Electrical (including Simultaneous Electrical And Magnetic) Separation Or Purification Of Liquid Or Magnetic Treatment Of Liquid (other Than Separation) Patents (Class 204/554)
  • Publication number: 20040007452
    Abstract: A method and apparatus are provided for fluid purification. A charged species from the fluid using, e.g., a Lorentz force. This creates a voltage, e.g., a Hall voltage that counteracts separation of the charged species from the fluid. This voltage is then discharged.
    Type: Application
    Filed: November 21, 2002
    Publication date: January 15, 2004
    Inventors: William L. Warren, Richard Stoltz
  • Patent number: 6663766
    Abstract: The invention provides an electroflocculation process for producing potable water from impure water, comprising forming trivalent ions in situ by electrolysis of metallic electrodes (16) selected from the group consisting of metallic aluminum electrodes and metallic iron electrodes, wherein water to be treated is caused to ascend sequentially through apertures (22) provided in a stack of parallel metallic plates (16) serving as said electrodes, each plate being charged with a polarity opposite to plates adjacent thereto, apertures of adjacent plates being vertically misaligned, whereby turbulent flow and mixing is created by the sequential passage of said water to be treated from the aperture of the lowest of said plates to the apertures of the plates thereabove to exit from the highest of said plates.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 18, 2002
    Date of Patent: December 16, 2003
    Assignee: Yissum Research Development Company of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
    Inventors: Avner Adin, Nicholai Vescan
  • Patent number: 6641739
    Abstract: A method of making an oxygen-rich and stabilized oxidizing agent in a liquid, preferably water, involves exposure of aerated liquid to repeated bursts of ringing magnetic flux having a primary frequency of 10 kHz to 80 kHz, with the bursts repeated at a frequency of 1 Hz to 100 Hz, and with the water being kept basic at a pH level between pH 7 to pH 10. The oxidizing agent is believed to be a relatively stable complex of hydrogen peroxide, and has a significant anti-microbial effect on microorganisms, including biofilms, in the water achieved by oxidation of the oxidizing agent with chemical components of the microorganisms.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2003
    Assignee: Clearwater Systems, LLC
    Inventors: John Edward Dresty, Jr., Dennis John Opheim
  • Patent number: 6639222
    Abstract: A device for separating a chemical mixture into its constituents includes a central cathode that is aligned axially within a cylindrical plasma chamber. An anode, made of the chemical mixture requiring separation is positioned near the cylindrical wall of the plasma chamber. A working gas is introduced into the chamber to sputter the chemical mixture into the plasma chamber where it is dissociated and ionized. To reduce the unwanted loss of the central cathode due to sputtering by the working gas, the central cathode is formed with a plurality of radial projections that extend outwardly from the axis of the cylindrical plasma chamber. These radial projections act to capture sputtered cathode material before it is lost to the plasma. Once the chemical mixture has been ionized in the plasma chamber, the ions are separated, according to their respective mass to charge ratio, using crossed electric and magnetic fields.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2001
    Date of Patent: October 28, 2003
    Assignee: Archimedes Technology Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Sergei Putvinski, Vadim Volosov
  • Patent number: 6613217
    Abstract: A stream of process liquid is treated while flowing through in a horizontally elongated chamber having an open top. Longitudinally elongated electrode blades are aligned with the longitudinal dimension of the chamber. An overhead disbursement chamber supplies a sweeping air stream over the open top of the chamber for removing foam and gas reaction by-products. The electrode blades are separated and held at a desired spacing by small portable guides located below and above the blades.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 24, 2001
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2003
    Inventor: F. William Gilmore
  • Patent number: 6599431
    Abstract: A method and an apparatus for purifying water including groundwater contaminated with a pollutant such as organohalogenated compounds are provided. The contaminated water is purified by aeration to expel the pollutant into gas phase, and the pollutant containing gas is then mixed with a chlorine-containing gas under light irradiation to decompose the pollutant, where the chlorine-containing gas may generated from functional water by aeration.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2001
    Date of Patent: July 29, 2003
    Assignee: Canon Kabushiki Kaisha
    Inventors: Masahiro Kawaguchi, Kinya Kato, Akira Kuriyama
  • Patent number: 6572733
    Abstract: System and method for oxidizing contaminants to alter specific properties, such as tack, of contaminants. The present invention reduces the tack of the stickies and pitch by exposing the materials for a short duration to low-energy pulsed electrical discharges between a pair of electrodes that are submerged in a liquid medium, such as a fiber stream, water, a pulp slurry, or whitewater. An electrical discharge in the liquid medium oxidizes materials, which may be dissolved or suspended therein, such as stickies, pitch, sulfide, ink, toner, and other substances, thereby reducing tack, odor, and/or zeta potential, as well as producing other desirable effect.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 26, 2001
    Date of Patent: June 3, 2003
    Assignee: Institute of Paper Science And Technology, Inc.
    Inventor: Sujit Banerjee
  • Patent number: 6555011
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method for disinfecting and purifying liquids and gasses comprising; a) passing said liquids or gasses through a reactor or a combination of reactors, having a truncated compounded concentrator geometry; and b) simultaneously delivering and concentrating diversified electromagnetic and acoustic energies into a specific predetermined inner space of said compounded concentrator reactor, forming a high energy density zone in said reactor or reactors over a predetermined period of time. The reactor according to the present invention is preferably a compounded parabolic concentrator or a compounded ellipsoidal concentrator. The electromagnetic energy delivered and concentrated into and inside the reactor can be of any range of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as ultra-violet, visible, infra-red, microwave etc., or combination thereof. The acoustic energy is of any suitable frequency.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 15, 2002
    Date of Patent: April 29, 2003
    Assignee: Atlantium Ltd.
    Inventors: Zamir Tribelsky, Michael Ende
  • Publication number: 20030044310
    Abstract: An anode electrode is disposed to expose in water in a medical waterline, and a cathode is connected to an outer surface cf the waterline electrically conducting to an inner surface of the waterline or exposed in water in the waterline, and by these electrodes, an electric current of an output within the range from 3 to 50 mA is applied to water in the waterline, thereby providing an electric current sterilization method for the medical waterline and water therein, with improved cost effectivity, safety, and sufficient sterilization characteristic.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 19, 2001
    Publication date: March 6, 2003
    Applicant: Jonan Co., Ltd.
    Inventors: Masahiro Takahashi, Eisuke Wada, Toraichi Katsube, Yoshikazu Hashiguchi
  • Patent number: 6485624
    Abstract: The invention relates to a process and apparatus for the capacitive demineralization of liquids containing ions in which, after introducing the liquid into a container, an electric field is applied to capacitor plates (8, 9), which leads to ions of the liquid being conducted through a filter wall (7). The ions conducted through are deposited on the capacitor plates (8, 9) as bilayers (15, 16). By introducing pulsed voltage peaks, microcrystalline structures which result from ionic compounds are precipitated and then removed from the apparatus (1).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 9, 2001
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2002
    Inventors: Uwe Pfefferle, Alois Sitter
  • Patent number: 6478942
    Abstract: An apparatus and method is provided for obtaining a preparative-scale, free-fluid electrophoretic separator with high resolution as well as an analytical capability commensurate with capillary zone electrophoresis. The electrophoretic focusing apparatus and method of the present invention combines features of electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing to accomplish large scale purifications and fractionations that have not previously been possible, and features a separation chamber bounded by precision-pore, insulated screens, a plurality of purge chambers, a plurality of electrode chambers, and a plurality of pump means. The separation device of the invention is capable of high speed of separation and short residency of sample through the use of high voltage gradients which are produced by relatively low voltages applied across the narrow chamber dimensions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 7, 2000
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2002
    Inventors: Percy H. Rhodes, Robert S. Snyder
  • Publication number: 20020162803
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for treating raw contaminated water includes a housing including a separator element. The separator includes a membrane which prevents flow of contaminants and allows flow of water such that raw water passing over the membrane passes through the membrane while contaminants are excluded. A gas injection system is used to inject gas into the contaminated water stream prior to entering in a concentration chamber.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 24, 2001
    Publication date: November 7, 2002
    Applicant: ATP INTERNATIONAL LTD.
    Inventors: Harold Ernest Haney, Viktor Mogourian
  • Publication number: 20020157966
    Abstract: An apparatus and process for recovering metals from aqueous solutions by passing an aqueous solution, which contains dissolved metals, into a space between two elongated electrodes of a treatment chamber. A very high voltage electric field is created in the treatment chamber and is accompanied by a very small trickle current charge to enhance adsorption, polarization, ion exchange or to otherwise agglomerate the dissolved metal, which is then recovered by filtering, adsorbing, exchanging or otherwise separating the metal from the water.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 31, 2001
    Publication date: October 31, 2002
    Inventors: Edward C. Weakly, Joseph N. Ignat, Henry L. Dicamillo
  • Publication number: 20020121352
    Abstract: Methods and devices are provided for treating a fluid with a high voltage electric field for decontaminating the fluid or a variety of other purposes. In a preferred embodiment for decontamination, the method includes (a) applying an electric field across a fluid having contaminants dispersed therein; and then (b) flowing the fluid through a decontamination cell to separate from the fluid at least a portion of the contaminants. An apparatus for use with this method preferably includes an electropotential cell comprising a housing containing an anode and a cathode for applying an electric field to a fluid flowing through the housing, a decontamination cell in fluid communication with the electropotential cell for separating from the fluid at least a portion of any contaminants dispersed therein, and an optional means for introducing gas bubbles into the fluid before the fluid flows to the electropotential cell.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 4, 2002
    Publication date: September 5, 2002
    Inventors: J. Alan Lawson, Ahmed A. BaOsman, Jeffrey S. Hsieh
  • Patent number: 6428666
    Abstract: A method for separating and concentrating charged species from uncharged or neutral species regardless of size differential. The method uses reversible electric field induced retention of charged species, that can include molecules and molecular aggregates such as dimers, polymers, multimers, colloids, micelles, and liposomes, in volumes and on surfaces of porous materials. The retained charged species are subsequently quantitatively removed from the porous material by a pressure driven flow that passes through the retention volume and is independent of direction thus, a multi-directional flow field is not required. Uncharged species pass through the system unimpeded thus effecting a complete separation of charged and uncharged species and making possible concentration factors greater than 1000-fold.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: August 6, 2002
    Assignee: Sandia National Laboratories
    Inventors: Anup K. Singh, David W. Neyer, Joseph S. Schoeniger, Michael G. Garguilo
  • Publication number: 20020084188
    Abstract: An electrically regeneratable battery of electrochemical cells for capacitive deionization (including electrochemical purification) and regeneration of electrodes is operated at alternate polarities during consecutive cycles. In other words, after each regeneration step operated at a given polarity in a deionization-regeneration cycle, the polarity of the deionization step in the next cycle is maintained. In one embodiment, two end electrodes are arranged one at each end of the battery, adjacent to end plates. An insulator layer is interposed between each end plate and the adjacent end electrode. Each end electrode includes a single sheet of conductive material having a high specific surface area and sorption capacity, preferably a sheet formed of carbon aerogel composite. The battery further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 3, 2002
    Publication date: July 4, 2002
    Applicant: The Regents of the University of California.
    Inventors: Tri D. Tran, David J. Lenz
  • Patent number: 6395143
    Abstract: The invention relates to a system, process and apparatus for separating biosorbent and sorbate. Biomass enclosed within a membrane system is coupled to an electrode, which is capable of being placed in contact with the sorbate containing material in the presence of a counter electrode. An electric field may be discharged across the electrodes and ionic species will migrate into the membrane enclosed system. The migrated species within the membrane can be taken up and processed by the biosorbtive processes of the biomass. The system may be used to remove dye stuffs, metal, heavy metals, radionuclides and other pollutants from natural and artificial sources.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 1999
    Date of Patent: May 28, 2002
    Assignee: University of Ulster
    Inventors: Anthony McHale, Mark Bustard
  • Publication number: 20020040855
    Abstract: An electrocoagulation system for removing contaminants from waste effluents comprising an electrocoagulation reactor having charged and uncharged plates and allowing serial flow of water therethrough. The reactor is connected to a voltage source to charge some of the plates positive and some negative, with uncharged plates between the positive and negative plates. The system allows waste water to enter the reactor for coagulation therein, the waste water leaving the reactor to enter a defoam tank for agitation which allows trapped bubbles to rise to the surface of the tank as foam. From the defoam tank, waste water goes through a sludge thickener, to allow sludge to settle at the bottom thereof and waste water is drawn off from the sludge thickener to flow to a clarifier. The pump removes sludge forming at the bottom of clarifier to take it back to the sludge thickener. The sludge is drawn out the bottom of the sludge thickener for transport to a press where most of the water is removed therefrom.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 24, 2001
    Publication date: April 11, 2002
    Inventors: Paul E. Morkovsky, Douglas D. Kaspar
  • Publication number: 20020029957
    Abstract: The invention relates to a system, process and apparatus for separating biosorbent and sorbate. Biomass enclosed within a membrane system is coupled to an electrode, which is capable of being placed in contact with the sorbate containing material in the presence of a counter electrode. An electric field may be discharged across the electrodes and ionic species will migrate into the membrane enclosed system. The migrated species within the membrane can be taken up and processed by the biosorbtive processes of the biomass. The system may be used to remove dye stuffs, metal, heavy metals, radionuclides and other pollutants from natural and artificial sources.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 18, 1999
    Publication date: March 14, 2002
    Inventors: ANTHONY MCHALE, MARK BUSTARD
  • Publication number: 20020020631
    Abstract: An electrocoagulation process for removing organic and metal contaminants from a pressurized waste fluid is disclosed in which a clarified waste fluid is produced when the pressure is released.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 8, 2001
    Publication date: February 21, 2002
    Inventors: Tom Gus Gavrel, David W. Otto, Ira B. Vinson
  • Publication number: 20020008027
    Abstract: An apparatus and method is described for obtaining a preparative-scale, free-fluid electrophoretic separator with high resolution as well as an analytical capability commensurate with capillary zone electrophoresis. The electrophoretic focusing apparatus and method of the present invention features a separation chamber bounded by planar precision-pore, insulated screens, a plurality of purge chambers, a plurality of electrode chambers, and a plurality of pump means. The separation device of the invention is capable of high speed of separation and short residency of sample through the use of high voltage gradients which are produced by relatively low voltages applied across the narrow chamber dimensions. The present invention is also highly flexible, with operation in a constant electric field, continuous flow mode which permits scanning of the sample fraction content and display in a conventional histogram format.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 20, 2001
    Publication date: January 24, 2002
    Inventors: Percy H. Rhodes, Robert S. Snyder
  • Patent number: 6338789
    Abstract: The invention relates to an apparatus for treating water by means of an electric field. An anode and a cathode are arranged in a treatment chamber. Seed crystals are deposited on the anode and are stripped therefrom to be carried along with the water, which cause crystallization thereon of carbonates contained in the water. Thereby formation of boiler scale, when the water is heated, is reduced. The water from the treatment chamber is exposed to another electric field in an aftertreatment chamber for a dwell time longer than the dwell time in the treatment chamber. Thereby, the growth of the seed crystals is enhanced. The efficiency of a treatment chamber with aftertreatment is higher than the efficiency of the treatment chamber alone.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2002
    Assignee: Hans Sasserath & Co., KG
    Inventor: Willi Hecking
  • Patent number: 6334957
    Abstract: This invention relates to a method and an apparatus for reduction of flow resistance in pipes and ducts where a fluid or a powder is flowing in single or multiphase. In the method, the flow resistance is reduced by applying an electrical field on the pipe or duct wall. Also, the strength of the field is regulated according to measurements of the flow regime before and after the unit which exposes the fluid or powder to the electrical field. The fluid may be a pure fluid, colloidal fluid or contain inclusions in the form of particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 10, 2000
    Date of Patent: January 1, 2002
    Inventor: Magne Waskaas
  • Publication number: 20010050881
    Abstract: The present invention relates to methods and apparatus that employ electrohydrodynamic flows in miscible, partially miscible and immiscible multiphase systems to induce mixing for dissolution and/or reaction processes.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 20, 1999
    Publication date: December 13, 2001
    Inventors: DAVID W. DEPAOLI, CONSTANTINOS TSOURIS
  • Patent number: 6325907
    Abstract: An energy efficient flow-through capacitor, particularly for the concentration and/or separation of seawater. The flow-through capacitor is successively charged and discharged prior to the cell voltage exceeding 1.5 volts.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Inventor: Marc D. Andelman
  • Patent number: 6325916
    Abstract: A method for separating contaminants from a aqueous source containing contaminants. In one embodiment, the method involves the use of a high powdered oxidant dissolved within the aqueous system. The gas is dissolved within a reservoir in the aqueous solution and the pressure within the reservoir is controllable. This allows maximum contact of the oxidizing dissolved gas with the contaminant material. Once oxidized, the outlet of the reservoir is adapted to permit hydraulic cavitation. The net effect of the cavitation is to induce a foam formation which foam transports a floc into a separate phase from the aqueous solution. In this manner, the process is effectively a dissolved oxidizing gas mass transfer process. In another embodiment, the process may be augmented by electrocoagulation. This involves the use of an electric cell which is disposed within the reservoir containing the oxidant material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 18, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Assignee: Applied Oxidation Technologies (2000) Inc.
    Inventors: Lawrence Lambert, Steve Kresnyak
  • Patent number: 6326627
    Abstract: A device and method for separating ions uses electric and magnetic fields that are specifically configured and oriented in a vacuum chamber. Also, a central electrode that is made of the materials whose ions are to be separated is positioned in the chamber. Magnetic coils mounted on the chamber generate a magnetic field, B, that is oriented parallel to the central electrode and is configured with a disk-shaped magnetic mirror at one end of the chamber, and an annular-shaped magnetic mirror at the other end. A plurality of electrodes generate an electric field, E, that is oriented perpendicular to the central electrode. In operation, neutral atoms in the chamber are ionized by the electric field. The electric field, however, is specifically configured to confine relatively lighter mass ions in the chamber. These ions are then subsequently removed from the chamber through the opening in the annular-shaped magnetic mirror.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 2, 2000
    Date of Patent: December 4, 2001
    Assignee: Archimedes Technology Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Sergei Putvinski, Vadim Volosov
  • Patent number: 6309532
    Abstract: An electrically regeneratable electrochemical cell (30) for capacitive deionization and electrochemical purification and regeneration of electrodes includes two end plates (31, 32), one at each end of the cell (30). A new regeneration method is applied to the cell (30) which includes slowing or stopping the purification cycle, electrically desorbing contaminants and removing the desorbed contaminants. The cell (30) further includes a plurality of generally identical double-sided intermediate electrodes (37-43) that are equidistally separated from each other, between the two end electrodes (35, 36). As the electrolyte enters the cell, it flows through a continuous open serpentine channel (65-71) defined by the electrodes, substantially parallel to the surfaces of the electrodes. By polarizing the cell (30), ions are removed from the electrolyte and are held in the electric double layers formed at the carbon aerogel surfaces of the electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2001
    Assignee: Regents of the University of California
    Inventors: Tri D. Tran, Joseph C. Farmer, Laura Murguia
  • Patent number: 6299778
    Abstract: The invention relates to a catalytically active, permeable composite material, a method for producing said composite material, and the use of the composite material. The inventive composite material can be used for separating mixtures of materials. The fact that various catalytically active substances can be incorporated into the material in various ways makes it highly flexible in terms of possible applications with properties which can be adapted to the particular purpose of an application. The inventive composite material can be used as a catalytically active membrane electrode, for example. According to the invention, the material is obtained by solidifying a suspension on and in a porous, permeable support. The production of the material requires either a very short period of heat treatment at temperatures of around 400° C. or treatment for a longer period at very mild temperatures of below 100° C.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 28, 1999
    Date of Patent: October 9, 2001
    Assignee: Creavis Gesellschaft fuer Technologie und Innovation mbH
    Inventors: Bernd Penth, Christian Hying, Mark Duda, Gerhard Hoerpel, Adolf Kuehnle
  • Patent number: 6251282
    Abstract: A plasma mass filter using a helical magnetic field for separating low-mass particles from high-mass particles in a multi-species plasma includes a cylindrical outer wall located at a distance “a” from a longitudinal axis. Also included is a coaxial cylindrical inner wall positioned to establish a plasma chamber between the inner and outer walls. The magnetic field is generated in this chamber with an axial component (Bz) and an azimuthal component (B&thgr;), which interact together with an electric field to create crossed magnetic and electric fields. The electric field has a positive potential, Vctr, on the inner wall and a zero potential on the outer wall.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 1999
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2001
    Assignee: Archimedes Technology Group, Inc.
    Inventors: Sergei Putvinski, Tihiro Ohkawa, Richard L. Freeman
  • Patent number: 6203710
    Abstract: A liquid decontamination system has a liquid treatment chamber having a liquid input and output and a gas input and output. A plurality of electrodes are positioned to place a voltage across the liquid treatment chamber and the liquid therein. A plurality of magnets are also positioned adjacent the electrodes for placing a magnetic field across the chamber and liquid therein. As the contaminated liquid is fed through the liquid treatment chamber, a predetermined gas, such as nitrogen, ozone, oxygen, or hydrogen peroxide, are fed into the contaminated liquid while simultaneously having the electric and magnetic fields applied to the liquid. The liquid leaving the treatment chamber is fed to a flush tank which removes contaminates and agglomerated solids therefrom.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 22, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 20, 2001
    Inventor: David D. Woodbridge
  • Patent number: 6200449
    Abstract: One or more water treating devices each includes a housing for receiving a number of electric conductive particles and a filter plate secured in the housing for supporting the particles in the housing. The waste water to be treated is introduced into the housing and flows through the particles when the particles are electrified for allowing the particles to treat the water. The particles, after use, may be discharged from the housing so as to be cleaned. The water treating devices may be arranged in series or in parallel or in both series and parallel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 7, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 13, 2001
    Assignee: Silkroad Corp.
    Inventor: Fang Chung Lu
  • Patent number: 6197177
    Abstract: One or more water treating devices each includes a housing for receiving a number of electric conductive particles and one or more electrodes for electrifying the particles. The waste water to be treated is introduced into the housing and flows through the particles when the particles are electrified for allowing the particles to treat the water. The particles, after use, may be discharged from the housing so as to be cleaned. The water treating devices may be arranged in series or in parallel or in both series and parallel.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 6, 1999
    Date of Patent: March 6, 2001
    Assignee: Silkroad Corp.
    Inventor: Fang Chung Lu
  • Patent number: 6179987
    Abstract: A method and apparatus to electrolytically produce high-purity magnetite particles is provided. The apparatus comprises a container for holding an electrolytic solution. In accordance with one embodiment, the electrolytic solution includes sodium chloride and deionized water. A pair of carbon steel electrodes are submerged within the electrolytic solution. A d.c. power supply is also provided to apply a voltage to the electrodes for a period of time sufficient to produce the magnetite particles.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 11, 1999
    Date of Patent: January 30, 2001
    Assignee: UT Battelle, LLC
    Inventors: Constantinos Tsouris, David W. DePaoli, Joel T. Shor
  • Patent number: 6165339
    Abstract: An apparatus is provided for treating a liquid by controlling molecular clusters in liquid in which a very narrow electric or magnetic energy field produced by at least two electrodes or magnetic poles spaced apart by less than 1 mm is applied to a liquid with the length of the spaced apart electrodes or magnetic poles set transversely to the flow direction of the liquid passing through the pipe. The overall thickness of the electrodes or magnetic poles is less than 10 millimeters.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 7, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 26, 2000
    Assignee: Makiko Yoshida
    Inventor: Jack Kenneth Ibbott
  • Patent number: 6126811
    Abstract: The invention concerns a method consisting: in passing the sea water through an electrically conductive catalyst (10), arranged in the cathode section of an electrolytic cell (1), comprising a cathode section (3) and an anode section (4) provided with, the former, with at least one cathode (11a, . . . ) and, the latter, with at least one anode (18) and separated by a wall (2) permeable only to the cations and in circulating, in the anode section (4), a conductive aqueous solution of a particular anolyte; in providing an electric voltage between the cathode and the anode of the cell (1) while maintaining the contents of the cathode and the anode sections at specific potentials, so as to produce, in the cathode section, consumption of oxygen dissolved in the treated water and in decomposing, in the anode section, an appropriate amount of solution for ensuring the electroneutrality of the treated water.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 15, 1998
    Date of Patent: October 3, 2000
    Assignee: Elf Exploration Production
    Inventors: Jacques Barbier, Jacques Bousquet, Gerard Valentin, Alain Storck, Hans-Gunther Lintz, Peter Kinzel
  • Patent number: 6093287
    Abstract: A magnetic processing treatment facility is disclosed for subjecting a fluid flow to magnetic energy. The facility is integrated into agricultural spray apparatus and is effective in increasing the water solubility of chemical agents such as herbicides, pesticides, fertilizer, nutrient liquids and other liquids for agricultural use that are dispersed as a spray solution over an application area. The magnetically treated chemical solution also exhibits enhanced activity in terms of crop growth and pesticide and weed control. The treatment facility utilizes a magnetic core device having a resident permanent magnet for generating a magnetic field that is applied to a fluid volume passing through the device.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 1998
    Date of Patent: July 25, 2000
    Assignee: Superior Manufacturing Division, Magnatech Corporation
    Inventor: Charles H. Sanderson
  • Patent number: 6077479
    Abstract: Apparatus for the destruction of inactivation of microbes by subjecting them to a high potential gradient. The apparatus includes a processing chamber containing spaced apart electrodes, at least one solid insulating barrier dividing the space within the chamber, the barrier having at least one passageway such that no fluid can pass through the chamber without flowing through the passageway, and a voltage source for providing a pulse of voltage.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 7, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Assignee: Ion Physics Corporation
    Inventors: Helmut I Milde, Sanborn F Philp
  • Patent number: 6077416
    Abstract: The invention relates to purification of waste waters and may be used for water purification from heavy non-ferrous metals, chrome and organic impurities, as well as for separation of impurities from solution. The method is performed by electric coagulation with 3-phase alternating current having a current density of at least 3.0 A/dm2 using a coagulator that is provided with at least one mobile electrode disposed between at least two immobile electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 9, 1998
    Date of Patent: June 20, 2000
    Inventors: Aron Mikhailovich Khalemsky, Sergei Abramovich Payusov, Anatoly Grigorievich Talanov, Yuri Nikolaevich Yurkov
  • Patent number: 6063267
    Abstract: In an apparatus for treating liquid with electromagnetic flux, one or more coils surrounding a liquid conducting pipe are excited by a switching circuit including a triode switch turned on and off in response to the voltage applied to the coil or coils in such a way that during each operative half cycle of the supply voltage a current is conducted through the coils during an initial portion of the half cycle and then at a substantial time before the end of the half cycle, the switch is turned to an open condition causing the current built up in the coils to be taken up by a series resonant circuit, formed by the inductance of the coil or coils an associated given capacitance and the power supply, to produce a ringing current in and a ringing voltage across each coil and consequent ringing electromagnetic flux in the liquid passing through the pipe. The apparatus may have either a half wave or full wave mode of operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 1998
    Date of Patent: May 16, 2000
    Assignee: Clearwater Systems, LLC
    Inventors: Walter F. J. Crewson, Joseph G. Munisteri, Italo Ricci
  • Patent number: 6022479
    Abstract: A device and method are disclosed which activate aqueous liquids, particularly water, and liquid polymers, resulting in enhanced properties in chemical and biological processes in which the activated liquids are used. The device includes a liquid reservoir; an activation body formed of a polymeric matrix containing a number of finely divided materials, with the body disposed in a strong (2,500-25,000 Oersted) magnetic field and responsive to visible electromagnetic radiation having a frequency of 7.2-7.8 Hz and a wavelength of 400-800 nm, and with one end disposed proximate to the surface of the liquid; and an electrical circuit adjacent the other end of the body, activating diodes to emit flashes of light having that wavelength and frequency, so that the materials and the polymeric body are energized and emit low frequency oscillations, which activate the liquid contained in the reservoir. Polymers include polyurethanes and epoxies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 22, 1998
    Date of Patent: February 8, 2000
    Inventor: Igor Smirnov
  • Patent number: 5958242
    Abstract: A filter which can be cleaned in situ consists of a filter membrane (33), and fluid permeable electrodes (34, 35). The membrane may be one of the electrodes, or may be electrically non-conducting but integral with or in contact with one of the electrodes (34). The electrodes (34, 35) are separated from each other only by a fluid permeable electrically insulating sheet. This sheet may be less than 1 mm thick, and may be the filter membrane (33). The filter is cleaned by periodic brief applications of electric current between the electrodes (34, 35) so that gas is generated electrolytically, and the close spacing of the electrodes (34, 35) reduces the electric power required.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 10, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 28, 1999
    Assignee: AEA Technology PLC
    Inventor: Paul Antony Harry Fennell
  • Patent number: 5951839
    Abstract: Apparatus and a method of providing a water-based fluid with active hydrogen having selected characteristics including providing at least one material (10) having selected characteristics and supply of hydrogen atoms from at least one material (10) to fluid, whereby the fluid receives hydrogen atoms from the material (10), which hydrogen atoms have the selected characteristics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 15, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 14, 1999
    Inventor: David Reznik
  • Patent number: 5939030
    Abstract: A system and method for generating ozone for use in open or closed loop process applications using a fluid, such as water, as a primary process medium, including: a water storage tank, supplied by a water supply line, for temporarily storing water for treatment and subsequent use in a process; an electromagnetic flux unit connected to the water supply line for exposing water supplied to the tank to an electromagnetic field thereby magnetically polarizing contaminants and dissolved solids present in the water; an apparatus for producing highly pure oxygen from ambient air for use as a feed gas in generating ozone; a corona discharge ozone generator for producing high purity ozone from a highly pure oxygen feed gas; an impeller apparatus, including a rapidly rotating shear impeller, for injecting ozone, created by the ozone generator, into water wherein the ozone is absorbed thus yielding a substantially high level of dissolved ozone gas in a given volume of water; an apparatus for measuring the concentration o
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 8, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 17, 1999
    Inventors: Douglas A. Moxley, Stephen C. Perry
  • Patent number: 5914021
    Abstract: Apparatus and method for separating a charged substance from a conductive fluid in which the conductive fluid is transported to a charged substance separation assembly where an electrostatic field is imposed to separate the charged substance from the fluid which passes through a porous separator and is collected.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 30, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 22, 1999
    Assignee: IMSCO, Inc.
    Inventors: James R. Crose, Sol L. Berg
  • Patent number: 5911885
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for applying microwaves to flowable materials within a centrifuge are disclosed. The simultaneous application of microwaves and centrifugation to flowable materials may be utilized to rapidly separate immiscible components from emulsions and dispersions. Microwaves are guided along a waveguide structure within the centrifuge. A meandering path for the waveguide is chosen through the interior of the centrifuge and through the flowable material being centrifuged. Gradual variation in the radial distance of the waveguide from the axis of the centrifuge produces a gradual filling of the cross-section of the waveguide along its length, forming a gentle microwave beach within the waveguide. Excellent microwave coupling and power deposition into the flowable material results. There is no need to contain the flowable material behind a dielectric barrier, normally placed between the incident microwaves and the flowable material, since confinement is provided by centrifugal forces.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 29, 1997
    Date of Patent: June 15, 1999
    Inventor: Thomas L. Owens
  • Patent number: 5843301
    Abstract: A process and system for converting petroleum residue ("resid") into a liquid product and a solid product. The resid is first mixed with a solvent having a generally nonpolar molecular character. A strong electric field is then applied to the mixture to agglomerate the asphaltenes and other large molecules in the resid. The agglomerates are then separated from the remaining liquid, thereby producing liquid and solid products. The liquid product is useful as a feedstock for petrochemicals and transportation fuels, and the solid product is suitable for combustion as a coal substitute. A portion of the liquid product may be recycled as the solvent.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 9, 1996
    Date of Patent: December 1, 1998
    Assignee: OCET Corporation
    Inventors: Ernest P. Esztergar, John L. Remo
  • Patent number: 5807491
    Abstract: A process and apparatus for treating a organically contaminated inorganic liquid or gas with an electron beam are described. The organically contaminated inorganic liquid or gas is introduced into a reaction chamber that is positioned so that the organically contaminated inorganic liquid or gas will be exposed to the electron beam. In the case of the gas, the reaction chamber includes a liquid medium. The process continues by generating a gaseous phase by exposing the organically contaminated inorganic liquid or the liquid medium including the organically contaminated inorganic gas to an electron beam; and recirculating the gaseous phase into the organically contaminated inorganic liquid or into the liquid medium including the organically contaminated inorganic gas. The treatment of the gas and liquid phase with the electron beam in this manner accomplishes the complete oxidation of the contaminating organic species.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 1996
    Date of Patent: September 15, 1998
    Assignee: Advanced Oxidation Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Guy E. Materi
  • Patent number: 5795457
    Abstract: By applying two or more electrical fields (DC, AC, pulsed) of different characteristics to an electrode array on e.g. the wall of a treatment cell, particles suspended in liquid in the cell may be manipulated as desired on a microscopic scale, in particular by exploiting the dielectrophoretic properties of the particles. The particles may be solid, semi-solid or liquid, and may be of simple materials or may be biological particles such as whole cells or fragments thereof.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 5, 1995
    Date of Patent: August 18, 1998
    Assignee: British Technology Group Ltd.
    Inventors: Ronald Pethig, Julian Paul Hillhouse Burt
  • Patent number: 5792510
    Abstract: A method for forming a chemically-ordered ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic metal alloy film allows the temperature and/or time required for annealing to be reduced. The ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic metal alloy film is dosed with hydrogen either during or subsequent to deposition of the film on a substrate. The metal alloy film is then heated to desorb the hydrogen atoms from the metal alloy. In one embodiment for dosing the metal alloy film with hydrogen a transition metal of the type that catalyzes the dissociative chemisorption of H.sub.2, such as palladium (Pd), is deposited as a film in contact with the metal alloy film. The Pd film is then heated and while at an elevated temperature, it is exposed to H.sub.2 gas. The H.sub.2 becomes dissociated into hydrogen atoms and the hydrogen atoms become chemically absorbed by the Pd film. During subsequent cooling of the Pd film hydrogen atoms in the Pd film become absorbed into the metal alloy film.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 10, 1997
    Date of Patent: August 11, 1998
    Assignee: International Business Machines Corporation
    Inventors: Robin Frederick Charles Farrow, Ronald Franklin Marks