation processes. The electrodes are comprised of a compact coating deposited onto a conductive substrate, the coating being formed as multiple layers of a mixture of one or more platinum group metal oxides and one or more valve metal oxides. The formation of multiple layers allows the concentrations of platinum group metal and valve metal to be varied for each layer as desired for an application. For example, an electrode structure can be manufactured for use as an anode in electroplating processes, such that the oxidation of the organic additives in the electrolyte is markedly inhibited. Another electrode can be manufactured to operate at high anodic potentials in aqueous electrolytes to generate strong oxidants, e.g., hydrogen peroxide or ozone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Water Star, Inc.
    Inventors: Marilyn J. Niksa, Andrew J. Niksa
  • Publication number: 20130228470
    Abstract: A process for converts carbon-based gases such as non-polar organic gases and carbon oxides to longer chained organic gases such as liquid hydrocarbons, longer chained gaseous hydrocarbons, branched-chain liquid hydrocarbons, branched-chain gaseous hydrocarbons, as well as chained and branched-chain organic compounds. In general, the method is for chain modification of hydrocarbons and organic compounds, including chain lengthening, and eventual conversion into liquids including, but not limited to, hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 1, 2013
    Publication date: September 5, 2013
    Applicant: Viceroy Chemical
    Inventor: Ed Ite Chen
  • Patent number: 8480863
    Abstract: The invention relates to an electrode for electrolytic applications, optionally an oxygen-evolving anode, obtained on a titanium substrate and having a highly compact dual barrier layer comprising titanium and tantalum oxides and a catalytic layer. A method for forming the dual barrier layer comprises the thermal decomposition of a precursor solution applied to the substrate optionally followed by a quenching step and a lengthy thermal treatment at elevated temperature.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 26, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 9, 2013
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Andrea Francesco Gullá, Sobha Abraham
  • Patent number: 8440064
    Abstract: An electrode module capable of improving productivity by integrally bonding a current collector and a pair of electrodes using a protective film. The current collector receives power from an external power supply, and the pair of electrodes receives power from the current collector. The current collector and electrodes are integrally bonded by thermocompression using a protective film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 23, 2008
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2013
    Assignee: Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Won Kyoung Lee, Dae Wook Park, Hideo Nojima, Phil Soo Chang, Hyung Soo Noh, Sang Taek Lee
  • Publication number: 20130112552
    Abstract: An electrocatalytic tube for controlling exhaust emissions, which adopts to purify the exhaust, comprises a tube, an anode layer and a cathode layer. The tube is composed of a solid-state electrolyte layer. The solid-state electrolyte layer includes an enclosed chamber, an inner wall formed inside the enclosed chamber, and an outer wall formed outside the enclosed chamber. The enclosed chamber has a sub-atmospheric reducing environment. The anode layer and cathode layer are respectively coated on the inner wall and outer wall of the solid-state electrolyte layer. The reducing environment facilitates an electromotive force to occur between the anode layer and the cathode layer. The electromotive force promotes catalytic decomposition of nitrogen oxides of the exhaust on the cathode layer.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 31, 2012
    Publication date: May 9, 2013
    Inventor: Ta-Jen HUANG
  • Patent number: 8435671
    Abstract: A multilayer material includes a solid substrate and at least two superimposed solid layers containing particles of an electrochemically active material, the first solid layer adhering to the solid substrate and the second solid layer adhering to the first solid layer. The multilayer material has a constant thickness of upper layer not less than 95% and a depth of penetration of the second layer into the first layer which is less than 10% of the thickness of the first layer, and enables as electrode constituent, generators having a low risk of overload degradation to be prepared.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 31, 2007
    Date of Patent: May 7, 2013
    Assignee: Hydro-Quebec
    Inventors: Karim Zaghib, Michel Petitclerc, Patrick Charest, Abdelbast Guerfi, Martin Dontigny
  • Publication number: 20130105304
    Abstract: Methods and systems for electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide to organic products including formate and formic acid are provided. A system may include an electrochemical cell including a cathode compartment containing a high surface area cathode and a bicarbonate-based catholyte saturated with carbon dioxide. The high surface area cathode may include an indium coating and having a void volume of between about 30% to 98. The system may also include an anode compartment containing an anode and an acidic anolyte. The electrochemical cell may be configured to produce a product stream upon application of an electrical potential between the anode and the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 21, 2012
    Publication date: May 2, 2013
    Applicant: LIQUID LIGHT, INC.
    Inventor: Liquid Light, Inc.
  • Publication number: 20130105306
    Abstract: A photocatalyst material and a photocatalyst device capable of generating hydrogen from water by radiation of sunlight at high efficiency. The photocatalyst material according to the present invention includes a nitride-based compound semiconductor obtained by replacement of part of Ga and/or Al by a 3d-transition metal. The nitride-based compound semiconductor has one or more impurity bands. A light absorption coefficient of the nitride-based compound semiconductor is 1,000 cm?1 or more in an entire wavelength region of 1,500 nm or less and 300 nm or more. Further, the photocatalyst material satisfies the following conditions: the energy level of the bottom of the conduction band is more negative than the redox potential of H+/H2; the energy level of the top of the valence band is more positive than the redox potential of O2/H2O; and there is no or little degradation of a material even when the material is irradiated with light underwater.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 24, 2011
    Publication date: May 2, 2013
    Applicant: NATIONAL UNIVERSITY CORPORATION KYOTO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
    Inventors: Saki Sonoda, Osamu Kawasaki, Junichi Kato, Mutsuo Takenaga
  • Patent number: 8404090
    Abstract: A multi-layer cathode block (30) for an electrolytic cell (10) has at least a surface layer (32) with a surface expansion index and a second layer (34) with a second expansion index. The surface layer (32) includes a surface wetting agent in a first total amount. The second layer (34) includes a wetting agent in a second total amount. The surface layer (32) is directly superposed to the second layer (34). The second wetting agent in the second layer (34) includes metal boride precursors that react together to generate a metal boride component in situ when the cathode block (30) is exposed to start-up and operation conditions of the electrolytic cell (10). The second total amount is lower than the first total amount and is selected so as to minimize the difference between the expansion indexes of the surface layer (32) and the second layer (34).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 30, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: Rio Tinto Alcan International Limited
    Inventors: Jean Camire, Jules Bergeron, Pierre-Yves Brisson, Simon Leclerc
  • Publication number: 20130040806
    Abstract: A catalyst for the electrolysis of water molecules and hydrocarbons, the catalyst including catalytic groups comprising A1-xB2?yB?yO4 spinels having a cubical M4O4 core, wherein A is Li or Na, B and B? are independently any transition metal or main group metal, M is B, B?, or both, x is a number from 0 to 1, and y is a number from 0 to 2. In photo-electrolytic applications, a plurality of catalytic groups are supported on a conductive support substrate capable of incorporating water molecules. At least some of the catalytic groups, supported by the support substrate, are able to catalytically interact with water molecules incorporated into the support substrate. The catalyst can also be used as part of a photo-electrochemical cell for the generation of electrical energy.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 24, 2011
    Publication date: February 14, 2013
    Applicant: RUTGERS, THE STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW JERSEY
    Inventors: G. Charles Dismukes, Martha Greenblatt
  • Publication number: 20130032475
    Abstract: The invention relates to a tool for galvanically coating sliding bearings comprising at least one cover, to which a thief is attached.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 12, 2011
    Publication date: February 7, 2013
    Inventors: Hans-Ulrich Huhn, Axel Rothe
  • Publication number: 20120305390
    Abstract: An electrode for forming an electrochemical cell with a substrate and a method of forming said electrode. The electrode comprises a carrier provided with an insulating layer which is patterned at a front side. Conducting material in an electrode layer is applied in the cavities of the patterned insulating layer and in contact with the carrier. A connection layer is applied at the backside of the carrier and in contact with the carrier. The periphery of the electrode is covered by the insulating material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 26, 2012
    Publication date: December 6, 2012
    Inventors: Mikael Fredenberg, Patrik Möller, Peter Wiwen-Nilsson, Cecilia Aronsson, Matteo Dainese
  • Publication number: 20120267242
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a spherical electrode and to a spherical electrode cell, and more particularly, to a method for forming an electrode on an ion-exchange resin or forming an electrolysis cell on an ion-exchange resin. The spherical electrode or spherical electrolysis cell of the present invention can be used for: electrolysis reactors, for example in hydrolysis for producing hydrogen and oxygen gas; for the production of oxidants by means of the electrolysis of electrolytes such as a sodium chloride solution and sodium chlorite; or fuel cells that generate electricity using oxygen and hydrogen.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 26, 2009
    Publication date: October 25, 2012
    Applicants: ELCHEM TECH CO, LTD.
    Inventors: Sang Bong Moon, Tae-Lim Lee, Eun-Soo Kim, Yun-Ki Choi
  • Publication number: 20120267240
    Abstract: A photoelectrode including at least one polymer layer is provided. The at least one polymer layer defines the surface of the photoelectrode, or it defines an interlayer within the photoelectrode. The polymer layer can be made of a non-conductive polymer and have a thickness of 100 nm or less.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 26, 2010
    Publication date: October 25, 2012
    Applicant: Agency for Science Technology and Research
    Inventors: Lin Ke, Surani Bin Dolmanan, Szu Cheng Lai
  • Publication number: 20120241314
    Abstract: Provided are an electrolytic cathode structure that can suppress the degradation of an activated cathode even if a reverse current flows upon the stoppage of operation of an electrolyzer in an electrode structure allowing the distance between the electrode and an electrode current collector to be maintained at an approximately constant value, and an electrolyzer using the same. The electrolytic cathode structure includes a metal elastic cushion member 1 compressed and accommodated between an activated cathode 2 and a cathode current collector 3. At least a surface layer of the cathode current collector 3 consumes a larger oxidation current per unit area than the activated cathode. The electrolyzer is partitioned by an ion exchange membrane into an anode chamber for accommodating an anode and a cathode chamber for accommodating a cathode. The electrolytic cathode structure is used for the cathode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 5, 2011
    Publication date: September 27, 2012
    Inventors: Akihiro Madono, Mitsumasa Okamoto
  • Publication number: 20120228128
    Abstract: The present invention concerns an electrochemical pattern replication method, ECPR, and a construction of a conductive electrode for production of applications involving micro and nano structures. An etching or plating pattern, which is defined by a conductive electrode, a master electrode, is replicated on an electrically conductive material, a substrate. The master electrode is put in close contact with the substrate and the etching/plating pattern is directly transferred onto the substrate by using a contact etching/plating process. The contact etching/plating process is performed in local etching/plating cells, chat are formed in closed or open cavities between the master electrode and the substrate.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 12, 2012
    Publication date: September 13, 2012
    Inventors: Patrik Möller, Mikael Fredenberg, Peter Wiwen-Nilsson
  • Publication number: 20120205239
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an anode assembly for use in an electrolytic cell for recovery of metal. The assembly includes a hanger bar, a first perimeter bar, a second perimeter bar, optionally one or more center conductor bars, a base bar, a first tab coupled to the first perimeter bar and/or the base bar, and a second tab coupled to the second perimeter bar and/or the base bar. The assembly may also include insulating separators coupled to the tabs and/or insulators coupled to an active area of the anode assembly. A system includes the anode assembly, a cathode assembly, and a tank.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 16, 2011
    Publication date: August 16, 2012
    Applicant: FREEPORT-MCMORAN CORPORATION
    Inventors: Luis A. Gonzalez Olguin, Rafael Garcia Navarro, Luis Ricardo Olivares, Larry R. Todd, Ron Haines, Chris Zanotti, Casey J. Clayton, Mark Peabody, Scot P. Sandoval
  • Publication number: 20120103828
    Abstract: The present invention relates to an electrode comprising an electrically conductive substrate and a catalytically active layer, wherein the catalytically active layer is based on two catalytically active components and comprises iridium, ruthenium or titanium as metal oxide or mixed oxide or mixtures of the oxides, wherein the total content of ruthenium and/or iridium based on the sum of the elements iridium, ruthenium and titanium is at least 10 mol %, and wherein the electrode comprises at least one oxidic base layer which is applied to the electrically conductive substrate and is impermeable to aqueous electrolytes comprising NaCl and/or NaOH and/or HCl.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 25, 2011
    Publication date: May 3, 2012
    Applicant: Bayer MaterialScience AG
    Inventors: Andreas Bulan, Jürgen Kintrup, Rainer Weber, Ruiyong Chen, Vinh Trieu, Harald Natter, Rolf Hempelmann
  • Publication number: 20120061237
    Abstract: The invention relates to a cathode for electrolytic processes with evolution of hydrogen comprising a metal substrate with a noble metal-based activation layer and two protective layers, one interposed between the activation layer and the substrate and one external, containing an electroless-depositable alloy of a metal comprising one of nickel, cobalt and iron with a non-metal selected from phosphorus and boron, with the optional addition of a transition element selected between tungsten and rhenium.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 17, 2011
    Publication date: March 15, 2012
    Applicant: Industrie De Nora S.p.A.
    Inventors: Marianna Brichese, Antonio Lorenzo Antozzi, Alice Calderara
  • Publication number: 20120052402
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a multilayer oxygen-consuming electrode having a side facing the oxygen-containing gas and a side facing the alkaline electrolyte, wherein the electrode includes at least one support, and at least two layers comprising a catalyst and a hydrophobic material, wherein the outermost layer facing the gas side has a lower proportion of catalyst than the outermost layer facing the electrolyte side and wherein the proportion of hydrophobic material is not more than 8% by weight based on the total amount of the catalyst and the hydrophobic material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 13, 2011
    Publication date: March 1, 2012
    Applicant: Bayer MaterialScience AG
    Inventors: Thomas Turek, Imad Moussallem, Andreas Bulan, Norbert Schmitz, Peter Weuta
  • Patent number: 8105469
    Abstract: Microelectrode comprising a body formed from electrically non-conducting material and including at least one region of electrically conducting material and at least one passage extending through the body of non-conducting material and the region of conducting material, the electrically conducting region presenting an area of electrically conducting material to a fluid flowing through the passage in use. An electrochemical cell which includes such a microelectrode is also disclosed.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 31, 2012
    Inventors: Andrew John Whitehead, Geoffrey Alan Scarsbrook, Julie Victoria MacPherson, Mark Newton, Patrick Robert Unwin, William Joseph Yost, III
  • Patent number: 8083921
    Abstract: An electrode for high overvoltage oxygen anodic evolution is described comprising a substrate of titanium or other valve metal, a first protective interlayer containing valve metal oxides, a second interlayer containing platinum or other noble metal, and an outer layer comprising tin, copper and antimony oxides. The electrode of the invention may be employed as anode in waste water treatment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2005
    Date of Patent: December 27, 2011
    Assignee: Industrie de Nora S.p.A.
    Inventor: Paolo Rossi
  • Publication number: 20110300471
    Abstract: An electrode comprising a primary and secondary metal nanoparticle coating on a metallic substrate is prepared by dispersing nanoparticles in a solvent and layering them onto the substrate, followed by heating. The enhanced surface area of the electrode due to the catalytic nanoparticles is dramatically enhanced, allowing for increased reaction efficiency. The electrode can be used in one of many different applications; for example, as an electrode in an electrolysis device to generate hydrogen and oxygen, or a fuel cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 17, 2011
    Publication date: December 8, 2011
    Applicant: QUANTUMSPHERE, INC.
    Inventors: Kimberly McGrath, Robert Dopp, R. Douglas Carpenter
  • Patent number: 7985327
    Abstract: An electrode for effective ozone production in an electrochemical cell uses a modified electrode design which adopts a novel catalytic component. The catalytic component has a number of elements selected from various metals and metalloids, and is applied to a substrate in multiple coatings or layers. The catalytic component forms a catalytic surface which is at least partially disrupted by the presence of an element which is relatively inactive with respect to oxygen evolution.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 19, 2007
    Date of Patent: July 26, 2011
    Assignee: Clarizon Limited
    Inventors: Paul Andrew Christensen, Wen Feng Lin
  • Publication number: 20110157772
    Abstract: A surface-modified nano graphene platelet (NGP), comprising: (a) a nano graphene platelet having a thickness smaller than 10 nm; and (b) discrete, non-continuous, and non-metallic bumps or nodules bonded to a surface of the graphene platelet to serve as a spacer. When multiple surface-modified NGP sheets are stacked together to form an electrode, large numbers of electrolyte-accessible pores are formed, enabling the formation of large amounts of double layer charges in a supercapacitor, which exhibits an exceptionally high specific capacitance.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 28, 2009
    Publication date: June 30, 2011
    Inventors: Aruna Zhamu, Zenning Yu, Chen-guang Liu, Bor z. Jang
  • Publication number: 20110073470
    Abstract: A multi-layer cathode block (30) for an electrolytic cell (10) has at least a surface layer (32) with a surface expansion index and a second layer (34) with a second expansion index. The surface layer (32) includes a surface wetting agent in a first total amount. The second layer (34) includes a wetting agent in a second total amount. The surface layer (32) is directly superposed to the second layer (34). The second wetting agent in the second layer (34) includes metal boride precursors that react together to generate a metal boride component in situ when the cathode block (30) is exposed to start-up and operation conditions of the electrolytic cell (10). The second total amount is lower than the first total amount and is selected so as to minimize the difference between the expansion indexes of the surface layer (32) and the second layer (34).
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 30, 2009
    Publication date: March 31, 2011
    Applicant: RIO TINTO ALCAN INTERNATIONAL LIMITED
    Inventors: Jean Camiré, Jules Bergeronère, Pierre-Yves Brisson, Simon Leclerc