Composition Analysis Patents (Class 378/88)
  • Patent number: 10254437
    Abstract: A downhole segmented radiation detector tool measuring formations surrounding a borehole is provided, the tool including at least a plurality of segments capable of detecting radiation, wherein the segments return to the tool after interacting with material surrounding the tool; and radiation shielding configured to allow radiation directly from a radiation source to pass internally through the downhole tool to a reference segment. A method of measuring formations surrounding a borehole is also provided, the method including at least: lowering a downhole tool into a borehole surrounded by a subterranean formation; detecting a first plurality of X-rays or gamma-rays that return to the downhole tool after interacting with materials surrounding the downhole tool using a first segment of an array segmented radiation detector; and configuring associated radiation shielding to allow radiation directly from a radiation source to pass internally through the downhole tool to the reference segment.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 12, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 9, 2019
    Assignee: VISURAY INTECH LTD (BVI)
    Inventors: Philip Teague, Alex Stewart
  • Patent number: 10150613
    Abstract: Containers for disposal of waste materials, used or unused having desired burn properties. The containers have tailored or engineered properties based on material construction so that they are burnable and alter burn properties of the source materials, used or unused, contained therein. The containers may also include cavities into which accelerants, retarders, combustion aids, fuel value enhancing agents, additives to change an ash composition, other additives or the like are added.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 21, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 11, 2018
    Assignee: Sharps Compliance, Inc.
    Inventors: Burton J. Kunik, David G. Gossman
  • Patent number: 9983151
    Abstract: Ultralow-dose, x-ray or gamma-ray imaging is based on fast, electronic control of the output of a laser-Compton x-ray or gamma-ray source (LCXS or LCGS). X-ray or gamma-ray shadowgraphs are constructed one (or a few) pixel(s) at a time by monitoring the LCXS or LCGS beam energy required at each pixel of the object to achieve a threshold level of detectability at the detector. An example provides that once the threshold for detection is reached, an electronic or optical signal is sent to the LCXS/LCGS that enables a fast optical switch that diverts, either in space or time the laser pulses used to create Compton photons. In this way, one prevents the object from being exposed to any further Compton x-rays or gamma-rays until either the laser-Compton beam or the object are moved so that a new pixel location may be illumination.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 7, 2015
    Date of Patent: May 29, 2018
    Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
    Inventor: Christopher P. J. Barty
  • Patent number: 9841390
    Abstract: A method of examination of an object comprising the steps of: applying a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique to obtain a data item correlated to the relative nuclear susceptibility within the sample; obtaining a further data item correlated to another measure of the object under examination; determining therefrom a ratio.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 12, 2017
    Assignee: Kromek Limited
    Inventors: Ian Radley, Benjamin John Cantwell, Andrew Keith Powell
  • Patent number: 9693745
    Abstract: An X-ray computed tomography apparatus includes an X-ray generation circuit generating X-rays, X-ray detection circuit including X-ray detection modules detecting the X-rays for respective energy widths, counting circuit counting a photon originating from the X-rays for the respective energy widths based on an output from the X-ray detection circuit, and reconstruction circuit reconstructing a medical image based on an output from the counting circuit. Each of the X-ray detection modules includes a collimator collimating the X-rays, diffraction cell arranged on a rear surface side of the collimator and diffracting the X-ray at an angle corresponding to an energy of the X-ray, and X-ray detector cells arranged in a predetermined distance away from a rear surface of the collimator, and detecting the diffracted X-ray.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 9, 2014
    Date of Patent: July 4, 2017
    Assignee: Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation
    Inventor: Manabu Teshigawara
  • Patent number: 9250200
    Abstract: A Compton tomography system comprises an x-ray source configured to produce a planar x-ray beam. The beam irradiates a slice of an object to be imaged, producing Compton-scattered x-rays. The Compton-scattered x-rays are imaged by an x-ray camera. Translation of the object with respect to the source and camera or vice versa allows three-dimensional object imaging.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 2, 2016
    Assignee: Physical Optics Corporation
    Inventors: Victor Grubsky, Volodymyr Romanoov, Keith Shoemaker, Edward Matthew Patton, Tomasz Jannson
  • Patent number: 9081099
    Abstract: A method and system for detecting special nuclear materials are disclosed. Said method and system detect the special nuclear materials by making use of the photofission characteristic and thermal neutron induced fission characteristic thereof. In one preferred embodiment, the high density and/or high atomic number region in the object to be detected is also detected first as a suspicious region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 14, 2015
    Assignees: Nuctech Company Limited, Tsinghua University
    Inventors: Kejun Kang, Yigang Yang, Qitian Miao, Zhiqiang Chen, Yuanjing Li, Shangmin Sun, Hua Peng, Guang Yang, Bufu Liu
  • Patent number: 9036781
    Abstract: A method and apparatus for inspecting an object. A radiation generation system is configured to emit radiation. A detector system is configured to detect backscatter formed in response to the radiation encountering the object. A redirection system is positioned relative to the detector system and is configured to redirect the backscatter to the detector system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 12, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 19, 2015
    Assignee: THE BOEING COMPANY
    Inventor: Morteza Safai
  • Patent number: 9031188
    Abstract: A system for the inspection of the internal structure of a target includes at least one x-ray source that emits collimated x-rays to irradiate the target. At least one detector is positioned to detect backscatter x-rays from the target. The detector may include a collimation slot that limits the field of view of the detector. The target may be a railway component and the system may inspect the internal structure of the component as it is moved along the railway by a vehicle. The system may detect a change in the density of a target based on a comparison of the detected backscatter x-rays. The use of a plurality of segmented backscatter x-ray detectors having a collimation slot may pixelate the internal image in the direction of the collimation slot.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 12, 2015
    Assignee: Georgetown Rail Equipment Company
    Inventors: Jeb Belcher, Charles Wayne Aaron
  • Patent number: 9020100
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for inspecting personnel or their effects. A first and second carriage each carries a source for producing a beam of penetrating radiation incident on a given subject. A positioner provides for relative motion of each beam vis-à-vis the subject in a motion, the vertical component of which is one-way. A detector receives radiation produced by at least one of the sources after the radiation interacts with the subject.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: America Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Mastronardi, Dean Fleury, Jeffrey R. Schubert, Joseph DiMare, Richard Schueller, Alexander Chalmers
  • Patent number: 9020099
    Abstract: The miniaturized pipe inspection system for measuring corrosion and scale in small pipes utilizes scattered radiation, which is measured by high efficiency solid scintillation gamma detector/spectrometer inserted inside the tube and separated from its bulky photomultiplier tube (PMT) and associated electronics by light pipe or fiber optic cable whose diameter can be very small. The light signal produced in the scintillation material is transmitted through the light pipe to outside the pipe to be inspected, where a PMT and electronic components including gamma ray energy analyzers are located. Gamma spectroscopy combined with gamma counting allows for multiple gamma ray primary and multiple backscattered radiation, thereby yielding high accuracy and high reliability of obtained corrosion, erosion and deposits data.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 3, 2014
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: King Abdulaziz University
    Inventor: Samir Abdul-Majid Alzaidi
  • Patent number: 9008273
    Abstract: An apparatus for analyzing a granulate for producing a pharmaceutical product has a data receiving unit adapted for receiving X-ray diffraction data indicative of a scattering of X-rays irradiated onto the granulate, a processor unit adapted for processing the X-ray diffraction data to derive information indicative of a compressibility and/or a dissolution characteristic of the granulate, and a control unit adapted for controlling a process of producing a pharmaceutical product based on the derived information.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 14, 2015
    Assignee: Bruker AXS GmbH
    Inventors: Aden Hodzic, Peter Laggner, Walter Tritthart
  • Patent number: 9001970
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and a device for identifying unknown substances in an object. According to the state of the art a collimated X-ray beam is directed onto the object and X-ray energy scattered from the object is detected and measured. The measurement values detected are compared to known measurement values corresponding to specific substances or classes of substances to identify unknown substances in the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Assignee: Entech Scientific B.V.
    Inventor: Johannes Bethke
  • Patent number: 8983034
    Abstract: A technique for use in security screening and detection contexts employs an X-ray explosive imager that acquires images from backscattered RF modulated X-ray signals on which a time series analysis is performed to detect image change across the time series of images that represent pixels changing at the rate of the difference frequency of the RF frequency and the a priori NQR signature frequencies.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: March 17, 2015
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: James R. Wood
  • Patent number: 8953741
    Abstract: A system and a method for measuring an ash content and a calorific value of a coal are provided. The system comprises: at least two dual-energy gamma ray transmission measuring devices and a computing device, in which at least one first dual-energy gamma ray transmission measuring device is disposed before an inlet of a coal combustion apparatus for measuring a first attenuation coefficient of a gamma ray from the at least one first dual-energy gamma ray transmission measuring device with regard to the coal; at least one second dual-energy gamma ray transmission measuring device is disposed after an outlet of the coal combustion apparatus for measuring a second attenuation coefficient of a gamma ray from the at least one second dual-energy gamma ray transmission measuring device with regard to a coal ash; and the computing device is configured to compute the ash content and the calorific value of the coal.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 19, 2012
    Date of Patent: February 10, 2015
    Assignee: Tsinghua University
    Inventors: Hongchang Yi, Lin Qian
  • Patent number: 8903046
    Abstract: The present specification discloses a covert mobile inspection vehicle with a backscatter X-ray scanning system that has an X-ray source and detectors for obtaining a radiographic image of an object outside the vehicle. The systems preferably include at least one sensor for determining a distance from at least one of the detectors to points on the surface of the object being scanned, a processor for processing the obtained radiographic image by using the determined distance of the object to obtain an atomic number of each material contained in the object, and one or more sensors to obtain surveillance data from a predefined area surrounding the vehicle.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 7, 2012
    Date of Patent: December 2, 2014
    Assignee: Rapiscan Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Edward James Morton
  • Patent number: 8848871
    Abstract: The energy of an X-ray beam and critical depth are selected to detect structural discontinuities in a material having an atomic number Z of 57 or greater. The critical depth is selected by adjusting the geometry of a collimator that blocks backscattered radiation so that backscattered X-ray originating from a depth less than the critical depth is not detected. Structures of Lanthanides and Actinides, including nuclear fuel rod materials, can be inspected for structural discontinuities such as gaps, cracks, and chipping employing the backscattered X-ray.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 3, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 30, 2014
    Assignee: UT-Battelle, LLC
    Inventors: Jeffrey Allen Chapman, John E. Gunning, Daniel F. Hollenbach, Larry J. Ott, Daniel Shedlock
  • Publication number: 20140286478
    Abstract: A method for characterizing a material, comprising: arranging a piece of the material near a source of ionizing photons and a detector; irradiating the piece with photons and acquiring, via the detector, two energy spectra of a photon flux that has been diffused into the material at various depths, the ratio of the photon paths in the material before and after diffusion remaining constant; determining a combined attenuation function with the spectra and the paths; selecting a plurality of energy ranges from said function; calculating, in each range, a quantity that is representative of the function; and estimating, from at least two of said quantities, a physical characteristic of the material by comparison with the same quantities obtained from known materials.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 21, 2011
    Publication date: September 25, 2014
    Applicant: Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux ene alt
    Inventors: Caroline Paulus, Joachim Tabary
  • Patent number: 8837677
    Abstract: One aspect relates to at least a portion of at least one Compton scattered X-ray visualizer, imager, or information provider configured to receive an at least one Compton scattered X-ray that has scattered through a substantial scattering depth range to one or more substantial prescribed scattering depths within an at least one matter of an at least a portion of an individual based at least in part on a set of scattering characteristics, the set of scattering characteristics at least partially corresponding to the at least one matter of the least the portion of the individual; the at least the portion of the at least one Compton scattered X-ray visualizer, imager, or information provider being configured for providing an at least one Compton scattered X-ray visualization, imaging, or information providing through one or more visualization, imaging, or information providing depth ranges to one or more visualization, imaging, or information providing prescribed depths into the at least one matter of the least t
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 1, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 16, 2014
    Inventors: Edward S. Boyden, Roderick A. Hyde, Muriel Y. Ishikawa, Edward K.Y. Jung, Eric C. Leuthardt, Robert W. Lord, Nathan P. Myhrvold, Dennis J. Rivet, Michael A. Smith, Clarence T. Tegreene, Thomas A. Weaver, Charles Whitmer, Lowell L. Wood, Jr., Victoria Y.H. Wood
  • Patent number: 8824632
    Abstract: A system and method for inspecting a vehicle or other object by means of two sources and one or more detectors of penetrating radiation. The sources and detector(s) are carried on a mobile conveyance and deployed at a point of operation. One source irradiates an inspected object from within an enclosure, while a second source swings away from the conveyance on a deployable member, such as a boom, such that the second source can irradiate the vehicle from above. A backscatter image of the inspected object is based at least in part on radiation from the second source scattered by the inspected object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: September 2, 2014
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventor: Richard Mastronardi
  • Patent number: 8781072
    Abstract: An apparatus and method are described for obtaining radiation interaction data from an object to enable better determination of the composition of the object. A radiation source and a radiation detector system are used to collect both transmitted and scattered radiation, preferably including radiation from at least one forward scatter mode. The detector system is capable of detecting and collecting spectroscopically resolvable information about incident radiation. Each intensity dataset is resolved across at least three of energy bands within the spectrum of the source, and this data may then be processed numerically to enable better determination of the composition of the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 14, 2009
    Date of Patent: July 15, 2014
    Assignee: Kromek Limited
    Inventor: Max Robinson
  • Patent number: 8774362
    Abstract: The present invention is a system and method for screening subjects at security locations while preserving the privacy of subjects and retaining the efficiency and thus, throughput, of the screening process. More specifically, the present invention is an improved X-ray detection system and method that allows for maximum threat detection performance with improved verbal and visual communication between the screening and imaging system operator and an image analyst, either proximally or remotely located, thus allowing for an accurate, directed physical search and minimal “pat-down” of subjects under inspection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 15, 2012
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Rapiscan Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Ronald J. Hughes
  • Publication number: 20140169528
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and a device for screening an object, such as electronic equipment, for the presence of foreign substances. According to the state of the art, a collimated X-ray beam is directed onto the object and X-ray energy scattered from the object is detected and measured. The method and device according to the invention further execute the following steps: determining the number of counts corresponding to at least the integral inelastic part of the spectrum measured; and establishing the presence or absence of foreign substances based on evaluation of the number of counts determined.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 16, 2013
    Publication date: June 19, 2014
    Inventor: Johannes Bethke
  • Patent number: 8750454
    Abstract: The application discloses systems and methods for X-ray scanning for identifying material composition of an object being scanned. The system includes at least one X-ray source for projecting an X-ray beam on the object, where at least a portion of the projected X-ray beam is transmitted through the object, and an array of detectors for measuring energy spectra of the transmitted X-rays. The measured energy spectra are used to determine atomic number of the object for identifying the material composition of the object. The X-ray scanning system may also have an array of collimated high energy backscattered X-ray detectors for measuring the energy spectrum of X-rays scattered by the object at an angle greater than 90 degrees, where the measured energy spectrum is used in conjunction with the transmission energy spectrum to determine atomic numbers of the object for identifying the material composition of the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: Rapiscan Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Tsahi Gozani, Joseph Bendahan, Craig Mathew Brown, Willem Gerhardus Johannes Langeveld, John David Stevenson
  • Publication number: 20140133631
    Abstract: Mechanisms for identifying a characteristic of a material. An X-ray signal is generated. The X-ray signal is modulated with at least two radio frequency modulation signals to form a modulated X-ray signal. The modulated X-ray signal is directed toward a target material. A backscatter signal is received from the target material, the backscatter signal including harmonic components generated by the target material in response to receiving the modulated X-ray signal. Based at least in part on the harmonic components, a characteristic of the target material is identified.
    Type: Application
    Filed: January 17, 2014
    Publication date: May 15, 2014
    Applicant: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: J. Richard Wood
  • Patent number: 8705698
    Abstract: Provided are an X-ray analyzer and a mapping method for an X-ray analysis which, in a inspection for a harmful substance contained in, for example, a material or a composite electronic component, enable determination as to whether a sample is normal or abnormal to be performed visually based on an image obtained by the X-ray mapping analysis. In the X-ray analyzer, an X-ray mapping image of a sample which is confirmed to be normal in advance is obtained as a reference mapping image. A mapping analysis is performed on a inspection sample. A difference from the reference mapping image is obtained for each pixel, to thereby display a difference mapping image. A region in which the amount of specific element is larger than a reference amount is displayed with high brightness, and hence an abnormal portion may be easily found.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 22, 2014
    Assignee: SII Nanotechnology Inc.
    Inventors: Hiroshi Matsumura, Kiyoshi Hasegawa
  • Patent number: 8681939
    Abstract: A device for detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials is described. In particular, the device performs the detection and identification of carbon- and nitrogen-containing materials by photo-nuclear detection. The device may comprise a race-track microtron, a breaking target, and a water-filled Cherenkov radiation counter.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 5, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 25, 2014
    Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
    Inventors: Alexander Ivanovich Karev, Valery Georgievich Raevsky, Leonid Zavenovich Dzhilavyan, Valery Dmitrievich Laptev, Nikolay Ivanovich Pakhomov, Vasily Ivanovich Shvedunov, Vladimir Ivanovich Rykalin, Louis Joseph Brothers, Larry K. Wilhide
  • Publication number: 20140060821
    Abstract: A method and system for determining a property of a sample of fluid in a borehole. A fluid sample is collected in a downhole tool. While collecting, X-rays are transmitted proximate the fluid from an X-ray source in the tool and an X-ray flux that is a function of a property of the fluid is detected. The detected X-ray flux data is processed to determine the property of the fluid.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 18, 2013
    Publication date: March 6, 2014
    Applicant: HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC.
    Inventors: Paul F. Rodney, Ronald L. Spross, Jerome Allen Truax, Daniel David Gleitman
  • Publication number: 20130343520
    Abstract: Systems and methods for inspecting an object with a scanned beam of penetrating radiation. Scattered radiation from the beam is detected, in either a backward or forward direction, as is radiation transmitted through the inspected object. The source of penetrating radiation is concealed within an enclosure of a road-worthy vehicle, and detected with a large-area uncollimated detector similarly concealed within the enclosure.
    Type: Application
    Filed: August 27, 2013
    Publication date: December 26, 2013
    Applicant: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Lee Grodzins, Peter J. Rothschild
  • Publication number: 20130343525
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a method and a device for identifying unknown substances in an object. According to the state of the art a collimated X-ray beam is directed onto the object and X-ray energy scattered from the object is detected and measured. The measurement values detected are compared to known measurement values corresponding to specific substances or classes of substances to identify unknown substances in the object.
    Type: Application
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Publication date: December 26, 2013
    Applicant: Entech Scientific B.V.
    Inventor: Johannes Bethke
  • Patent number: 8611494
    Abstract: In the present disclosure, before disassembly of liquid crystal module (1) having liquid crystal panel (2) and a back light, irradiation is performed with X-rays (13) from the front surface side of liquid crystal panel (2) of liquid crystal module (1). By this irradiation with X-rays (13), generated fluorescent X-rays (14) are detected to analyze an element contained in liquid crystal panel (2), while X-rays (17) backscattered or transmitted to the rear surface side of liquid crystal module (1) are detected to determine a type and a state of the back light. Then, based on the determined type and state of the back light, liquid crystal module (1) is disassembled.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2013
    Date of Patent: December 17, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventor: Hiroshi Iwamoto
  • Publication number: 20130329859
    Abstract: Systems, methods, and devices involving segmented radiation detectors are provided. For example, a segmented radiation detector may include a segmented scintillator and an optical-to-electrical converter. The segmented scintillator may have several segments that convert radiation to light, at least one of which may detect radiation arriving from an azimuthal angle around an axis of the segmented scintillator. The optical-to-electrical converter may be coupled to the segmented scintillator. The optical-to-electrical converter may receive the light from the segments of the segmented scintillator and output respective electrical signals corresponding to the amount of radiation detected by each segment.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 28, 2011
    Publication date: December 12, 2013
    Applicant: SCHLUMBERGER TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION
    Inventors: Joel L. Groves, Patrice Ligneul, Bob A. Adolph, Paul Wanjau, Tim Quinlan, Jack Purcell
  • Patent number: 8605859
    Abstract: An apparatus and method for inspecting personnel or their effects. A first and second carriage each carries a source for producing a beam of penetrating radiation incident on a given subject. A positioner provides for relative motion of each beam vis-à-vis the subject in a motion, the vertical component of which is one-way. A detector receives radiation produced by at least one of the sources after the radiation interacts with the subject.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: December 10, 2013
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard Mastronardi, Dean Fleury, Jeffrey R. Schubert, Joseph DiMare, Richard Schueller, Alexander Chalmers
  • Publication number: 20130315377
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are methods and systems of scanning a target for potential threats using the energy spectra of photons scattered from the target to determine the spatial distributions of average atomic number and/or mass in the target. An exemplary method comprises: illuminating each of a plurality of voxels of the target with a photon beam; determining an incident flux upon each voxel; measuring the energy spectrum of photons scattered from the voxel; determining, using the energy spectrum, the average atomic number in the voxel; and determining the mass in the voxel using the incident flux, the average atomic number of the material in the voxel, the energy spectrum, and a scattering kernel corresponding to the voxel. An exemplary system may use threat detection heuristics to determine whether to trigger further action based upon the average atomic number and/or mass of the voxels.
    Type: Application
    Filed: April 2, 2013
    Publication date: November 28, 2013
    Applicant: Passport Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Passport Systmes, Inc.
  • Patent number: 8588370
    Abstract: The present invention discloses an article inspection device, comprising: a x-ray machine, a collimation unit, a transmission detector array and at least one scattering detector array. Each of the at least one scattering detector array comprising a plurality of same scattering detector modules arranged in a matrix of i-rows and j-columns. A transmission cross section of the article transmitted by the x-rays is divided into a plurality of same sub-regions arranged in a matrix of i-rows and j-columns. The plurality of scattering detector modules arranged in i-rows and i-columns correspond to the plurality of sub-regions arranged in i-rows and j-columns one by one for detecting pair production effect annihilation photons and Compton-effect scattering photons from the respective sub-regions.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignees: Tsinghua University, Nuctech Company Limited
    Inventors: Yigang Yang, Tiezhu Li, Qinjian Zhang, Yi Zhang, Yingkang Jin, Qinghao Chen, Yuanjing Li, Yinong Liu
  • Patent number: 8565379
    Abstract: Apparatus for inspection of a sample includes an X-ray source, which is configured to irradiate a location on the sample with a beam of X-rays. An X-ray detector is configured to receive the X-rays that are scattered from the sample and to output a first signal indicative of the received X-rays. A VUV source is configured to irradiate the location on the sample with a beam of VUV radiation. A VUV detector is configured to receive the VUV radiation that is reflected from the sample and to output a second signal indicative of the received VUV radiation. A processor is configured to process the first and second signals in order to measure a property of the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2012
    Date of Patent: October 22, 2013
    Assignee: Jordan Valley Semiconductors Ltd.
    Inventors: Isaac Mazor, Matthew Wormington, Ayelet Dag, Bagrat Khachatryan
  • Publication number: 20130208850
    Abstract: Radiation is directed at an object, and radiation scattered by the object is sensed. An angular distribution of scatter in the sensed scattered radiation relative to a path of the radiation directed at the object is determined, and the angular distribution is evaluated. One or more atomic numbers, or effective atomic numbers, of materials composing the object is determined based on evaluating the angular distribution.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 13, 2013
    Publication date: August 15, 2013
    Applicant: L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems, Inc.
  • Patent number: 8507853
    Abstract: The present invention relates to a novel system and method for the determination of depth profiling with improved accuracy and reliability. The method comprises obtaining spectroscopic data from the sample while under at least two different electrical conditions of the sample, the spectroscopic data comprising a signal of charged particles emitted from the sample, and being indicative of a change in amplitude, spectral position and spectral shape of the signal from the sample while under different electrical conditions of the sample, the change being indicative of the compositional profile and spatial distribution for at least one chemical element in the sample along a direction through the sample.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 22, 2009
    Date of Patent: August 13, 2013
    Assignee: Yeda Research and Development Company Ltd.
    Inventor: Hagai Cohen
  • Patent number: 8411822
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are methods and systems of scanning a target for potential threats using the energy spectra of photons scattered from the target to determine the spatial distributions of average atomic number and/or mass in the target. An exemplary method comprises: illuminating each of a plurality of voxels of the target with a photon beam; determining an incident flux upon each voxel; measuring the energy spectrum of photons scattered from the voxel; determining, using the energy spectrum, the average atomic number in the voxel; and determining the mass in the voxel using the incident flux, the average atomic number of the material in the voxel, the energy spectrum, and a scattering kernel corresponding to the voxel. An exemplary system may use threat detection heuristics to determine whether to trigger further action based upon the average atomic number and/or mass of the voxels.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 18, 2011
    Date of Patent: April 2, 2013
    Assignee: Passport Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert J. Ledoux, William Bertozzi
  • Patent number: 8401270
    Abstract: A first image including a projection of a portion is generated based on data representing attenuation of higher-energy radiation having a peak energy of at least 1 MeV that passes through a portion of an inspection volume. A second image including a projection of the portion is generated based on data representing attenuation of lower-energy radiation passing through the portion of the inspection volume. A dual-pixel image is created from the first image and the second image. A region of interest is selected from the dual-pixel image. A first basis function that is derived from an attenuation characteristic associated with the region of interest is selected. The region of interest is represented in terms of an amplitude associated with the first basis function and an amplitude associated with the second basis function.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 15, 2009
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2013
    Assignee: L-3 Communications Security and Detection Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Richard F. Eilbert, David Perticone, Shuanghe Shi, Jeff Stillson
  • Publication number: 20130039472
    Abstract: The present specification discloses a covert mobile inspection vehicle with a backscatter X-ray scanning system that has an X-ray source and detectors for obtaining a radiographic image of an object outside the vehicle. The systems preferably include at least one sensor for determining a distance from at least one of the detectors to points on the surface of the object being scanned, a processor for processing the obtained radiographic image by using the determined distance of the object to obtain an atomic number of each material contained in the object, and one or more sensors to obtain surveillance data from a predefined area surrounding the vehicle.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 7, 2012
    Publication date: February 14, 2013
    Inventor: Edward James Morton
  • Publication number: 20120275568
    Abstract: Apparatus for inspection of a sample includes an X-ray source, which is configured to irradiate a location on the sample with a beam of X-rays. An X-ray detector is configured to receive the X-rays that are scattered from the sample and to output a first signal indicative of the received X-rays. A VUV source is configured to irradiate the location on the sample with a beam of VUV radiation. A VUV detector is configured to receive the VUV radiation that is reflected from the sample and to output a second signal indicative of the received VUV radiation. A processor is configured to process the first and second signals in order to measure a property of the sample.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 14, 2012
    Publication date: November 1, 2012
    Applicant: JORDAN VALLEY SEMICONDUCTORS LTD.
    Inventors: Isaac Mazor, Matthew Wormington, Ayelet Dag, Bagrat Khachatryan
  • Patent number: 8249307
    Abstract: The method and apparatus for estimating the tenderness of meat comprises scanning a sample of meat through an x-ray beam; detecting or measuring the transmitted x-ray radiation through the meat sample; relating the transmitted x-ray radiation to a characteristic of the shear force of the meat sample; and assessing the tenderness of the meat sample from the characteristic of the shear force.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 26, 2007
    Date of Patent: August 21, 2012
    Assignee: Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Ltd.
    Inventor: Chris Kroger
  • Publication number: 20120183125
    Abstract: Disclosed herein are methods and systems of scanning a target for potential threats using the energy spectra of photons scattered from (lie target to determine the spatial distributions of average atomic number and/or mass in the target. An exemplary method comprises: illuminating each of a plurality of voxels of the target with a photon beam; determining an incident flux upon each voxel; measuring the energy spectrum of photons scattered from the voxel; determining, using the energy spectrum, the average atomic number in the voxel; and determining the mass in the voxel using the incident flux, the average atomic number of the material in the voxel, the energy spectrum, and a scattering kernel corresponding to the voxel. An exemplary system may use threat detection heuristics to determine whether to trigger further action based upon the average atomic number and/or mass of the voxels.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 18, 2011
    Publication date: July 19, 2012
    Applicant: Passport Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: Robert J. Ledoux, William Bertozzi
  • Patent number: 8199996
    Abstract: The present invention is a system and method for screening subjects at security locations while preserving the privacy of subjects and retaining the efficiency and thus, throughput, of the screening process. More specifically, the present invention is an improved X-ray detection system and method that allows for maximum threat detection performance with improved verbal and visual communication between the screening and imaging system operator and an image analyst, either proximally or remotely located, thus allowing for an accurate, directed physical search and minimal “pat-down” of subjects under inspection.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 12, 2012
    Assignee: Rapiscan Systems, Inc.
    Inventor: Ronald J. Hughes
  • Patent number: 8194822
    Abstract: Systems and methods for inspecting an object with a scanned beam of penetrating radiation. Scattered radiation from the beam is detected, in either a backward or forward direction. Characteristic values of the scattered radiation are compared to expected reference values to characterize the object. Additionally, penetrating radiation transmitted through the inspected object may be combined with scatter information. In certain embodiments, the inspected field of view is less than 0.1 steradians, and the detector is separate from the source of penetrating radiation and is disposed, with respect to the object, such as to subtend greater than 0.5 steradians in the field of view of the object.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: June 5, 2012
    Assignee: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
    Inventors: Peter Rothschild, Jeffrey Schubert, Richard Schueller
  • Publication number: 20120123697
    Abstract: A device for identifying a material of an object including: a source of X photons, and a spectrometric detector, the source irradiating the object with an incident beam and the detector measuring a magnitude of a backscattered beam from the incident beam after scattering in a volume of the material and an energy of the X photons of the backscattered beam, the incident and backscattered beams forming a scattering angle. Further, a mechanism adjusts position between the source, the detector, and the object for volume to be at different depths with a constant angle, and a mechanism processes the two magnitudes in two positions and the energy in one position to calculate an attenuation coefficient for estimating the density of the material.
    Type: Application
    Filed: July 19, 2010
    Publication date: May 17, 2012
    Applicant: COMMISSARIAT A L'ENERGIE ATOMIQUE ET AUX ENE ALT
    Inventors: Elisa Fabiani, Jean Rinkel, Joachim Tabary, Jean-Marc Dinten
  • Publication number: 20120106707
    Abstract: The present invention provides, inter alia, methods of characterizing a small molecule organic material, e.g., a drug or a drug product. This method includes subjecting the solid small molecule organic material to x-ray total scattering analysis at a short wavelength, collecting data generated thereby, and mathematically transforming the data to provide a refined set of data.
    Type: Application
    Filed: December 2, 2011
    Publication date: May 3, 2012
    Inventors: Simon Billinge, Kenneth Shankland, Norman Shankland, Alastair Florence
  • Patent number: 8160201
    Abstract: The aim of the method is to characterize an element (21) comprising a plurality of superposed layers separated from one another by interfaces. It comprises at least the following steps: The element (21) is illuminated with radiation (15) emitted by a source (13); radiation (23) transmitted through the element (21) is collected on a detector (17), this transmitted radiation forming an experimental image of the element (21) on the detector (17), the detector (17) being placed at such a distance from the element (21) that interference fringes appear on the experimental image at the interfaces between the layers; and an approximate value of at least one physical characteristic of at least one given layer is determined by calculation from the experimental image, the determination step being implemented by minimizing the difference between the experimental image and a simulated image of at least part of the experimental image of the element (21).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 18, 2007
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2012
    Assignee: Areva NP
    Inventors: Julien Banchet, David Tisseur
  • Patent number: 8149988
    Abstract: Methods and systems for detecting potential items of interest in target samples, using nuclear resonance fluorescence, utilize incident photon spectra that are narrower than traditional bremsstrahlung spectra but overlap nuclear resonances in elements of interest for purposes of detection, such as but not limited to the detection of threats in luggage or containers being scanned.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 25, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 3, 2012
    Assignee: Passport Systems, Inc.
    Inventors: William Bertozzi, Robert J. Ledoux