With Positive Or Negative Ion Acceleration Patents (Class 313/359.1)
  • Patent number: 10269526
    Abstract: A miniature Hall current plasma source apparatus having magnetic shielding of the walls from ionized plasma, an integrated discharge channel and gas distributor, an instant-start hollow cathode mounted to the plasma source, and an externally mounted keeper, is described. The apparatus offers advantages over existing other Hall current plasma sources having similar power levels, including: lower mass, longer lifetime, lower part count including fewer power supplies, and the ability to be continuously adjustable to lower average power levels using pulsed operation and adjustment of the pulse duty cycle. The Hall current plasma source can provide propulsion for small spacecraft that either do not have sufficient power to accommodate a propulsion system or do not have available volume to incorporate the larger propulsion systems currently available. The present low-power Hall current plasma source can be used to provide energetic ions to assist the deposition of thin films in plasma processing applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2018
    Date of Patent: April 23, 2019
    Assignee: Colorado State University Research Foundation
    Inventors: Rafael A. Martinez, John D. Williams, Joel A. Moritz, Jr., Casey C. Farnell
  • Patent number: 10237963
    Abstract: A radio-frequency (RF) cavity apparatus for accelerating charged particles includes first and second cavity arms. The first and second cavity arms have respective first and second axes of rotational symmetry and each cavity arm includes at least one cell. The first and second cavity arms are connected by a resonance coupler. The cell(s) of the first cavity arm have an axial dimensional parameter that is equal to a corresponding axial dimensional parameter of the cell(s) of the second cavity arm, and the cell(s) of the first cavity arm have at least one non-axial dimensional parameter that differs from corresponding non-axial dimensional parameter(s) of the cell(s) of the second cavity arm.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 24, 2015
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2019
    Assignee: Oxford University Innovation Limited
    Inventors: Ivan Konoplev, Graeme Burt
  • Patent number: 10163602
    Abstract: Provided is an ion beam system including a gas field ionization ion source which can obtain a high current sufficient for processing and stabilize an ion beam current. The ion beam system includes a gas field ionization ion source which includes: a vacuum vessel; an emitter tip holder disposed in the vacuum vessel; an emitter tip connected to the emitter tip holder; an extraction electrode opposed to the emitter tip; a gas supply portion for supplying a gas to the emitter tip; and a cold transfer member disposed in the vacuum vessel and transferring cold energy to the emitter tip holder. The cold transfer member has its surface covered with a heat insulating material in order to prevent the gas condensation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 28, 2017
    Date of Patent: December 25, 2018
    Assignee: Hitachi High-Tech Science Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroyasu Shichi, Shinichi Matsubara, Yoshimi Kawanami
  • Patent number: 10135323
    Abstract: The present invention discloses an apparatus and method for electromagnetic spacecraft propulsion. The apparatus includes capacitor assemblies bracketed by electromagnetic solenoids configured in Helmholtz Coil geometries. The action of magnetic fields generated in the solenoids on segmented currents in conductive discharge elements during capacitor discharge produces unidirectional forces, while reaction momentum is carried away by Poynting Vector electromagnetic fields in conformity with the currently understood principles of electrodynamics.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2018
    Inventor: James Wayne Purvis
  • Patent number: 10117320
    Abstract: The accelerator includes a circular vacuum container which contains a circular return yoke. With respect to the central axis of the vacuum container, an incidence electrode is arranged towards the entrance of a beam emission path inside of the return yoke. Inside of the return yoke, electrodes are arranged radially from the incidence electrode in the periphery of the incidence electrode. Recesses are arranged alternately with the electrodes in the circumferential direction of the return yoke. In the vacuum container, an orbit-concentric region is formed in which multiple beam orbits centered on the incidence electrode are present, and, in the periphery of said region, an orbit-eccentric area is formed in which multiple beam orbits eccentric to the incidence electrode are present. In the orbit-eccentric region, the beam orbits between the incidence electrode and the entrance to the beam emission path are denser.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 8, 2014
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2018
    Assignee: Hitachi, Ltd.
    Inventors: Takamichi Aoki, Futaro Ebina, Hideaki Nishiuchi, Shigemitsu Hara, Masumi Umezawa, Takayoshi Seki
  • Patent number: 9839114
    Abstract: A method for the suppression of upstream-directed field emission in RF accelerators. The method is not restricted to a certain number of cavity cells, but requires similar operating field levels in all cavities to efficiently annihilate the once accumulated energy. Such a field balance is desirable to minimize dynamic RF losses, but not necessarily achievable in reality depending on individual cavity performance, such as early Q0-drop or quench field. The method enables a significant energy reduction for upstream-directed electrons within a relatively short distance. As a result of the suppression of upstream-directed field emission, electrons will impact surfaces at rather low energies leading to reduction of dark current and less issues with heating and damage of accelerator components as well as radiation levels including neutron generation and thus radio-activation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2016
    Date of Patent: December 5, 2017
    Assignees: JEFFERSON SCIENCE ASSOCIATES, LLC, ASML. NETHERLANDS B.V.
    Inventors: Stephen V. Benson, Frank Marhauser, David R. Douglas, Lucas J. P. Ament
  • Patent number: 9447779
    Abstract: A low power hall thruster is provided that is effective for micro-spacecrafts and nano-spacecrafts as well as mini-spacecrafts. The hall thruster comprises a co-axial acceleration channel capable of being applied with predominantly-radial magnetic field and a co-axial anode within a cavity capable of being applied with substantially longitudinal magnetic field. A cathode-compensator is placed beyond the acceleration channel and magnetic system is provided capable of generating the radial magnetic field within the co-axial acceleration channel and the longitudinal magnetic field within the co-axial anode. An electrically isolated gas distributor is also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2016
    Inventors: Alexander Kapulkin, Mauricio Moshe Guelman, Vladimir Balabanov, Binyamin Rubin
  • Patent number: 9449721
    Abstract: In space, a linear accelerator firing charged pellets can be situated at a large distance from a target at which the pellets are aimed. The accelerator can fire a graduated-speed train of pellets over a period of seconds or longer which arrive at the target simultaneously, and impart a large pulse of energy. An accelerator of modest power can thus provide a pulse in the megajoule range, sufficient to ignite fusion. It is necessary to provide course corrections to the pellets, to bring them together with very high precision as they approach the target. An ideal siting is to place the accelerator at the Earth-Moon L1 or L2 Lagrange point, and the fusion target at a point on the surface of the Moon where the pellets will strike at grazing incidence, i.e. on a great circle intersecting the lunar poles. Length of the particle trajectory is over 60000 km.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 4, 2012
    Date of Patent: September 20, 2016
    Inventor: Colin Jack
  • Patent number: 9347127
    Abstract: An ion etch assisted deposition apparatus deposits a thin film upon a substrate having a three dimensional feature, using an ion etching source and deposition source arranged at similar angles relative to the substrate and at an angle ? relative to each other. The angle ? is selected to be substantially equal the supplement of the angle ?? formed between the three dimensional feature on the substrate and the substrate surface. In this configuration the relative flux of energetic etch ions and deposition atoms is adjusted to prevent the growth of poor quality deposited material.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2012
    Date of Patent: May 24, 2016
    Assignee: Veeco Instruments, Inc.
    Inventors: Boris L. Druz, Vincent Ip, Adrian Devasahavam
  • Patent number: 9137883
    Abstract: Robust, flexible, lightweight, low profile enhanced performance dielectric barrier discharge actuators (plasma actuators) based on aerogels/nanofoams with controlled pore size and size distribution as well as pore shape. The plasma actuators offer high body force as well as high force to weight ratios (thrust density). The flexibility and mechanical robustness of the actuators allows them to be shaped to conform to the surface to which they are applied. Carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrodes serve to further decrease the weight and profile of the actuators while maintaining flexibility while insulating nano-inclusions in the matrix enable tailoring of the mechanical properties. Such actuators are required for flow control in aeronautics and moving machinery such as wind turbines, noise abatement in landing gear and rotary wing aircraft and other applications.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 27, 2014
    Date of Patent: September 15, 2015
    Assignees: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF AEROSPACE ASSOCIATES, THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AS REPRESENTED BY THE ADMINISTRATOR OF THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
    Inventors: Godfrey Sauti, Tian-Bing Xu, Emilie J. Siochi, Stephen P. Wilkinson, Mary Ann B. Meador, Haiquan N. Guo
  • Patent number: 9127654
    Abstract: The Hall effect plasma thruster includes a main annular channel for ionization and acceleration that presents an open downstream end, at least one cathode, an annular anode concentric with the main annular channel, a pipe and a manifold for feeding the channel with ionizable gas, and a magnetic circuit for creating a magnetic field in the main annular channel. The main annular channel includes inner and outer annular wall portions delimiting the open end, each of which includes an assembly of juxtaposed conductive or semi-conductive rings in the form of laminations separated by fine layers of insulation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: May 19, 2010
    Date of Patent: September 8, 2015
    Assignees: SNECMA, INSTITUTE OF FUNDAMENTAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, CENTRE NATIONAL D'ETUDES SPATIALES, CENTRE NATIONAL DE LA RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE
    Inventors: Serge Barral, Stéphan J. Zurbach
  • Patent number: 9064671
    Abstract: Various embodiments of the present invention relate to a plasma electron source apparatus. The apparatus comprises a cathode discharge chamber in which a plasma is generated, an exit hole provided in said cathode discharge chamber from which electrons from the plasma are extracted by an accelerating field provided between said cathode discharge chamber and an anode, at least one plasma confinement device, and a switching mechanism for switching the at least one plasma confinement device between a first value allowing for electron extraction from the plasma and a second value prohibiting electron extraction from the plasma. Associated methods are also provided.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 14, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 23, 2015
    Assignee: Arcam AB
    Inventors: Ulric Ljungblad, Mattias Svensson
  • Publication number: 20150145404
    Abstract: The invention relates to a such particle accelerator setup (1, 11) and method based on the total reflection of electromagnetic pulses with a frequency falling into the THz frequency domain that utilize the evanescent filed for the acceleration of electrically charged particles. Said setup includes a radiation source (5) to emit high-energy THz-pulses, preferably comprising a few optical cycles, having a large peak electric field strength, as well as two optical elements (2, 12) in the form of a pair of bulk crystals made of a substance that exhibits large refractive index, low dispersion and high optical destruction threshold, wherein said optical elements are transparent for the THz radiation. The inventive solutions represent much simpler, more compact and more cost effective alternatives compared to the prior art particle accelerator setups.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 9, 2013
    Publication date: May 28, 2015
    Applicant: University of Pécs
    Inventors: Gábor Almási, József András Fülöp, János Hebling, Mátyás Mechler, László Pálfalvi
  • Patent number: 9018829
    Abstract: An ion source includes an ion chamber housing defining an ion source chamber, the ion chamber housing having a side with a plurality of apertures. The ion source also includes an antechamber housing defining an antechamber. The antechamber housing shares the side with the plurality of apertures with the ion chamber housing. The antechamber housing has an opening to receive a gas from a gas source. The antechamber is configured to transform the gas into an altered state having excited neutrals that is provided through the plurality of apertures into the ion source chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 31, 2013
    Date of Patent: April 28, 2015
    Assignee: Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc.
    Inventors: Bon-Woong Koo, Victor Benveniste, Christopher A. Rowland, Craig R. Chaney, Frank Sinclair, Neil J. Bassom
  • Patent number: 9000660
    Abstract: Hydro-carbon nanorings may be used, e.g., in power storage power transmission and transportation. Sufficiently cooled, an externally hydrogen doped carbon nanoring may be used to create a radial dipole containment field for electrons rotating in the nanoring. Such nanorings may transmit DC current with little or no loss. Similarly, an internally hydrogen doped carbon nanoring may be used to create a radial dipole containment field for positrons rotating in the nanoring. Virtually lossless transmission of AC current may be achieved by pairing such streams of electrons and positrons in their respective containment fields. Closed rotation of such streams may also be used to efficiently store large amounts of electrical energy. Finally, by selectively accelerating and decelerating pairs of such paired electron and positron streams, which are moving at relativistic speeds, differential momentum may be created to cause physical movement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 15, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 7, 2015
    Inventor: Laurence H. Cooke
  • Patent number: 8994258
    Abstract: In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, an end-Hall ion source has an electron emitting cathode, an anode, a reflector, an internal pole piece, an external pole piece, a magnetically permeable path, and a magnetic-field generating means located in the permeable path between the two pole pieces. The anode and reflector are enclosed without contact by a thermally conductive cup that has internal passages through which a cooling fluid can flow. The closed end of the cup is located between the reflector and the internal pole piece and the opposite end of the cup is in direct contact with the external pole piece, and wherein the cup is made of a material having a low microhardness, such as copper or aluminum.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 25, 2013
    Date of Patent: March 31, 2015
    Assignee: Kaufman & Robinson, Inc.
    Inventors: Harold R. Kaufman, James R. Kahn, Richard E. Nethery
  • Publication number: 20150076987
    Abstract: Robust, flexible, lightweight, low profile enhanced performance dielectric barrier discharge actuators (plasma actuators) based on aerogels/nanofoams with controlled pore size and size distribution as well as pore shape. The plasma actuators offer high body force as well as high force to weight ratios (thrust density). The flexibility and mechanical robustness of the actuators allows them to be shaped to conform to the surface to which they are applied. Carbon nanotube (CNT) based electrodes serve to further decrease the weight and profile of the actuators while maintaining flexibility while insulating nano-inclusions in the matrix enable tailoring of the mechanical properties. Such actuators are required for flow control in aeronautics and moving machinery such as wind turbines, noise abatement in landing gear and rotary wing aircraft and other applications.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 27, 2014
    Publication date: March 19, 2015
    Inventors: Godfrey SAUTI, Tian-Bing XU, Emilie J. Siochi, Stephen P. Wilkinson, Mary Ann B. Meador, Haiquan N. Guo
  • Patent number: 8963112
    Abstract: The invention comprises a patient positioning and/or repositioning system, such as a laying, semi-vertical, or seated patient positioning, alignment, and/or control method and apparatus used in conjunction with multi-axis charged particle radiation therapy. Patient positioning constraints optionally include one or more of: a seat support, a back support, a head support, an arm support, a knee support, and a foot support. One or more of the positioning constraints are preferably movable and/or under computer control for rapid positioning, repositioning, and/or immobilization of the patient. The system optionally uses an X-ray beam that lies in substantially the same path as a proton beam path of a particle beam cancer therapy system. The generated image is usable for: fine tuning body alignment relative to the proton beam path, to control the charged particle beam path to accurately and precisely target the tumor, and/or in system verification and validation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 7, 2013
    Date of Patent: February 24, 2015
    Inventor: Vladimir Balakin
  • Patent number: 8928216
    Abstract: A method of production of a radio frequency accelerator which has a tubular part 1 which forms an acceleration cavity, including a temporary assembly step of making a plurality of component members 11 to 14 which have shapes obtained by splitting the tubular part 1 mate with each other to temporarily assemble them into the shape of the tubular part 10 and a welding step of welding the plurality of component members 11 to 14 together. The temporary assembly step includes a step of placing, inside of the tubular part 1, support members 21 for contacting the inside surface of the tubular part 1 and supporting the tubular part 1 from the inside, and the welding step includes a step of welding the plurality of component members 11 to 14 along the butt lines 51 by friction stir welding.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 14, 2010
    Date of Patent: January 6, 2015
    Assignees: Tokyo Institute of Technology, Inter-University Research Institute Corporation High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Time Corporation
    Inventors: Noriyosu Hayashizaki, Toshiyuki Hattori, Takuya Ishibashi, Fujio Naito, Eiichi Takasaki, Hideaki Yamauchi
  • Patent number: 8878422
    Abstract: Device for producing an electron beam includes a housing, which delimits a space that is evacuatable and has an electron beam outlet opening; an inlet structured and arranged for feeding process gas into the space; and a planar cathode and an anode, which are arranged in the space, and between which, a glow discharge plasma is producible by an applied electrical voltage. Ions are accelerateable from the glow discharge plasma onto a surface of the cathode and electrons emitted by the cathode are accelerateable into the glow discharge plasma. The cathode includes a first part made of a first material at least on an emission side, which forms a centrally arranged first surface region of the cathode, and a second part made of a second material, which forms a second surface region of the cathode that encloses the first surface region.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: November 4, 2014
    Assignee: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Foerderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.
    Inventors: Goesta Mattausch, Peter Feinaeugle, Volker Kirchhoff, Dieter Weiske, Henrik Flaske, Rainer Zeibe
  • Patent number: 8771480
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 8, 2014
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Publication number: 20140184055
    Abstract: For high-voltage devices such as particle accelerators, novel geometries for a triple-junction at which an insulator, an anode and a vacuum meet are disclosed. A singularity in the electric field at the triple-junction is eliminated, reducing dielectric flashover and allowing the devices to operate at higher voltages without breakdown. In one aspect, such a device includes a cathode, an anode having an anode surface exposed to a vacuum, and a dielectric body disposed between the cathode and anode, the dielectric body having a dielectric surface that is exposed to the vacuum, wherein the dielectric surface and the anode surface approach each other such that an angle measured across the vacuum between the dielectric surface and the anode surface decreases with decreasing distance between the dielectric surface and the anode surface until the dielectric surface and the anode surface meet and are parallel.
    Type: Application
    Filed: March 5, 2014
    Publication date: July 3, 2014
    Inventors: Eugene J. Lauer, Mark A. Lauer
  • Patent number: 8764948
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: July 1, 2014
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Patent number: 8747624
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 20, 2013
    Date of Patent: June 10, 2014
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Patent number: 8736049
    Abstract: Micro-plasma is generated at the tip of a micro-spring by applying a positive voltage to the spring's anchor portion and a negative voltage to an electrode maintained a fixed gap distance from the spring's tip portion. By generating a sufficiently large voltage potential (i.e., as determined by Peek's Law), current crowding at the tip portion of the micro-spring creates an electrical field that sufficiently ionizes neutral molecules in a portion of the air-filled region surrounding the tip portion to generate a micro-plasma event. Ionic wind air currents are generated by producing multiple micro-plasma events using micro-springs disposed in a pattern to produce a pressure differential that causes air movement over the micro-springs. Ionic wind cooling is produced by generating such ionic wind air currents, for example, in the gap region between an IC die and a base substrate disposed in a flip-chip arrangement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 13, 2013
    Date of Patent: May 27, 2014
    Assignee: Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated
    Inventors: Bowen Cheng, Dirk DeBruyker, Eugene M. Chow
  • Patent number: 8635850
    Abstract: An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) thruster is disclosed having a plasma chamber which is electrically biased with a positive voltage. The chamber bias serves to efficiently accelerate and expel the positive ions from the chamber. Electrons follow the exiting ions, serving to provide an electrically neutral exhaust plume. In a further embodiment, a downstream shaping magnetic field serves to further accelerate and/or shape the exhaust plume.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 29, 2008
    Date of Patent: January 28, 2014
    Assignee: U.S. Department of Energy
    Inventors: Max E. Light, Patrick L. Colestock
  • Patent number: 8593051
    Abstract: Apparatus for the production of a charged particle beam, comprising: an ion source plasma chamber (104), having a door (106), and an accelerator (102) mounted on the face of the door remote from the ion source plasma chamber.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 21, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 26, 2013
    Assignee: Nordiko Technical Services Limited
    Inventors: Timothy Andrew James Holmes, Mervyn Howard Davis
  • Patent number: 8587227
    Abstract: An arrangement with radiation cooling of the anode, which avoids the need for complex additional cooling measures, is proposed for an electrostatic ion accelerator arrangement in which the thermal power loss which is not negligible occurs at the anode, which is arranged in an ionization chamber, during operation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 19, 2013
    Assignee: Thales Electronic Systems GmbH
    Inventor: Norbert Koch
  • Patent number: 8581483
    Abstract: The invention relates to an ion accelerator arrangement comprising an ionization chamber which is surrounded by a chamber wall and a magnetic arrangement that is disposed outside the chamber wall. Steps are taken to dissipate lost heat occurring on the chamber wall, and advantageous solutions are provided to protect permanent-magnet elements of the magnetic arrangement.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 12, 2008
    Date of Patent: November 12, 2013
    Assignee: Thales Electronic Systems GmbH
    Inventors: Hans-Peter Harmann, Norbert Koch, Mathias Clages
  • Patent number: 8575868
    Abstract: A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a “virtual” traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 5, 2013
    Assignee: Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC
    Inventors: George James Caporaso, Yu-Jiuan Chen, Scott Nelson, Jim Sullivan, Steven A. Hawkins
  • Publication number: 20130181599
    Abstract: A DC voltage-operated particle accelerator for accelerating a charged particle from a source to a target includes a first electrode arrangement and a separate second electrode arrangement. The first electrode arrangement and the second electrode arrangement are disposed in such a way that the particle successively runs through the first electrode arrangement and the second electrode arrangement. Each of the electrode arrangements is designed as a high-voltage cascade.
    Type: Application
    Filed: May 20, 2011
    Publication date: July 18, 2013
    Inventor: Oliver Heid
  • Publication number: 20130162134
    Abstract: The invention relates to a device for producing an electron beam, comprising a housing (12), which delimits a space (13) that can be evacuated and has an electron beam outlet opening; an inlet (16) for feeding a process gas into the space (13) that can be evacuated; a planar cathode (14) and an anode (15), which are arranged in the space (13) that can be evacuated and between which a glow-discharge plasma can be produced by means of an applied electrical voltage, wherein ions can be accelerated from the glow-discharge plasma onto the surface of the cathode (14). The cathode has a first part (14a) made of a first material, which forms a centrally arranged first surface region of the cathode (14), and a second part (14b) made of a second material, which forms a second surface region of the cathode (14) that encloses the first surface region.
    Type: Application
    Filed: September 8, 2011
    Publication date: June 27, 2013
    Inventors: Goesta Mattausch, Peter Feinaeugle, Volker Kirchhoff, Dieter Weiske, Henrik Flaske, Rainer Zeibe
  • Patent number: 8471216
    Abstract: An electrostatic atomizing device comprises an electrostatic atomizing part (2) applying high-voltage to water supplied to an atomization electrode (1), thereby generating negatively-charged minute water particles, a positive ion generator (3) being configured to generate positive ions, and a controller (16) being configured to control operation of said electrostatic atomizing part (2) and said positive ion generator (3). Said controller (16) controls so as to cause said electrostatic atomizing part (2) to generate the negatively-charged minute water particles, after the positive ions are generated by said positive ion generator (3).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: April 15, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: Panasonic Corporation
    Inventors: Hiroshi Suda, Yukiyasu Asano, Masaharu Machi, Jumpei Oe, Yasuhiro Komura
  • Patent number: 8471452
    Abstract: An apparatus (200) for accelerating an ion beam comprising: a) a first electrode (202) having a proximal side and a distal side and having at least one aperture (201) therethrough, the wall of the aperture being shaped such that the radius of the aperture on the distal side of the first electrode is greater than that on the proximal side of the electrode; b) a second electrode (204) located such that it is adjacent to but spaced from the distal side of the first electrode and having at least one aperture therethrough; and c) a third electrode (206) located such that it is adjacent to and spaced from the second electrode and having at least one aperture therethrough, said at least one apertures in each electrode being aligned with corresponding apertures in the other electrodes; wherein the electrodes are arranged such that there is a potential difference between the first and second electrodes and a potential difference between the second and third electrodes.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: June 29, 2007
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignee: Nordiko Technical Services Limited
    Inventors: Mervyn Howard Davis, Andrew James Timothy Holmes
  • Patent number: 8471453
    Abstract: The disclosure relates to a Hall-effect ion ejection device that comprises a longitudinal axis substantially parallel to the ion ejection direction, and comprises at least: a main ionization and acceleration annular channel, the annular channel being open at its end; an anode extending inside the channel; a cathode extending outside the channel at the outlet thereof; a magnetic circuit for generating a magnetic field in a portion of the annular channel, said circuit including at least an annular inner wall, an annular outer wall and a bottom connecting the inner and outer annular walls and defining the downstream portion of the magnetic circuit; characterized in that the magnetic circuit is arranged so as to create at the outlet of the annular channel a magnetic field independent from the azimuth.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: August 4, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 25, 2013
    Assignees: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Universite de Versailles St Quentin en Yvelines, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales
    Inventors: Marcel Guyot, Patrice Renaudin, Vladimir Cagan, Claude Boniface
  • Patent number: 8463342
    Abstract: Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: October 6, 2008
    Date of Patent: June 11, 2013
    Assignee: Uchicago Argonne, LLC
    Inventors: James H. Norem, Michael J. Pellin
  • Patent number: 8454803
    Abstract: Biomass (e.g., plant biomass, animal biomass, and municipal waste biomass) is processed to produce useful products, such as fuels. For example, systems can use feedstock materials, such as cellulosic and/or lignocellulosic materials and/or starchy materials, to produce ethanol and/or butanol, e.g., by fermentation.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: March 8, 2011
    Date of Patent: June 4, 2013
    Assignee: Xyleco, Inc.
    Inventor: Marshall Medoff
  • Patent number: 8439649
    Abstract: A sputter ion pump including an evacuateable envelope having a chamber, first and second cathodes and an anode disposed in the chamber. The anode can have an outer layer of a non-evaporable getter (NEG) material so as to permit NEG pumping of gases by the anode. In another aspect of the invention, the anode can be formed with spaced-apart first and second sheet portions disposed in juxtaposition to each other and having a plurality of holes extending through the sheets for forming a plurality of anode cells.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2009
    Date of Patent: May 14, 2013
    Assignee: Duniway Stockroom Corp.
    Inventors: Sherman Lloyd Rutherford, Jeffrey Richard Winkler
  • Publication number: 20130082599
    Abstract: A RF source and method are disclosed which inductively create a plasma within an enclosure without an electric field or with a significantly decreased creation of an electric field. A ferrite material with an insulated wire wrapped around its body is used to efficiently channel the magnetic field through the legs of the ferrite. This magnetic field, which flows between the legs of the ferrite can then be used to create and maintain a plasma. In one embodiment, these legs rest on a dielectric window, such that the magnetic field passes into the chamber. In another embodiment, the legs of the ferrite extend into the processing chamber, thereby further extending the magnetic field into the chamber. This ferrite can be used in conjunction with a PLAD chamber, or an ion source for a traditional beam line ion implantation system.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 3, 2011
    Publication date: April 4, 2013
    Applicant: Varian Semiconductor Equipment Associates, Inc.
    Inventors: Kamal Hadidi, Rajesh Dorai
  • Patent number: 8405042
    Abstract: The objective of the present invention is to reduce the effect of the hysteresis of a scanning electromagnet so as to obtain a particle beam therapy system that realizes high-accuracy beam irradiation. There are included an irradiation management apparatus (32) that controls the scanning electromagnet (3), based on target irradiation position coordinates (Pi) of a charged particle beam (1b), and a position monitor (7) that measures measurement position coordinates (Ps) of the charged particle beam (1b).
    Type: Grant
    Filed: January 28, 2010
    Date of Patent: March 26, 2013
    Assignee: Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
    Inventors: Taizo Honda, Hisashi Harada, Yuehu Pu, Yuichi Yamamoto, Takaaki Iwata
  • Patent number: 8399852
    Abstract: The systems and methods described herein relate to the use of electrostatic elements or combinations of electrostatic and magnetic elements to confine charged particles in stable recirculating, trapped orbits. More particularly, the invention relates to systems and methods for acceleration and focusing of multiple charged particle beams having multiple energies and arbitrary polarities along a common axis.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 23, 2011
    Date of Patent: March 19, 2013
    Inventors: Alexander Klein, Matthew Wittman, Scott Rackey
  • Patent number: 8354652
    Abstract: This invention relates to an Ion gun (10) which comprises of plasma generator (11) driven from an RF source (12), a plasma or source chamber (13), having an outlet (14), across which is mounted an accelerator grid (15). The accelerator grid (15) comprises four individual grids. The first grid (16), which is closest to the outlet (14), is maintained at a positive voltage by a DC source (16a), the second grid (17) is maintained strongly negative by DC source (17a). The third grid (18) is maintained at a negative voltage, which is much lower than that of the second grid (17), by DC source (18a) and the fourth grid is grounded. Means of mounting these grids are also described.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 12, 2007
    Date of Patent: January 15, 2013
    Assignee: Aviza Technology Limited
    Inventors: Gary Proudfoot, Gordon Robert Green, Robert Kenneth Trowell
  • Patent number: 8319410
    Abstract: The filament clamp assembly has a pair of bifurcated clamps to hold the connecting leads of a filament within a cavity of a cathode of a separate cathode assembly. The filament clamp assembly is mounted on the insulator block in self-aligning relation. The cathode assembly has a tungsten cathode with an internal cavity to receive the filament that is secured within a retainer shield made of one of tungsten, molybdenum and graphite by a threaded graphite cylindrical collar.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: December 29, 2009
    Date of Patent: November 27, 2012
    Assignee: Ion Technology Solutions, LLC
    Inventor: Manuel A. Jerez
  • Patent number: 8314404
    Abstract: An ion beam system uses a separate accelerating electrode, such as a resistive tube, to accelerate the ions while maintaining a low electric field at an extended, that is, distributed ion source, thereby improving resolution. A magneto-optical trap can be used as the ion source.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 20, 2010
    Date of Patent: November 20, 2012
    Assignees: FEI Company, The United States of America as represented by the Secretary of Commerce, The National Institute of Standards and Technology
    Inventors: Jabez McClelland, Brenton J. Knuffman, Adam V. Steele, Jonathan H. Orloff
  • Patent number: 8299713
    Abstract: A method of accelerating charged particles using a laser pulse fired through a plasma channel contained in a capillary, wherein the plasma waveguide has deviations along its length that cause deviations in the plasma density contained therein, the deviations in plasma density acting to promote charged particle injection into a wake of a passing laser pulse. A radiation source based on a laser-driven plasma accelerator in a plasma waveguide in which the plasma waveguide and/or laser injection process is/are controlled so as to produce an undulating path for the laser pulse through the waveguide, the undulation exerting a periodic transverse force on charged particles being accelerated in the wake of the laser pulse, the resulting charged particle motion causing controlled emission of high frequency radiation pulses.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: September 11, 2007
    Date of Patent: October 30, 2012
    Assignee: Isis Innovation Limited
    Inventors: Simon Martin Hooker, Anthony Joseph Gonsalves, Dino Anthony Jaroszynski, Wim Pieter Leemans
  • Publication number: 20120200217
    Abstract: A method of production of a radio frequency accelerator which has a tubular part 1 which forms an acceleration cavity, including a temporary assembly step of making a plurality of component members 11 to 14 which have shapes obtained by splitting the tubular part 1 mate with each other to temporarily assemble them into the shape of the tubular part 10 and a welding step of welding the plurality of component members 11 to 14 together. The temporary assembly step includes a step of placing, inside of the tubular part 1, support members 21 for contacting the inside surface of the tubular part 1 and supporting the tubular part 1 from the inside, and the welding step includes a step of welding the plurality of component members 11 to 14 along the butt lines 51 by friction stir welding.
    Type: Application
    Filed: October 14, 2010
    Publication date: August 9, 2012
    Applicants: TOKYO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIM CORPORATION, INTER-UNIVERSITY RESEARCH INSTITUTE CORPORATION HIGH ENERGY ACCELERATOR RESEARCH ORGANIZATION
    Inventors: Noriyosu Hayashizaki, Toshiyuki Hattori, Takuya Ishibashi, Fujio Naito, Eiichi Takasaki, Hideaki Yamauchi
  • Patent number: 8205428
    Abstract: A standard 4-pole electric motor stator with capacitive plates in-line with the magnetic poles, but electrically 90° out of phase, produces two Lorentz force geometries 90° out of phase with each other (i.e., vertical, horizontal). An alternating source electrically rotates this pair of Lorentz geometries producing a propagating electromagnetic wave at the source frequency within the vacant internal cavity. Any charged particle within the cavity and along its axis will be accelerated or decelerated from an initial velocity via the Lorentz force. The rotating geometry provides for the coupling of the Lorentz force through a current loop and diamagnetism, providing acceleration and deceleration of non-charged particles. The force coupling is dependent upon the material's electromagnetic properties, the frequencies generated by the capacitive stator, and the velocity of the particles within the capacitive stator's influence.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: February 5, 2009
    Date of Patent: June 26, 2012
    Assignee: Lockheed Martin Corporation
    Inventor: Dale W. Boren
  • Patent number: 8164066
    Abstract: The invention provides a magnetic lens for generating a magnetic imaging field to focus charged particles emitted from a sample, the lens comprising a central pole piece and an outer pole piece disposed about the central pole piece, wherein the lens comprises a magnetic moveable element for movement relative to at least one of the pole pieces, whereby a focal length of the lens is variable by said movement of the magnetic moveable element, thereby enabling a zoom facility for changing the magnification of an image. The movement of the moveable element preferably changes the magnetic circuit between the pole pieces. Also provided is a method of focusing charged particles emitted from a sample and a charged particle energy analyzer, such as an imaging photoelectron spectroscopy system.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: July 16, 2010
    Date of Patent: April 24, 2012
    Assignee: VG Systems Limited
    Inventors: Bryan Barnard, Christopher Glenister
  • Patent number: 8159118
    Abstract: An electron gun includes the following: a primary thermionic electron source, a secondary thermionic electron source and a focusing electrode disposed within a first housing that includes one or more reference members adjustably attached to a housing support connected to a first platform; an anode and one or more focusing coils disposed within a second housing comprising one or more insulating members adjustably connected to the first platform; and one or more deflection coils disposed within a third housing connected to the second housing and located opposite said first housing.
    Type: Grant
    Filed: November 2, 2005
    Date of Patent: April 17, 2012
    Assignee: United Technologies Corporation
    Inventors: Viktor A. Tymashov, Oleg L. Zhdanov, Sergiy I. Ryabenko, Andriy A. Tsepkalov, Steven M. Burns
  • Publication number: 20120074874
    Abstract: The present invention provides an electron emitting element, comprising: a first electrode; an insulating fine particle layer formed on the first electrode and composed of insulating fine particles; and a second electrode formed on the insulating fine particle layer, wherein the insulating fine particle layer is provided with recesses formed in a surface thereof, the surface facing the second electrode, the recesses each having a depth smaller than a thickness of the insulating fine particle layer, and when a voltage is applied between the first electrode and the second electrode, electrons provided from the first electrode are accelerated in the insulating fine particle layer to be emitted though the second electrode.
    Type: Application
    Filed: February 23, 2011
    Publication date: March 29, 2012
    Inventors: Kanako HIRATA, Hiroyuki HIRAKAWA, Ayae NAGAOKA, Yasuo IMURA, Tadashi IWAMATSU